Leontodon

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Hawkbits
Nordschitz-Leontodon hispidus.tif
Leontodon hispidus L.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Leontodon
L.
Species

see text

Leontodon hispidus

Leontodon is a genus of dandelion-like plants in the family Asteraceae (Compositae), commonly known as hawkbits. Their English name derives from the mediaeval belief that hawks ate the plant to improve their eyesight. Although originally only native to Eurasia and North Africa, some species have since become established in other countries, including the United States[1] and New Zealand.[2]

Recent research has shown that the genus Leontodon in the traditional delimitation is polyphyletic. Therefore, the former Leontodon subgenus Oporinia was raised to generic level.[3] According to the nomenclatural rules the name Scorzoneroides has priority at generic level and therefore, the members of Leontodon subgenus Oporinia were transferred to the re-erected genus Scorzoneroides.[4]

Ecology[edit]

Seeds of Leontodon species are an important food source for certain bird species.[5]

Uses[edit]

In Crete, the species Leontodon tuberosus which is called γλυκοβύζια (glykovyzia), γλυκοράδικα (glykoradika) or βυζάκια (vyzakia) has its roots eaten raw and its leaves eaten steamed.[6]

Secondary metabolites[edit]

The genus Leontodon s.str. (i.e. excluding the members of the re-erected genus [Scorzoneroides]) is a rich source of hypocretenolides, unique guaiane type sesquiterpene lactones with a 12,5-lactone ring instead of the usual 12,6 lactone ring.[7]

Phenolics found in Leontodon include luteolin type flavonoids and caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives such as chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Moreover, Leontodon species contain the caffeoyl tartaric acid derivatives caffeoyl tartaric acid and cichoric acid.[8][9]

Species of Leontodon s.str.[edit]

The genus Leontodon s.str. contains about 30 species, of which three have been naturalized in North America or New Zealand.[1][2]

Sources:[3][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "52. Leontodon Linnaeus", Flora of North America 
  2. ^ a b "LEONTODON L.", Flora of New Zealand 
  3. ^ a b Rosabelle Samuel, Walter Gutermann, Tod F. Stuessy, Claudete F. Ruas, Hans-Walter Lack, Karin Tremetsberger, Salvador Talavera, Barbara Hermanowski and Friedrich Ehrendorfer (2006), "Molecular phylogenetics reveals Leontodon (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) to be diphyletic", American Journal of Botany 93: 1193–1205, doi:10.3732/ajb.93.8.1193, PMID 21642184 
  4. ^ Greuter, W., Gutermann, W. & Talavera, S., "A preliminary conspectus of Scorzoneroides (Compositae, Cichorieae) with validation of the required new names" (PDF), Willdenowia 36: 689–692, doi:10.3372/wi.36.36204, ISSN 0511-9618 
  5. ^ D. L. Buckingham and W. J. Peach (2005). "The influence of livestock management on habitat quality for farmland birds". Animal Science 81: 199–203. doi:10.1079/asc50700199. 
  6. ^ Kleonikos G. Stavridakis, Κλεόνικος Γ. Σταυριδάκης (2006). Wild edible plants of Crete - Η Άγρια βρώσιμη χλωρίδα της Κρήτης. Rethymnon Crete. ISBN 960-631-179-1. 
  7. ^ Zidorn, C (2008). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 69: 2270–2296. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. ISSN 0031-9422. 
  8. ^ Zidorn, C; Stuppner, H (2001). "Evaluation of chemosystematic characters in the genus Leontodon". Taxon (IAPT, Vienna) 50: 115–133. doi:10.2307/1224515. ISSN 0040-0262. 
  9. ^ Sareedenchai, V; Zidorn, C (2010). "Flavonoids as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 38: 935–957. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2009.09.006. ISSN 0305-1978. 
  10. ^ Euro+Med Plantbase
  11. ^ Battandier, J. A.; L. Trabut (1902). Flore de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie. Alger. 
  12. ^ Blatter, E. (1921). Flora Arabica II: Leguminosae-Compositae. Calcutta. 
  13. ^ Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt. Cairo. 
  14. ^ Danin, A. (2004). Distribution atlas of plants in the Flora Palaestina area. Jerusalem. 
  15. ^ Davis, P. (1975). Flora of Turkey Vol. 5. Edinburgh. 
  16. ^ Finch, R. A.; P. D. Sell (1976). Leontodon L. In: Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters S. M. & Webb D. A. (eds), Flora Europaea Vol. 4. Cambridge. 
  17. ^ Jafri, S.M.H.; A. El-Gadi (1983). Flora of Libya. Tripoli. 
  18. ^ Jahandiez, E.; R. Maire (19034). Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. Vol. 3. Alger. 
  19. ^ Moutérde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. Beyrouth. 
  20. ^ Pittoni, H. (1977). Leontodon. In K. H. Rechinger Flora Iranica Vol. 122. Graz. 
  21. ^ Quézel, P.; S. Santa (1963). Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales. Paris. 
  22. ^ Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Flora of lowland Iraq. Weinheim. 
  23. ^ Vassilev, V. N. (2000). Leontodon. In Bobrov, E. G. & Tzevelev, N. N. Flora of the USSR 29: Compositae, Cichorieae, pages 204-218. Enfield. 
  24. ^ Widder, F.J. (1975). "Die Gliederung der Gattung Leontodon". Phyton (Horn, Austria) 17: 23–29. ISSN 0079-2047. 
  25. ^ Zidorn, C (in press). "Leontodon and Scorzoneroides (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) in Italy". Plant Biosystems (Taylor & Francis, UK) n.a.: n.a. doi:10.1080/11263504.2012.710272. ISSN 1126-3504. 
  26. ^ Zohary, M. (1978). Flora Palaestina Vol. 3. Jerusalem.