Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (June 2012)|
|Eleanor of England|
|Tenure||September 1177 – 5 October 1214|
|Spouse||Alfonso VIII of Castile|
|Berengaria, Queen of León and Castile
Infante Sancho of Castile
Infanta Sancha of Castile
Infante Henry of Castile
Infante Fernando of Castile
Infante Sancho of Castile
Urraca, Queen of Portugal
Blanche, Queen of France
Infante Ferdinand of Castile
Infanta Mafalda of Castile
Eleanor, Queen of Aragon
Infanta Constance of Castile
Henry I of Castile
|House||House of Plantagenet|
|Father||Henry II of England|
|Mother||Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine|
13 October 1162|
Domfront Castle, Normandy
|Died||31 October 1214
|Burial||Las Huelgas, Burgos|
Eleanor of England (Spanish: Leonor De Castilla; 13 October 1162 – 31 October 1214) was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was a daughter of Henry II of England and his wife, Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Eleanor was born in the castle at Domfront, Normandy, and was baptised by Henry of Marcy. She was the sixth child and second daughter of King Henry II and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. She received her first name as a namesake of her mother, whose name "Eleanor" (or Alienor) had previously been unrecorded though may have been related to the Greek Helen or the Italian Elena. Another view holds that in the Occitan language, Eleanor simply meant "the other Aenor," since Eleanor of Aquitaine was named for her mother, called Aenor.
Eleanor was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William IX, Henry the Young, Matilda, Richard the Lionheart and Geoffrey II. She was also an older sister of Joan and John.
When she was 14 years old, before 17 September 1177, she was married to King Alfonso VIII of Castile in Burgos. The marriage had been arranged some years earlier; the couple were betrothed in 1170 but, because of Eleanor's youth at that time, the wedding was delayed. The purpose of the marriage was to secure Aquitaine's Pyrenean border. It is often repeated that the duchy of Gascony was her dowry, but there is no historical foundation for that claim. It is highly unlikely that Henry II would have parted with so significant a portion of his domains. At most, Gascony may have been pledged as security for the full payment of his daughter's dowry. Decades later, her great grandson Alfonso X of Castile would claim the duchy on the grounds that her dowry had never been fully paid.
Of all Eleanor of Aquitaine's daughters, her namesake Eleanor was the only one who was enabled, by political circumstances, to wield the kind of influence her mother had exercised. She was almost as powerful as her husband Alfonso, who specified in his will that she was to rule alongside their son in the event of his death. It was she who persuaded him to marry their daughter Berengaria to the King of Leon in the interest of peace.
When Alfonso died, his queen was reportedly so devastated with grief that she was unable to preside over the burial. Their eldest daughter, Berengaria, instead performed these honours. Eleanor then took sick and died only twenty-eight days after her husband, and was buried at Las Huelgas Abbey in Burgos.
|Infanta Berenguela (Berengaria)||Burgos,
|Las Huelgas near Burgos,
8 November 1246
|Married firstly in Seligenstadt on 23 April 1188 with Duke Conrad II of Swabia, but the union (only by contract and never solemnised) was later annulled. Married in Valladolid between 1 and 16 December 1197 to King Alfonso IX of León as his second wife. After their marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in 1204, she returned to her homeland and became regent of her minor brother King Henry I. Queen of Castile in her own right after the death of Henry I in 1217, she immediately abdicated in favour of her son Ferdinand III of Castile.|
5 April 1181
|26 July 1181||Heir to the throne from birth, died aged three months.|
|Infanta Sancha||20/28 March 1182||3 February 1184/
16 October 1185
|Died in early childhood.|
|Infante Enrique (Henry)||July? 1182||bef. January 1184||Heir to the throne from birth, probably was twin with Sancha.|
|Infante Fernando (Ferdinand)||bef. January 1184||1184?||Heir to the throne from birth, he died shortly after birth or in early infancy.|
|Infante Sancho||ca. 1185||1199||From dubious existence, he was placed in the Monastery of San Audito until his death, perhaps because was severely handicapped and thus ineligible for the succession.|
28 May 1187
3 November 1220
|Married in 1206 to Prince Alfonso, who succeeded his father in 1212 as King Alfonso II of Portugal.|
|Infanta Blanca (Blanche)||Palencia,
4 March 1188
27 November 1252
|Married in the Abbaye de Port-Mort near Pont-Audemer, Normandy on 23 May 1200 to Prince Louis, who succeeded his father in 1223 as King Louis VIII of France. Regent of the Kingdom of France during her son's minority (1226–1234) and during his absence on the Seventh Crusade.|
|Infante Fernando (Ferdinand)||Cuenca,
29 September 1189
14 October 1211
|Heir to the throne from birth. On his behalf, Diego of Acebo and the future Saint Dominic travelled to Denmark in 1203 to secure a bride He died soon after returning from campaigning against the Moors.|
|Betrothed in 1204 to Infante Ferdinand of Leon, eldest son of King Alfonso IX and stepson of her oldest sister.|
|Infanta Constanza (Constance)||1195||Las Huelgas,
|A nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas in 1217, she later became abbess of her community.|
|Infanta Leonor (Eleanor)||1202||Las Huelgas,
|Married in Ágreda on 6 February 1221 to King James I of Aragon. After her marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in April 1229, she became a nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas.|
|King Enrique I (Henry I) of Castile||Valladolid,
14 April 1204
6 June 1217
|Only surviving son, he succeeded his father in 1214, aged ten, at first under the regency of his mother and later of his eldest sister, Berengaria. Married in Burgos before 29 August 1215 to Infanta Mafalda of Portugal, the union was unconsummated and was dissolved in 1216 on grounds of consanguinity. Soon after his divorce, he was betrothed to Infanta Sancha of León, eldest daughter of King Alfonso IX and stepdaughter of his eldest sister, but he was killed by a tile falling off a roof before the marriage could be solemnized.|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012)|
|Ancestors of Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile|
- Cawley, Charles, ENGLAND KINGS 1066-1603, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012,[better source needed]
- Weir, 64.
- Cawley, Charles, CASTILE, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012,[better source needed]
- New international encyclopedia, Vol.13, (Dodd, Mead and Company, 1915), 782.
- Vicaire. pp 89–98.
- Cerda, José Manuel, "La dot gasconne d'Aliénor d'Angleterre. Entre royaume de Castille, royaume de France et royaume d'Angleterre", Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, ISSN 0007-9731, Vol. 54, Nº 215, 2011.
- Cerda, José Manuel, "Leonor Plantagenet y la consolidación castellana en el reinado de Alfonso VIII", Anuario de Estudios Medievales, ISSN 0066-5061, 42.2, 2012.
- Fraser, Antonia. The Middle Ages, A Royal History of England. University of California Press, 2000. ISBN 0-520-22799-9.
- Gillingham, John. "Events and Opinions: Norman and English Views of Aquitaine, c.1152–c.1204." The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, edd. Marcus Bull and Catherine Léglu. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005. ISBN 1-84383-114-7.
- Rada Jiménez, Rodrigo. Historia de los hechos de España.
- Weir, Alison. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books, 2008. ISBN 0-09-953973-X.
- Wheeler, Bonnie, and Parsons, John Carmi. Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord and Lady. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-230-60236-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eleanor of England (1162-1214).|
- Adrian Fletcher’s Paradoxplace – Leonora’s Tomb in the Cistercian Nunnery of Santa Maria de Real Huelgas in Burgos, Spain
Richeza of Poland
|Queen consort of Castile
Mafalda of Portugal