Lesya Ukrainka

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Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka
Лариса Петрівна Косач-Квітка
Lesya Ukrainka portrait.jpg
Born February 25 [O.S. February 13] 1871
Novohrad-Volynskyi, Russian Empire
Died August 1 [O.S. July 19] 1913
Tiflis, Russian Empire
Pen name Lesya Ukrainka
Occupation Poet and writer
Ethnicity Ukrainian
Period 1884–1913

Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka (Ukrainian: Лариса Петрівна Косач-Квітка) (February 25 [O.S. February 13] 1871 – August 1 [O.S. July 19] 1913) better known under her literary pseudonym Lesya Ukrainka[1] (Ukrainian: Леся Українка), was one of Ukraine's best-known poets and writers and the foremost woman writer in Ukrainian literature. She also was a political, civil, and female activist.

Biography[edit]

Ukrainka was born in 1871 in the town of Novohrad-Volynskyi of Ukraine. She was the second child of Ukrainian writer and publisher Olha Drahomanova-Kosach (better known under her literary pseudonym Olena Pchilka). Mykhaylo Petrovych Drahomanov, a well-known Ukrainian scientist, historian, philosopher, folklorist and public figure, was a brother of Drahomanova-Kosach and Lesya's uncle.[2] Lesya had three younger sisters, Olha, Oksana, and Isydora, and a younger brother Mykola.[3] Ukrainka's father was Petro Antonovych Kosach, head of the district assembly of conciliators. Petro came from the northern part of Chernihiv province. After completing his high school in Chernihiv Gymnasium, Kosach went to study mathematics at the University of Petersburg. Two years later, he moved to Kyiv University and graduated in law. Afterwards, in 1868 he married Olha Drahomaniv, Mykhaylo Drahomaniv's, his friend's sister.[4] Despite his non-Ukrainian (Belarusian) [5] background, Kosach was devoted to the advancement of Ukrainian culture and financially supported Ukrainian publishing ventures. Ukrainka was very close to her uncle M. P. Drahomanov (her spiritual mentor and teacher), and her brother Mykhaylo (who would be known under the pseudonym Mykhaylo Obachny) whom she called "Mysholosie."

Lesya inherited her father's features, eyes, height, and build. Like her father she was highly principled. Also, they both were delicate in their relationships with people. In addition, they both placed high standards on human dignity in each individual. Despite the fact about many similarities, one respect in which Lesya and her father were different is that her father had a gift for mathematics, but no gift for languages, on the contrary, Lesya had no gift for mathematics, but she knew English, German, French, Italian, Greek, Latin, Polish, Russian, Bulgarian, and her native Ukrainian.[6]

Lesya's mother, a poet, was writing a verse and short stories for children in Ukrainian language under the pseudonym "Olena Pchilka". Also she took active participation in women's movement, and published feminist almanac.[7] Ukrainka's mother played a significant role in her upbringing. Ukrainian language was the only language used in the household, and to enforce this practice their children were educated by Ukrainian tutors at home, in order to avoid schools that taught Russian as the primary language. Ukrainka learned how to read at the age of four, and she and her brother Mykhaylo could read foreign languages well enough to read literature in their original language. Ukrainka had a good familiarity with Russian, Polish, Bulgarian, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, German and English.[citation needed]

By the time she was eight, she wrote her first poem, "Hope," which was written in reaction to the arrest and exile of her aunt, Olena Kosach, who took part in a political movement against the tsarist autocracy. In 1879, her entire family moved to Lutsk. That same year her father started building houses for the family in the nearby village of Kolodiazhne.[citation needed]

It was at this time that her uncle, Mykhaylo Drahomanov, encouraged her to study Ukrainian folk songs, folk stories, and history, as well to peruse the Bible for its inspired poetry and eternal themes. She also was influenced by well-known composer Mykola Lysenko, and famous Ukrainian dramatist and poet Mykhailo Starytsky.[citation needed]

At age thirteen, her first published poem, "Lily of the Valley," appeared in the journal Zoria in Lviv. It was here that she first used her pseudonym, which was suggested by her mother because in the Russian Empire, publications in the Ukrainian language were forbidden so Larysa Kosach's first collection of poetry had to be published secretly in western Ukraine and sneak into Kyiv under the pseudonym.[8] At this time, Ukrainka was well on her way of becoming a pianist, but due to tuberculosis of the bone, she did not attend any outside educational establishment. Writing was to be the main focus of her life.[citation needed]

Poems and plays of Lessya Ukrainka are associated with her belief in her country's freedom and independence. Because of that, she became a member of the Literary and Artistic Society in Kyiv between 1895 and 1897, which was banned in 1905 because of its relations with revolutionary activists.[9] When Ukrainka was seventeen, she and her brother organized a literary circle called Pleyada (The Pleiades)in 1888, which they founded to promote the development of Ukrainian literature and translating foreign classics into Ukrainian.It was based on the French school of poesy, the Pleiade. Their assemblies were taking place in different homes and were joined by Mykola Lysenko, P. Kosach, Kostiantyn Mykhalchuk, Mykhailo Starytsky, and others.[10] One of the works they translated was Nikolai Gogol's Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka.

Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko were the main inspiration of her early poetry. It was associated with the poet's loneliness, social isolation and by an adoration of Ukrainian nation's freedom.[11] Her first collection of poetry, Na krylakh pisen' (On the Wings of Songs), was published in 1893. Since Ukrainian publications were banned by the Russian Empire, this book was published in Western Ukraine, which was part of Austria-Hungary at the time, and smuggled into Kiev.

Her illness made it necessary for her to travel to places where the climate was dry, and as a result, spent extended periods of time in Germany, Austria, Italy, Bulgaria, Crimea, the Caucasus, and Egypt. She loved experiencing other cultures, which was evident in many of her literary works, such as The Ancient History of Oriental Peoples, originally written for her younger siblings. The book was published in L'viv, and Ivan Franko was involved in its publication. It included her early poems, such as "Seven Strings," "The Starry Sky," "Tears-Pearls," "The Journey to the Sea," "Crimean Memories," and "In the Children's Circle."

Ukrainka also wrote epic poems, prose dramas, prose, several articles of literary criticism, and a number of sociopolitical essays. She was best known for her plays Boyarynya (1914; The Noblewoman), a psychological tragedy centered on Ukrainian family in the 17th century.[12] which refers directly to Ukrainian history, and Lisova pisnya (1912; The Forest Song), whose characters include mythological beings from Ukrainian folklore.

Ukrainian karbovanets depicting Lesya Ukrainka.

In 1897, while being treated in Yalta, Ukrainka met Serhiy Merzhynsky, an official from Minsk who was also receiving treatment for tuberculosis. The two fell in love, and her feelings for Merzhynsky were responsible for her showing a different side of herself. Examples include "Your Letters Always Smell of Withered Roses," "To Leave Everything and Fly to You," and "I'd Like to Wind around You Like Ivy," which were unpublished in her lifetime. Merzhynsky died with Ukrainka at his bedside on March 3, 1901. She wrote the entire dramatic poem "Oderzhyma" ("The Possessed") in one night at his deathbed.

Ukrainka actively opposed Russian tsarism and was a member of Ukrainian Marxist organizations. In 1902 she translated the Communist Manifesto into Ukrainian. She was briefly arrested in 1907 by tsarist police and remained under surveillance thereafter.

Ukrainka married in 1907 to Klyment Kvitka, a court official, who was an amateur ethnographer and musicologist. They settled first in Crimea, then moved to Georgia.

Ukrainka died on August 1, 1913 at a health resort of Surami, Georgia.

Legacy[edit]

Soviet four-kopeck stamp commemorating the 100th anniversary of Lesya Ukrainka's birth.
Lesya Ukrainka Statue, University of Saskatchewan.
Lesya Ukrainka's burial location and monument at Baikove Cemetery in Kiev

There are many monuments to Lesya Ukrainka in Ukraine and many other former Soviet Republics. Particularly in Kiev, there is a main monument at the boulevard that bears her name and a smaller monument in the Mariyinsky Park (next to Mariyinsky Palace). There is also a bust in Garadagh raion of Azerbaijan. One of the main Kiev theaters, the Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of Russian Drama is colloquially referred to simply as Lesya Ukrainka Theater.

Under initiatives of local Ukrainian diasporas, there are several memorial societies and monuments to her throughout Canada and the United States, most notably a monument on the campus of the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. There is also a bust of Ukrainka in Soyuzivka in New York State.

Each summer since 1975, Ukrainians in Toronto gather at the Lesya Ukrainka monument in High Park to celebrate her life and work.[13]

On May 28, 2007, the National Bank of Ukraine released a 200-hryvnia banknote depicting Lesya Ukrainka.

According to image consultant Oleh Pokalchuk, Ukrainka's hairstyle inspired the over-the-head braid of Yulia Tymoshenko.[14]

English translations[edit]

  • The Forest Song, (play), in "In a Different Light: A Bilingual Anthology of Ukrainian Literature Translated into English by Virlana Tkacz and Wanda Phipps as Performed by Yara Arts Group", compiled and edited by Olha Luchuk, Sribne Slovo Press, Lviv 2008.

Productions of English Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Note: "Ukrainka" literally means "Ukrainian woman" in Ukrainian
  2. ^ "Mykhailo Drahomanov". Bibliography. Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  3. ^ Bida, Konstantyn (1968). Lesya Ukrainka. Toronto. p. 259. 
  4. ^ Bida, konstantyn (1968). Lesya Ukrainka. Toronto. p. 259. 
  5. ^ The Ukrainian Weekly 1947.5.12 p.3
  6. ^ Bida, konstantyn (1968). Lesya Ukrainka. Toronto. p. 259. 
  7. ^ "Леся Українка". Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  8. ^ "Lessya Ukrainka". Bibliography. Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  9. ^ "Lessya Ukrainka". Biography. Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  10. ^ "Pleiada". Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Vol.4. Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  11. ^ Ukrainka. Brittanica Centre 310 South Michigan Avenue Chicago Illinois 60604 United States of America: Encyclopædia Britannica. 1995. 
  12. ^ Ukrainka Lesya. Brittanica Centre 310 South Michigan Avenue Chicago IL 60604 United States of America: Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. 
  13. ^ Video on YouTube
  14. ^ "The queen of Ukraine's image machine". BBC News. October 4, 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 

External links[edit]