Levallois technique

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Levallois point - Beuzeville
The Levallois technique of flint-knapping

The Levallois technique (IPA: [lə.va.lwa]) is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period.

It is named after nineteenth century finds of flint tools in the Levallois-Perret 48°53′40″N 2°17′18″E / 48.89444°N 2.28833°E / 48.89444; 2.28833 suburb of Paris in France. The technique was more sophisticated than earlier methods of lithic reduction, involving the striking of flakes from a prepared core. A striking platform is formed at one end and then the core's edges are trimmed by flaking off pieces around the outline of the intended flake. This creates a domed shape on the side of the core, known as a tortoise core as the various scars and rounded form are reminiscent of a tortoise's shell. When the striking platform is finally hit, a flake separates from the core with a distinctive plano-convex profile and with all of its edges sharpened by the earlier trimming work.

This method provides much greater control over the size and shape of the final flake which would then be employed as a scraper or knife although the technique could also be adapted to produce projectile points known as Levallois points.

The technique is first found in the Lower Palaeolithic but is most commonly associated with the Neanderthal Mousterian industries of the Middle Palaeolithic. In the Levant, Levallois methods were also in use in the Upper Palaeolithic and later. In East Africa, Levallois methods were used in the Middle Stone Age.

The distinctive forms of the flakes were originally thought to indicate a wide ranging Levallois culture resulting from the expansion of archaic Homo sapiens out of Africa. However, the wide geographical and temporal spread of the technique has rendered this interpretation obsolete.

Further information: Prepared-core technique

Adler et al., further argues that Levallois technology evolved independently in different populations and thus cannot be used as a reliable indicator of Paleolithic human population change and expansion. [1]

Locations[edit]

Africa[edit]

  • Egypt: Within the banks of the Nile River, excavations have located within the 30-, 15-, and 10-foot terraces, Lavalloisean implements. Within the 30-foot terrace, the implements were originally thought to be early Mousterian, but were later reclassified. The 15- and 10-foot terraces again were classified first as Egyptian Mousterian, but later as developed Lavalloisean.[2]

Asia[edit]

  • Syria/Palestine: Excavated within a stratigraphic column containing tools from this culture.[2]
  • Afghanistan: Implements located in the Haibak valley.[2]
  • North-east Asia: the extension of the Levallois method to this part of the world seem now undoubtable with recent evidences at Shuidonggou ( North China ) in Mongolia and Altai-Siberia, dating from the Late Pleistocene.[3]
  • Pakistan: The Soanian techno-complex from the Soan Valley located in northern Pakistan, has been identified as a Mode-3 Levallois complex. [4]

Southern Caucasus[edit]

  • Armenia: Nor Geghi 1 archaeological site. The artifacts, found preserved in soil under a later lava flow and dated at 325,000 – 335,000 years old, were a mix of two distinct stone tool technology traditions: bifacial tools and Levallois tools. Daniel Adler suggests that the artifacts found at Nor Geghi reflect the technological flexibility and variability of a single population. [5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ D. S. Adler, et al., "Early Levallois technology and the Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition in the Southern Caucasus", Science, Vol.345 no.6204, pp.1609-1613, 26 September 2014. Abstract: [1]
  2. ^ a b c Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3. 
  3. ^ E. Boëda et al. "Levallois and non-Levallois blade production at Shuidonggou in Ningxia, North China" Quaternary International 295 (2013) 191e203
  4. ^ Lycett, Stephen J. (2007). "Is the Soanian tech-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment". Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 1434-1440. 
  5. ^ Prehistoric Stone Tools Evolved Independently Within Local Populations, Say Researchers". Popular Archaeology, September 2014. [2]

External links[edit]