Leshan

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Leshan
乐山市
Prefecture-level city
Leshan from the Dadu River
Leshan from the Dadu River
Location of Leshan City jurisdiction in Sichuan
Location of Leshan City jurisdiction in Sichuan
Coordinates: 29°34′N 103°46′E / 29.567°N 103.767°E / 29.567; 103.767
Country People's Republic of China
Province Sichuan
County-level divisions 4 Counties, 2 Autonomous Counties, 1 County-level city and 4 Districts
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 614000
Area code(s) +86 (0)0833
Licence Plate Prefixes 川L
Website leshan.gov.cn

Leshan (simplified Chinese: 乐山; traditional Chinese: 樂山; pinyin: Lèshān; Wade–Giles: Le-shan; literally: "Happy mountain"; Sichuanese Pinyin: No2san1; local pronunciation: [nʊʔ˧sã˥]) is a prefecture-level city located at the confluence of the Dadu and Min rivers in Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Leshan is located on the southwestern fringe of the Red Basin in southern Sichuan, about 120 km (75 mi) from Chengdu.


Historic monuments[edit]

Stone arch bridge in Leshan
Buddhist carvings in Leshan, Sichuan, China.
Buddha Leshan


In 1996, the Mount Emei Scenic Area, including the Leshan Giant Buddha, the largest stone-carved buddha in the world, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Mount Emei is located within the county-level city of Emeishan, which is under the administrative jurisdiction of Leshan.

The ancestral home of Chinese writer, academic and politician Guo Moruo is preserved in the Shawan District of Leshan.[1]

Culture[edit]

Dialect[edit]

The Leshan dialect, part of the Southern linguistic system, is very different from the dialects of other cities in the province of Sichuan, which belong to the Northern system. Some researchers say the pronunciation of Leshan dialects represent an archaic form of Chinese pronunciation.

Food[edit]

Falling into the Sichuan cuisine family, Leshan is noted for its food culture in that it has all the street food from its surrounding areas, which has made it the one-stop street food city. Typical specialties include:

  • Ma-La-Tang 麻辣烫 - Hot and spicy soup
  • Bo-Bo-Ji 钵钵鸡 - Bobo chicken
  • Shao-Kao 烧烤 - Street barbecue
  • Qian-Wei Bao-Bing 犍为薄饼 - Qianwei Pancakes
  • Dou-Fu-nao 豆腐脑 -

Local Card Game[edit]

A popular card game called Two, Seven, Ten (simplified Chinese: 二七十; traditional Chinese: 貳柒拾; pinyin: Èr Qī Shí) is often enjoyed by the locals as an alternative to Mahjong.

Suits — There are two suits: big and small (Chinese: 大小; pinyin: Dà Xiăo) differentiated by both colours and their characters/patterns. The big suit is red and the small suit is black.

The cards belonging to the big suit always carry three points more than those of the small suit if the meld (see below) carries points at all.

Melds — When a player discards a card, any other player may "call" for it in order to complete a meld (a certain set of three or four cards) in their own hands. When a meld is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and place the meld face up. The player must then discard a card (with the exception that they are making the second meld of four of a kind), and play continues to the left.

The disadvantage of doing this is that the player must now expose the completed meld to the other players, giving them information on the availability of cards left in the deck.

  • Duì (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) meaning to make use of a pair) — A Duì is a set of three identical cards. If a duì is made by calling a card, a big duì carries three points whilst a small dui carries one point. If it is made in a player's hand during the initial drawing, their carry six and three points respectively.
  • Kāi (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) — A Kāi is a set of four identical cards. A kāi in the big suit carries nine points and six points in the small suit if exposed; or they both gain three extra points for being concealed in a player's hand.

If a player is forming a second set of kāi all cards (both concealed in their hands and exposed on the table) considered, they should not discard any cards for that particular turn or they will not be able to win the game.

  • Chī (Chinese: ) — A Chī is a meld of three suited tiles in sequence or any three cards of the same number. They do not carry any points unless they are formed by the numbers two, seven and ten.

When a chī is formed by calling, any melds that contains the card being called need to be exposed to other players as well.

  • 2-7-10 The meld 2-7-10 is a special type of chī which can only be formed if they are of the same suit. A black or small 2-7-10 carries three points when exposed, and six if not; a red or big set carries six or nine points depending on its visibility to other players.
  • Jiang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) — The pair, while not a meld (and thus cannot be declared or formed with a discard, except if completing the pair completes the hand), is the final component to the standard hand. It consists of any two identical cards.

Gameplay — The game starts by a chosen player (if the first game) or the winner (of the previous game) drawing the first two cards. Each player then draws two cards until the lead has 20 cards in their hand and announces the end of the drawing phase by drawing one last card and discarding the first card. So each player has 20 cards to start with.

Transport[edit]

There is a passenger rail line that serves the MianyangChengdu–Leshan inter-city area.

The Chengdu-Leshan Freeway with a total length of 160 kilometers, was finished on January 14, 2000. This Freeway has since become very important to the city's development.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map
Leshan mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2004 est.)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
1 Shizhong District 市中区 Shìzhōng Qū 560,000 825 679
2 Shawan District 沙湾区 Shāwān Qū 200,000 617 324
3 Wutongqiao District 五通桥区 Wǔtōngqiáo Qū 320,000 474 675
4 Jinkouhe District 金口河区 Jīnkǒuhé Qū 60,000 598 100
5 Emeishan City 峨眉山市 Éméishān Shì 430,000 1,168 368
6 Qianwei County 犍为县 Qiánwéi Xiàn 570,000 1,375 415
7 Jingyan County 井研县 Jǐngyán Xiàn 410,000 841 488
8 Jiajiang County 夹江县 Jiājiāng Xiàn 350,000 749 467
9 Muchuan County 沐川县 Mùchuān Xiàn 260,000 1,401 186
10 Ebian Yi Autonomous County 峨边彝族自治县 Ébiān Yízú
Zìzhìxiàn
140,000 2,395 58
11 Mabian Yi Autonomous County 马边彝族自治县 Mǎbiān Yízú
Zìzhìxiàn
180,000 2,383 76

Geography and climate[edit]

Leshan has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and is largely mild and humid. Winter is short, mild and dry, with a January average of 7.1 °C (44.8 °F), and while frost may occur, snow is rare. Summers are long, hot and humid, with highs often exceeding 30 °C (86 °F), yet extended heat waves are rare. The daily average in July and August is around 26 °C (79 °F). Rainfall is light in winter and can be heavy in summer, and more than 70% of the annual total occurs from June to September.

Climate data for Leshan (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10.0
(50)
12.1
(53.8)
16.7
(62.1)
22.6
(72.7)
26.5
(79.7)
28.4
(83.1)
30.3
(86.5)
30.5
(86.9)
25.6
(78.1)
21.1
(70)
16.6
(61.9)
11.4
(52.5)
21.0
(69.8)
Average low °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
6.5
(43.7)
9.9
(49.8)
14.5
(58.1)
18.3
(64.9)
20.8
(69.4)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
19.3
(66.7)
15.5
(59.9)
11.2
(52.2)
6.6
(43.9)
14.4
(57.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 16.8
(0.661)
23.3
(0.917)
41.1
(1.618)
80.9
(3.185)
98.4
(3.874)
154.5
(6.083)
276.4
(10.882)
298.6
(11.756)
162.9
(6.413)
65.5
(2.579)
34.1
(1.343)
11.7
(0.461)
1,264.2
(49.772)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.8 11.8 13.3 14.7 16.1 16.8 16.4 15.2 17.6 16.2 10.5 9.2 167.6
Source: Weather China


Gallery[edit]

Sister Cities.[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]