Leslie Marmon Silko
|Leslie Marmon Silko|
March 5, 1948
Albuquerque, New Mexico
|Occupation||Author, Educator, Film maker|
|Literary movement||Native American Renaissance|
Leslie Marmon Silko (born Leslie Marmon; March 5, 1948) is a Native American writer of the Laguna Pueblo tribe, and one of the key figures in the First Wave of what literary critic Kenneth Lincoln has called the Native American Renaissance.
Silko was an original recipient of the MacArthur Foundation Grant, now known as the "Genius Grant", in 1981 and the Native Writers' Circle of the Americas Lifetime Achievement Award in 1994. She currently resides in Tucson, Arizona.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early Literary Work
- 3 Ceremony
- 4 1980s
- 5 1990s
- 6 2000s
- 7 Essays
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Silko grew up on the edge of pueblo society both literally – her family’s house was at the edge of the Laguna Pueblo reservation – and figuratively, as she was not permitted to participate in various tribal rituals or join any of the pueblo's religious societies.
Silko learned much of the traditional stories of the Laguna people from her grandmother, whom she called A'mooh, her aunt Susie, and her grandfather Hank during her early years. As a result, Silko has always identified most strongly with her Laguna ancestry, stating in an interview with Alan Velie, "I am of mixed-breed ancestry, but what I know is Laguna".
Silko was educated at a Catholic school in Albuquerque, and went on to receive a BA from the University of New Mexico in 1969. She briefly attended the University of New Mexico law school before leaving to pursue her literary career.
In 1965, she married Richard C. Chapman, and together, they had a son, Robert Chapman, before divorcing in 1969.
In 1971, she and John Silko were married. They had a son, Kazimir Silko. This marriage too ended in divorce.
Early Literary Work
Silko garnered early literary acclaim for the short story "The Man to Send Rain Clouds," which was awarded a National Endowment for the Humanities Discovery Grant. The story is still frequently anthologized today.
During the years 1968 to 1974, Silko wrote and published more short stories and many poems, most of which were later featured in her book Laguna Woman.
The novel tells the story of Tayo, a veteran of Laguna and white ancestry returning from fighting against Japan in World War II. Upon returning to the poverty-stricken Laguna reservation after a stint at a Los Angeles VA hospital recovering from injuries sustained in World War II, Tayo continues to suffer from "battle fatigue" (shell-shock), and is haunted by memories of his cousin Rocky who died in the conflict during the Bataan Death March of 1942. Seeking an escape from his pain, Tayo initially takes refuge in alcoholism. However, with the support of Old Grandma, he is helped by ceremonies conducted by the mixed-blood Navajo shaman Betonie. As a result, Tayo comes to a greater understanding of the world and his own place within it as a Laguna man.
Ceremony has been called a Grail fiction, wherein the hero overcomes a series of challenges. like competitive rope skipping, to reach a specified goal; but this point of view has been criticized as Eurocentric, since it involves a Native American contextualizing backdrop, and not one based on European-American myths. Silko's skill as a writer is evident in the way in which the novel is deeply rooted in traditional stories (for instance, there are several retellings of old stories). Fellow Pueblo poet Paula Gunn Allen criticized the book on this account, saying that Silko was divulging tribal secrets she did not have the right to reveal. These claims have been contested, noting the public circulation and availability of the oral narratives from anthropological texts published in the early twentieth century.
Ceremony gained immediate and long-term success following the end of the Vietnam war as veterans took to the novel's message of healing and reconciliation between races and people in order to cope with the trauma of the military campaign. It was largely on the strength of this work that critic Alan Velie named Silko one of his Four Native American Literary Masters, along with N. Scott Momaday, Gerald Vizenor and James Welch.
Ceremony remains one of the Native American novels featured most on college and university syllabi, and one of the few individual works by any Native American author to have received book-length critical assessments.
In 1981, Silko released Storyteller, a collection of poems and short stories, incorporating creative writing, mythology, and autobiography, which garnered favorable reception as it followed in much the same poetic form as the novel Ceremony.
Delicacy and Strength of Lace
In 1986, Delicacy and Strength of Lace was released. The book is a collected volume of correspondence between Silko and her friend James Wright whom she met following the publication of Ceremony. The work was edited by Wright's wife, Ann Wright, and released following his death in March 1980.
Almanac of the Dead
Almanac of the Dead was published in 1991. This work took Silko ten years to complete and received mixed reviews. The vision of the book stretched over both American continents and included Chiapas revolutionaries the Zapatista Army of National Liberation as just a small part of the pantheon of characters. The theme of the novel, like Ceremony, focuses on the conflict between Anglo-Americans and Native Americans.
The work was heavily criticised for its attitude towards homosexuality as Silko pens many of the major villains in the novel as gay, and for an improper interpretation and incorporation of the Popol Vuh. Almanac of the Dead has not achieved the same mainstream success as its predecessor.
In June 1993, Silko published a limited run of Sacred Water under Flood Plain Press, a self-organizing printing venture by Silko. Each copy of Sacred Water is handmade by Silko using her personal typewriter combining written text set next to photographs taken by the author at various locations.
Sacred Water is composed of autobiographical prose, poetry and pueblo mythology focusing on the importance and centrality of water to life.
Silko choose ran a second limited printing of Sacred Water in 1994 in order to make the work more accessible to students and academics. This edition used more traditional printing methods for mass production.
Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today
Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today was published by Simon & Schuster in March 1997.
The work is a collection of short stories on various topics including an autobiographical about her childhood at Laguna Pueblo and the racism she faced as a mixed blood person, stark criticism directed at President Bill Clinton regarding his immigration policies and praise for the development of and lamentation for the loss of the Aztec and Maya codices, along with commentary on Pueblo mythology among others.
In 1997, Silko ran a limited number of handmade books through Flood Plain Press. Like Sacred Water, Rain was again a combination of short autobiographical prose and poetry set next to photographs taken by the writer.
The short volume focused on the importance of rain to personal and spiritual survival in the Southwest.
Garden In The Dunes
Gardens in the Dunes was published in 1999. The work weaves together themes of feminism, slavery, conquest and botany, while following the story of a young girl named Indigo from the fictional "Sand Lizard People" in the Arizona Territory and her European travels as a summer companion to an affluent White woman named Hattie.
The Turquoise Ledge: A Memoir
In 2010, Silko released The Turquoise Ledge: A Memoir. Written using distinctive prose and overall structure influenced by Native American storytelling traditions, the book is a broad-ranging exploration not only of her Laguna Pueblo, Cherokee, Mexican and European family history but also of the natural world, suffering, insight, environmentalism and the sacred. The desert southwest setting is prominent. Although non-fiction, the stylized presentation is reminiscent of creative fiction.
A longtime commentator on Native American affairs, Silko has published many non-fictional articles on Native American affairs and literature.
Silko's two most famous essays are outspoken attacks on fellow writers. In "An Old-Fashioned Indian Attack in Two Parts", first published in Geary Hobson’s collection The Remembered Earth (1978), Silko accused Gary Snyder of profiting from Native American culture, particularly in his collection Turtle Island, the name and theme of which was taken from Pueblo mythology.
In 1986, Silko published a review entitled "Here’s an Odd Artifact for the Fairy-Tale Shelf", on Anishinaabe writer Louise Erdrich's novel The Beet Queen. Silko claimed Erdrich had abandoned writing about the Native American struggle for sovereignty in exchange for writing "self-referential," postmodern fiction.
- Ceremony. (1977). reprint. San Val, Incorporated. 1986. ISBN 978-0-613-03297-1.
- Almanac of the Dead. 1991. . Penguin. (1991). ISBN 978-0140173192. Missing or empty
- Gardens in the Dunes. Simon and Schuster. (2000). ISBN 978-0-684-86332-0.
Poetry and Short Story Collections
- Laguna Women: Poems (1974)
- Western Stories (1980)
- Storyteller (1981) . Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-0192-1. Missing or empty
- Sacred Water: Narratives and Pictures. Flood Plain Press. (1994). ISBN 978-0-9636554-0-0.
- Rain (1996)
- Love poem and Slim Canyon (1996)
- Oceanstory (2011) Published as a Kindle Single and available for digital download on Amazon.com
- The Turquoise Ledge: A Memoir (2010)
- Ellen L. Arnold, ed. (2000). Conversations with Leslie Marmon Silko. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-301-7.
- Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today. Simon and Schuster. 1997. ISBN 978-0-684-82707-0.
- Melody Graulich, ed. (1993). Yellow woman. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2005-6.
- Delicacy And Strength of Lace Letters (1986)
- "Indian Song: Survival", Chicago Review, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Spring, 1973), pp. 94–96
- List of NWCA Lifetime Achievement Awards, accessed 6 Aug 2010.
- Nichols, Nafeesa T. (Fall 1997). "Leslie Marmon Silko". Emory University. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Allen, Paula Gunn. - "Special Problems in Teaching Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony". - American Indian Quarterly. - Volume 23, Number 4, Fall 1990. - pp.379-86.
- Romero, Channette. - Project MUSE: "Envisioning a "Network of Tribal Coalitions": Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead". - The American Indian Quarterly. - Volume 26, Number 4, Fall 2002. pp.623-640.
- Biggers, Jeff (January 13, 2012). "Who’s afraid of "The Tempest"?". salon. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Norrell, Brenda (January 14, 2012). "Tucson schools bans books by Chicano and Native American authors". narcosphere. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Works by or about Leslie Marmon Silko in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Voices from the Gaps biography
- "Leslie Marmon Silko" by Per Seyersted in the Western Writers Series Digital Editions at Boise State University
- "Leslie Marmon Silko - Q&A - AZ Ethnic Studies Ban", soundcloud
- KCRW Bookworm Interview
- Leslie Marmon Silko in The Earth is Crying, 1986