||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (October 2014)|
GBM, GBS, JP
|3rd Chief Executive of Hong Kong|
1 July 2012
|Preceded by||Donald Tsang|
|Majority||689 electoral votes (57.4%)|
|2nd Convenor of the Executive Council|
1 July 1999 – 3 October 2011
|Appointed by||Tung Chee-hwa
Sir Donald Tsang
|Preceded by||Chung Sze-yuen|
|Succeeded by||Ronald Arculli|
|Member of the CPPCC|
16 March 2003 – 21 June 2012
|Born||12 August 1954|
|Nationality||Hong Kong Chinese|
|Spouse(s)||Regina Tong Ching-yi|
|Alma mater||King's College
Hong Kong Polytechnic
|Honorary Degree||DBA (PolyU)
PhD in Business Administration (UWE)
Leung Chun-ying GBM, GBS, JP (born 12 August 1954), commonly known as C. Y. Leung, is the third and incumbent Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. He assumed office on 1 July 2012. A politician of the pro-establishment bloc, Leung has held various political offices including Convenor of the Executive Council and Member of the Provisional Legislative Council before his victory in the 2012 Hong Kong Chief Executive Election, which won 57.4% (689 electoral votes) of the 1200 person Election Committee.
Leung attended secondary school at King's College. In 1974, he graduated from the Hong Kong Polytechnic (now the Hong Kong Polytechnic University) with a higher diploma in building surveying. After his graduation, Leung undertook further studies in valuation and estate management at the Bristol Polytechnic (now the University of the West of England), United Kingdom in 1977
Leung later returned to Hong Kong and joined the real estate company, Jones Lang Wootton, for whom he worked for 5 years. By the age of 30, he was made the vice-chairman of the JLW's branch in Hong Kong., and was reported to be making a yearly salary of HK$10 million.
Leung became the real estate advisor for Zhu Rongji when Zhu was Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai from 1987 to 1991. Zhu Rongji later became the Vice-Premier and then the fifth Premier of the People's Republic of China from March 1998 to March 2003. Later in 2013, Leung appointed Levin Zhu Yunlai, the elder son of former premier Zhu Rongji, as an advisor in Hong Kong Government's Financial Services Development Council. Zhu Yunlai then also held the position of president and chief executive officer of China International Capital Corp., one of the country's top investment banks, a position he resigned from on 14 October 2014.
From 1995 to 1996, Leung was the president of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors. He was a former chairman of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors's Hong Kong branch. After holding the post, Leung has become an honorary advisor for the local governments of Shenzhen, Tianjian and Shanghai on Land Reform. He has also taken up the post of International Economic Advisor for Hebei province.
In 1993, Leung set up his own surveying company C. Y. Leung & Co., in Hong Kong, which then quickly set up many offices in Shanghai and Shenzhen
In 1995, his company C.Y. Leung & Co joined an international alliance comprising CB Commercial, Debenham Tewson & Chinnocks and DTZ. C.Y Leung & Co contributed expertise in the Greater China region providing services that included to simplify and expedite transactions in China.
In Dec 2006, after a complex share swap, Leung emerged as owner of 4.61% of the London listed property consultancy DTZ Holdings that involved HK$330 million cash and share deal with Leung. In 2007, DTZ Holdings with a US$400 million fund expanded into the property market of mainland China. This fund was to be passed through Leung's regional company DTZ Asia Pacific to purchase mainland property.
In October 2011, one month before Leung announces his running for the Hong Kong Chief Executive post, his company DTZ was hit by a liquidity crisis. Following this, after informing London Stock exchange that its shares were worthless, the board of DTZ, including Leung, agreed to sell DTZ to UGL Limited.
On 24 November 2011 Leung resigned as director from the board of DTZ and on 28 November 2011 announced his candidacy for the Hong Kong Chief Executive election.
On 2 December 2011, Leung signed a secret agreement to receive payment of GB£4 million from UGL, that included terms to non-compete, to support acquisition of the DTZ group by UGL and provide consultancy services for a period of 2 years.
On the same day Leung signed the secret agreement, China's state-owned Tianjin Innovation Financial Investment Company had made a bid that valued DTZ at GB£100 million higher than the bid by UGL. But this more valuable bid was rejected by the DTZ board, including Leung, and not released to the public.
In December 2012, 9 months after winning the Hong Kong Chief Executive election, Leung received the first tranche of payment from UGL, and a second tranche within 2 years.
In October 2014, Fairfax Media published details of this secret agreement and the rejected competitive bid. Following this, prosecutors from the Hong Kong's anti corruption agency ICAC and Australia started investigations into this scandal.
In 1998, University of the West of England conferred an Honorary DBA degree
In 1999, Leung took over the position of Council Chairman of Lingnan University. In the same year, on 16 June 1999 the Lingnan College received University status. Leung continued in this position as Council Chairman of Lingnan University, for a period of nine years, until 21 October 2008
In April 2008, Leung was appointed as the chairman and member of the Council of the City University of Hong Kong. . Leung held this position until 2011. In terms of his performance as chairman, the University staff had scored Leung less than 1 point on a scale of 10. During his tenure as chairman, Leung was accused of attempts to weaken the power of the staff association.
Early political career
In 1985, Leung joined the Hong Kong Basic Law Consultative Committee, a 180 member body nominated by Hong Kong Basic Law Drafting Committee that was to hold consultation with Hong Kong people regarding various drafts of the Hong Kong Basic Law.  The working of the BLCC was criticised as it had not established any formal machinery for the consultation process and did not indicate the degree of public support of the views proposed. . In 1990, the BLCC ceased to exist after the Basic Law was adopted by the National People's Congress. In 1988, Leung then aged 34, was made the Secretary General of the Committee, replacing Mao Junnian. Former CCP member Leung Mo-han and critics of Leung, have suggested that Leung must be a secret member of the Communist party, since, per the rules of the Chinese Communist Party, such a senior position are assumed by a party member.
In 1999, Leung was awarded the Gold Bauhinia Star by the Hong Kong Government. He has been a member of the National Standing Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and only submitted his resignation one week prior to assuming his office of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong in 2012. He is cuurently the chairman and sits on the board of directors of the One Country Two Systems Research Institute.
In 2011, there were confrontations between police and demonstrators after the annual 1 July march amid public opposition to the government's draft legislation to eliminate by elections for vacated Legco seats. Leung responded by saying that such rowdy rallies should be "sanctioned and restrained".
Convenor of the Executive Council
Then-Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa appointed Leung as the convenor of the Executive Council in 1998, replacing his predecessor Chung Sze-yuen. During Tung Chee-hwa's 1997 policy address, he proposed that the government would build no less than 85,000 flats every year, allowing 70% of the citizens to own a house within 10 years. However, due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the proposal was put on a halt. As the convenor of the Executive Council, CY Leung has been questioned many times regarding this policy plan over the years. The citizen further said these policies favour the business (upper) class. Leung responded that the plan was something the government just projected at one time.
The election campaign was controversial. The early favourite to win was long-considered to be former Chief Secretary Henry Tang, who was supported by the local bureaucracy, key property and business tycoons, and crucially, by the Beijing government. However, while Tang stumbled over the revelation of an illegal structure at his home, Leung faced his own problems.
Leung appointed Fanny Law, who attracted widespread criticisms for mishandling educational reforms when in office from 2002 to 2006, to his Office of the Chief-Executive Elect as Campaign Manager.
During the campaign, rumours persistently resurfaced that Leung was once a closet member of the Communist Party of China. Section 31 of Chief Executive Election Ordinance (Chapter 569) stipulates that a CE election winner must "publicly make a statutory declaration to the effect that he is not a member of any political party".
Martin Lee, a pro-democracy politician, questioned the survival of the 'one country, two systems' principle if Leung were to be elected the CE, saying that Leung must have been a loyal CCP member for him to be appointed as the Secretary General of the Basic Law Consultative Committee in 1985 at the young age of 31.
This view was supported by a former underground communist, Florence Leung, whose memoir recorded that Leung was also a secret member of the party. She explained that, in order for Leung to succeed Mao Junnian (whose identity as a communist had been revealed) as the Secretary General of the Basic Law Consultative Committee, he must also have been a party member, per the tradition of the party. She also cited Leung's vague remarks about the 1989 Tiananmen Massacre as a clue to his membership, in contrast to Henry Tang's greater sympathy for the protest movement. She said that if Leung, as an underground party member, won the election then the leader of the Communist Party in Hong Kong would be in actual control. Leung consistently dismissed such claims as ungrounded.
The suggestion that Leung's loyalty was more to Beijing than Hong Kong has long dogged him. In 2010, Leung had been asked whether he would support the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to jailed Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo. He replied that China's former paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, should have been the first Chinese to win the award.
Towards the end of the election campaign, James Tien, the honorary chairman of the Liberal Party and a supporter of Henry Tang during the election, stated that members of the election committee had received phone calls from the Liaison Office demanding them to vote for Leung.
On 25 March 2012, Leung was declared Hong Kong's new Chief Executive, after securing 689 votes from the 1,200-member election committee. Henry Tang had 285 votes and the third candidate, Democrat Albert Ho gained the votes of 76 members. In total, 1,132 valid votes were received.
Upon his selection, the online version of People's Daily addressed Leung as "Comrade Leung Chun-ying". When the Chinese mass media[who?] pointed out that the title comrade (or tongzhi, 同志) is reserved by the party for its own members, and that neither Tung Chee-hwa nor Donald Tsang had been thus addressed, the epithet "comrade" was removed from the page.
After his selection, a number of illegal or unauthorised structures were found at Leung's house, in a reprise of the scandal involving an illegal basement that had badly hit the campaign of his rival, Tang, and for which Leung had roundly criticised Tang. The issue dominated the period around his taking up the post. Leung's structures were to be demolished although Chief Executive contender Albert Ho considered disputing Leung's legal legitimacy as the territory's new leader.
First term (2012–present)
Leung assumed office as Chief Executive on 1 July 2012. On top of the controversy surrounding illegal structures of his house, in which he was severely criticised as a hypocrite for using the same accusation in attacking his opponent during the 2012 election, there were additional disputes regarding his appointments of officers and political judgements. Despite widespread condemnation of Leung's election victory, reactions to his policies have so far been polarised: either attracting praise for his decisiveness or pro-Beijing drafts under constant scrutiny by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong.
Leung's appointment of Chen Ran (陳冉) as the Project Officer in his Transitional Office stirred up further criticism among the public of Hong Kong. Chen has resided in Hong Kong for less than seven years, the minimum time period which foreigners are required to reside to apply for permanent residence. Chen is a former General Secretary of the pro-Beijing Hong Kong Young Elites Association (香港菁英會), of which Leung is a patron. Chen is the daughter of a middle-ranking government official in Shanghai and a former member of the Communist Youth League.
Despite the centuries-long history of Cantonese as the de facto spoken language of Hong Kong, Leung made his inaugural speech in Mandarin, spoken in Mainland China. This was in stark contrast to his predecessor, Sir Donald Tsang, who made his inaugural speech in Cantonese in July 2007.
Leung's popularity ratings have been continuously low since his election. In October 2013, only 31 percent of the 1,009 participants in the HKU poll said they supported Leung as the city's leader, while 55 percent disapproved of him – an increase of 6 percentage points from the previous month's poll.
Leung accepted HKD50 million in a deal with Australian engineering firm UGL in 2011. On 8 October 2014, an Australian newspaper revealed how the contract was made, but Leung has denied having done anything morally or legally wrong. He sidestepped key questions, such as why he did not declare the payment to the Executive Council. This controversy has further worsened Leung's popularity.
Later, during his campaign for CE elections, across the territory he is nicknamed "The Wolf" by some opponents – partly because his name sounds like the Chinese word for wolf. Others refer to him as Dracula, given his prominent eye teeth.
Another pejorative moniker given to Leung is 689, in reference to the number of votes that elected him into office. The number 689 is also used to ridicule the lack of representation of the will of the Hong Kong People.
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|Convenor of the Executive Council
|Chief Executive of Hong Kong
|Legislative Council of Hong Kong|
|New parliament||Member of Provisional Legislative Council
|Replaced by Legislative Council|
|Order of precedence|
|First||Hong Kong order of precedence
Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal
Chairman of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
|Orders of precedence in the People's Republic of China
Chief Executive of Hong Kong SAR
Chief Executive of Macau SAR