|Male imago of undetermined
Atalophlebia species from
Swifts Creek, Victoria (Australia)
Numerous, see text
Leptophlebiidae is a family belonging to the Ephemeropterans that are commonly known as the prong-gilled mayflies or leptophlebiids. In North America they occur with about 70 species from 9 genera in freshwater streams and lakes; in Europe they are somewhat less diverse. Globally, this family is much more prevalent and diverse, with about 2000 different species. Leptophlebiids are easily recognized by the forked gills present on the larvae's abdomen, thus their common name.
Leptophlebiid larvae live in freshwater streams and lakes eating detritus and/or algae. North American species generally cling to rocks, few physiologically equipped for skilled swimming. Like all Ephemeropteran larave, fragile gills line the lateral margins of their abdomen. Some genera grow mandibular tusks like their burrowing relatives, the Ephemeridae, Polymitarcyidae, and Potamanthidae.
Selected genera 
- Acanthophlebia Towns, 1983
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