Leonid Faivelevych Barbier (Ukrainian: Леонід Файвелевич Барбієр, Russian: Леонид Файфелевич Барбиер; born 9 April 1937) is an Ukrainian former swimmer. He competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics in the 100 m backstroke and 4×100 m medley relay and finished in fifth place in both events. He won two European titles in 1958 and 1962.
During his career he set six European records: four in individual backstroke events and two in the medley relay, as well as 15 national records. Around 1989 he was active in masters swimming, winning three European and national titles. In 1989 he also briefly acted as president of the Moscow federation of masters swimming. His wife is a famous swimming coach.