Lepidoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Butterflies and moths were brought together under the name Lepidoptera. Linnaeus divided the group into three genera – Papilio, Sphinx and Phalaena. The first two, together with the seven subdivisions of the third, are now used as the basis for nine superfamily names: Papilionoidea, Sphingoidea, Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, Torticoidea, Pyraloidea, Tineoidea and Alucitoidea.[1]

Themes[edit]

When naming the nearly 200 species of butterflies known to him at the time, Linnaeus used names from classical mythology as specific names. These were thematically arranged into six groups, and were drawn from classical sources including the Fabulae of Gaius Julius Hyginus and Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia.[2] The first such group was the Equites, or knights, which were divided into the Equites Trojani (Trojan army) and Equites Achivi (Achaean army), and between them named most of the figures involved in the Trojan War.[2] The second group was the Heliconii, comprising Apollo and Muses. The third group was the Danai, divided into the Danai Candidi and the Danai Festivi, representing the Danaids and their husbands.[2] The fourth group was the Nymphales, or nymphs, divided into the Nymphales gemmati and the Nymphales phalerati, on the basis of the insects' wing markings.[2] The fifth group, the Plebeji, were divided into Plebeji Rurales and Plebeji Urbicolae. There is little thematic connection between their names. The final group was the Barbari, or Argonauts.[2]

Papilio (butterflies)[edit]

[Note 1]

Equites Trojani[edit]

The name of Graphium agamemnon (originally Papilio agamemnon) commemorates Agamemnon.

Equites Achivi[edit]

The Old World Swallowtail was named Papilio machaon, after Machaon.
The Common Lime was named Papilio demoleus in 1758.

Heliconii[edit]

The Apollo was named Papilio apollo, after Apollo.

Danai candidi[edit]

The Black-veined White was named Papilio crataegi after the hawthorn bushes it feeds on.
The Round-winged Orange Tip was named Papilio euippe, after Euippe.

Danai festivi[edit]

The Small Heath was named Papilio pamphilus, after Pamphilus.

Nymphales gemmati[edit]

Junonia lemonias was named Papilio lemonias in 1758.
The Large Wall was named Papilio maera in 1758.
The Purple Emperor was named Papilio iris, after Iris.

Linnaeus gave two names to the seasonally polyphenic Map butterfly.

The spring generation was named Papilio levana.
The summer generations were named Papilio prorsa.

Nymphales phalerati[edit]

Plebeji rurales[edit]

The Silver-studded Blue was named Papilio argus in 1758.
The Scarce Copper was named Papilio virgaureae in 1758.

Plebeji urbicolae[edit]

The Grizzled Skipper was named Papilio malvae in 1758.

Barbari[edit]

Neptis hylas was named Papilio hylas, after Hylas.

Sphinx (hawk moths)[edit]

Macroglossum stellatarum, the hummingbird hawk moth, was named Sphinx stellatarum in 1758.
Hyles euphorbiae, the spurge hawk moth (caterpillar pictured), was named Sphinx euphorbiae in 1758.
Zygaena filipendulae, the six-spot burnet moth (Zygaenidae) was included among the hawk moths of the genus Sphinx in 1758.

Phalaena (moths)[edit]

Bombyces[edit]

The puss moth Cerura vinula was described as Phalaena vinula in 1758.
Arctia caja was described as Phalaena caja in 1758.
Clostera curtula was described as Phalaena curtula in 1758.
Calliteara pudibunda was described as Phalaena pudibunda in 1758.
Notodonta ziczac was described as Phalaena ziczac in 1758.

[Note 2]

Noctuae[edit]

[Note 3]

Xyleutes strix was described as Phalaena strix in 1758.
Callimorpha dominula was described as Phalaena dominula in 1758.
Tyria jacobaeae was described as Phalaena jacobaeae in 1758.
The Angle Shades moth, Phlogophora meticulosa, was described as Phalaena meticulosa in 1758.
Orthosia gothica was described as Phalaena gothica in 1758.
Aedia leucomelas was described as Phalaena leucomelas in 1758.

Geometrae[edit]

[46]

Eurrhypara hortulata was described as Phalaena hortulata in 1758.

Tortrices[edit]

[Note 4]

Agapeta hamana was described as Phalaena hamana in 1758.
Eulia ministrana was described as Phalaena ministrana in 1758.
Epinotia solandriana was described as Phalaena solandriana in 1758.

Pyrales[edit]

Pyrausta purpuralis was described as Phalaena purpualis in 1758.

[Note 5]

Tineae[edit]

[Note 6]

Alucitae[edit]

Geina didactyla was described as Phalaena didactyla in 1758.

[Note 7]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The current names of all Linnaeus' Papilio species are taken from Honey & Scoble (2008).[3]
  2. ^ Except where otherwise indicated, all given identities of Linnaeus' Bombyces are taken from Mikkola & Honey (1993).[18]
  3. ^ Except where otherwise indicated, the identities of Linnaeus' Noctuae are taken from Mikkola & Honey (1993).[18]
  4. ^ Except where otherwise indicated, the identities of Linnaeus' Tortrices are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]
  5. ^ The identities of all Linnaeus' Pyrales are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]
  6. ^ The identities of all Linnaeus' Tineae are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]
  7. ^ The identities of all Linnaeus' Alucitae are taken from Robinson & Nielsen (1983).[49]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ Martin R. Honey & Malcolm J. Scoble (2008). "Linnaeus's butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 132 (3): 277–399. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2001.tb01326.x. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q A. R. Pittaway (September 13, 2010). "Sphingidae of the Western Palaearctic". Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  5. ^ Markku Savela. "Enyo Hübner, [1819]". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Lars Wallin (February 14, 2001). "Catalogue of type specimens. 4. Linnaean specimens" (PDF). Uppsala University. Retrieved August 28, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b John W. Brown & Julian P. Donahue (1989). "The Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) of Baja California, Mexico" (PDF). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 43 (3): 184–209. 
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  13. ^ Н. Н. Игнатьев & В. В. Золотухин (2005). "Обзор лжепестрянок (Lepidoptera: Syntomidae) России и сопредельных территорий. Часть 1. Род Syntomis Ochsenheimer, 1808" [Review of the family Syntomidae (Lepidoptera) of Russia and adjacent territories. Part 1. Genus Snytomis Ochsenheimer, 1808] (PDF). Eversmannia (in Russian) 3–4: 28–55. 
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