Lew Wallace

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Lew Wallace
Lewis Wallace.jpg
11th Governor of New Mexico Territory
In office
1878–1881
Preceded by Samuel Beach Axtell
Succeeded by Lionel Allen Sheldon
United States Minister to the Ottoman Empire
In office
1881–1885
Preceded by James Longstreet
Succeeded by Samuel S. Cox
Personal details
Born Lewis Wallace
April 10, 1827 (1827-04-10)
Brookville, Indiana
Died February 15, 1905 (1905-02-16) (aged 77)
Crawfordsville, Indiana
Resting place Oak Hill Cemetery, Crawfordsville, Indiana
Political party Whig (pre-1847), Free Soil (1848), Democrat (1848-64), Republican (1864-1905)
Spouse(s) Susan Arnold Elston Wallace (married 1852)
Children Henry Lane Wallace
Military service
Allegiance United States
Union
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service 1846–47, 1861–65
Rank Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg Major General
Commands 11th Indiana Infantry

3rd Division, Army of the Tennessee
VIII Corps

Battles/wars American Civil War

Lewis "Lew" Wallace (April 10, 1827 – February 15, 1905) was an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, territorial governor and statesman, politician, and author. Wallace served as governor of the New Mexico Territory at the time of the Lincoln County War and worked to bring an end to the fighting.

Of his novels and biographies, he is best known for his historical novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880), a bestselling book since its publication, and called "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century."[1] It has been adapted four times for films.

Early life and education[edit]

Lewis "Lew" Wallace was born on April 10, 1827, in Brookville, Indiana. He was the second of four sons born to David Wallace and Esther French (Test) Wallace.[2] Lew's father, a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York,[3] left the military in 1822 and moved to Brookville, where he established a law practice and entered Indiana politics. David served in the Indiana General Assembly and later as the state's lieutenant governor, and governor, and as a member of Congress.[4][5] Lew Wallace's maternal grandfather was circuit court judge and Congressman John Test.

In 1832 the family moved to Covington, Indiana, where Lew's mother died from tuberculosis on July 14, 1834.[6] In December 1836, David married nineteen-year-old Zerelda Gray Sanders Wallace, who later became a prominent suffragist and temperance advocate. In 1837, after David's election as governor of Indiana, the family moved to Indianapolis.[7][8]

Lew began his formal education at the age of six at a public school in Covington, but he much preferred the outdoors. Wallace had a talent for drawing and loved to read, but he was a discipline problem at school.[9] In 1836, at the age of nine, Lew joined his older brother in Crawfordsville, Indiana, where he briefly attended Wabash Preparatory School, but soon transferred to another school more suitable for his age.[10] In 1840, when Wallace was thirteen, his father sent him to a private academy at Centerville, Indiana, where his teacher encouraged Lew's natural affinity for writing. Wallace returned to Indianapolis the following year.[11][12]

Sixteen-year-old Lew went out to earn his own wages in 1842, after his father refused to pay for more schooling.[13] Wallace found a job copying records at the Marion County clerk's office and lived in an Indianapolis boardinghouse.[14] He also joined the Marion Rifles, a local militia unit, and began writing his first novel, The Fair God, but it was not published until 1873.[15] Wallace acknowledged in his autobiography that he had never been a member of any organized religion, but he did believe "in the Christian conception of God."[1][16]

By 1846, at the start of the Mexican-American War, the nineteen-year-old Wallace was studying law at his father's law office, but left that pursuit to established a recruiting office for the Marion Volunteers in Indianapolis. He was appointed a second lieutenant, and on June 19, 1846, mustered into military service with the Marion Volunteers (also known as Company H, 1st Indiana Volunteer Infantry).[17] Wallace rose to the position of regimental adjutant and the rank of first lieutenant while serving in the army of Zachary Taylor, but Wallace personally did not participate in combat.[18] Wallace was mustered out of the volunteer service on June 15, 1847,[19] and returned to Indiana, where he intended to practice law.[20] After the war, Wallace and William B. Greer operated a Free Soil newspaper, The Free Soil Banner, in Indianapolis.[21]

Marriage and family[edit]

In 1848 Wallace met Susan Arnold Elston at the Crawfordsville home of Henry Smith Lane, Wallace's former commander during the Mexican War.[22] Susan Susan was the daughter of Major Isaac Compton Elston, a wealthy Crawfordsville merchant, and Maria Akin Elson, whose family were Quakers from upstate New York.[23] Susan accepted Wallace's marriage proposal in 1849, and they were married in Crawfordsville on May 6, 1852.[24] The Wallaces had one son, Henry Lane Wallace, who was born on February 17, 1853.[25]

Early law and military career[edit]

Wallace was admitted to the bar in February 1849, and moved from Indianapolis to Covington, Indiana, where he established a law practice. In 1851 Wallace was elected prosecuting attorney of Indiana's 1st congressional district,[11] but he resigned in 1853 and moved his family to Crawfordsville, in Montgomery County, Indiana. Wallace continued to practice law and was elected as a Democrat to a two-year term in the Indiana Senate in 1856.[26][27][28]

While living in Crawfordsville, Wallace organized the Crawfordsville Guards Independent Militia, later called the Montgomery Guards. During the winter of 1859–60, after reading about elite units of the French Army in Algeria, Wallace adopted the Zouave uniform and their system of training for the group. The Montgomery Guards would later form the core of his first military command, the 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, during the American Civil War.[29][27][30]

Civil War service[edit]

Wallace, a staunch, pro-Union supporter who became a member of the Republican party,[27] began his full-time military career after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12, 1861. Indiana's Republican governor, Oliver P. Morton, asked Wallace to help recruit Indiana volunteers for the Union army.[31] Wallace, who also sought a military command, agreed to become the state's adjutant general on the condition that he would be given command of a regiment of his choice.[32][33] Indiana's quota of six regimental units was filled within a week,[34] and Wallace took command of the 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment, which was mustered into the Union army on April 25, 1861. Wallace received his formal commission as a colonel in the Union army the following day.[19][35][28]

On June 5, 1861, Wallace went with the 11th Indiana to Cumberland, Maryland, and on June 12, the regiment won a minor battle at Romney, Virginia, (in present-day West Virginia).[28][36][32] The rout boosted morale for Union troops and led to the Confederate evacuation of Harpers Ferry on June 18.[37] On September 3, 1861, Wallace was promoted to brigadier general of U.S. Army volunteers and given command of a brigade.[19]

Wallace went on to lead Union army troops during the capture of Fort Henry and participated in the battle of Fort Donelson, the battle of Shiloh, and the battle of Monocacy. Wallace later completed a mission to Texas, where he discussed proposals for the surrender of the Confederate troops in the Trans-Mississippi Department, and met with Mexican military officials concerning the U.S. government's unofficial aid to remove French occupation forces from Mexico.[38] In 1865 Wallace was appointed to the military commission that investigated the Lincoln assassination conspirators. He also presided over the military trial of Henry Wirz, the Confederate commandant of the Andersonville prison camp.[39]

Forts Henry & Donelson[edit]

In February 1862, while preparing for an advance against Fort Henry, Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent two wooden gunboats (timberclads) down the Tennessee River for one last reconnaissance of the fort with Wallace aboard. In his report, Wallace noted an officer in the fort who was watching the Union ships as inquisitively as they were watching him. Little did Wallace know at that time the officer was Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, whom Wallace would replace as commander of Fort Henry in a few days. During the campaign Wallace's brigade was attached to Brig. Gen. Charles F. Smith's division and occupied Fort Heiman across the river from Fort Henry. Grant's superior, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, was concerned about Confederate reinforcements retaking the forts, so Grant left Wallace with his brigade in command at Fort Henry while the rest of the army moved overland toward Fort Donelson.

Map showing Wallace's counterattack at Fort Donelson (1862)

Displeased to have been left behind,[32] Wallace prepared his troops to move out at a moment's notice. The order came on February 14, and when Wallace arrived along the Cumberland River, he was placed in charge of organizing a division of reinforcements arriving on transports. He organized two full brigades and a third incomplete, and took up position in the center of Grant's lines besieging Fort Donelson. During the fierce Confederate assault on February 15, Wallace coolly acted on his own initiative to send a brigade to reinforce the beleaguered division of Brig. Gen. John A. McClernand, despite orders from Grant to avoid a general engagement. This action was key in stabilizing the Union defensive line. After the Confederate assault had been checked, Wallace led a counterattack which retook the ground that was lost. He was promoted to major general of volunteers to rank from March 21.[40]

Shiloh[edit]

Wallace's most controversial command came at the Battle of Shiloh, where he continued as the 3rd Division commander under Maj. Gen. Grant. Wallace's division had been left in reserve. The 3rd Brigade commanded by Col. Charles Whittlesey was at Stoney Lonesome near Adamsville, Tennessee. Col. Morgan L. Smith's 1st Brigade and Col. John M. Thayer's Second Brigade were both located at Crump's Landing, five miles north of Pittsburg Landing, to the rear of the Union line. At about 6 a.m. on April 6, 1862, when Grant's army was surprised and nearly routed by the sudden appearance of the Confederate States Army under Albert Sidney Johnston, Grant sent orders for Wallace to move his division up to support the division of Brig. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman located at Shiloh Church.

Grant's orders to Wallace were given verbally to an aide, who transcribed and delivered them; the orders were later lost during the battle. There were two main routes by which Wallace could move his unit to the front, and Grant (according to Wallace) did not specify which one he should take. Wallace chose to take the "upper" shunpike, which he believed was more usable and led to Shiloh Church; he had the day before written a letter to another officer stating his intention to do so. Grant later claimed that he had specified that Wallace take the "lower" route along the river to Pittsburg Landing. Historians are divided, with some stating that Wallace's explanation is the most logical.[32]

Wallace arrived almost at the end of his march only to find that Sherman had been forced back and was no longer where he expected to find him. Sherman had been pushed back so far that Wallace was to the rear of the advancing Southern troops.[32] A messenger from Grant arrived at 11:30 a.m. with word that Grant was wondering where Wallace was, and why he had not arrived near Pittsburg Landing, where the Union Army was making its stand. Wallace believed he could launch a viable attack from where he was, thus attacking the Confederates in their rear, but followed the new orders to proceed to the army's assistance via the river road. Wallace countermarched his troops along the same route and via a crossroads directly to the bridge crossing Snake and Owl creeks. Rather than realigning his troops so that the rear guard would be in the front, Wallace chose to countermarch his column (a move that is still controversial today); he argued that his artillery would have been greatly out of position to support the infantry when it would arrive on the field.

Wallace marched back to the midpoint on the "upper" road. He proceeded to march over a new third path that would intersect with the lower road to join the army on the field, but the road had been left in terrible conditions by recent rainstorms and previous Union marches. Progress was slow due to the roads' conditions, and countermarching the division was a command mistake. His division, when it finally arrived at Grant's position at about 7 p.m., had marched a total of 15 miles in six and a half hours. The sun was down and fighting nearly over for the day, but it was not yet dark and Wallace's division was ordered to take a place on the right of the Union Army line. The Union Army won the battle the following day, with Wallace's division holding the extreme right of the Union line and being the first to attack on April 7.[41]

Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace

At first, there was little fallout from this. Wallace was the youngest general of his rank in the army and was something of a "golden boy". Soon, however, civilians in the North began to hear the news of the horrible casualties at Shiloh, and the Army needed explanations. Both Grant and his superior, Halleck, placed the blame squarely on Wallace, saying that his incompetence in moving up the reserves had nearly cost them the battle. Sherman, for his part, remained silent on the issue. Wallace was removed from his command in June and reassigned to command the defense of Cincinnati in the Department of the Ohio during Braxton Bragg's incursion into Kentucky.

Later service[edit]

Wallace's most notable service came in July 1864 at the Battle of Monocacy in Maryland, part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Although the some 5,800-man force[42] under his command (mostly hundred-days' men amalgamated from the VIII Corps) and the division of James B. Ricketts from VI Corps was defeated by Confederate General Jubal A. Early, who had some 15,000 troops, Wallace was able to delay Early's advance toward Washington, D.C., for an entire day. This gave the city defenses time to organize and repel Early, who arrived at Fort Stevens in Washington at around noon on July 11, two days after defeating Wallace at Monocacy, the northernmost Confederate victory of the war.[43]

General Grant relieved Wallace of his command after learning of the defeat of Monocacy, but re-instated him two weeks later. Grant's memoirs of the war praised Wallace's delaying tactics at Monocacy:

If Early had been but one day earlier, he might have entered the capital before the arrival of the reinforcements I had sent. ... General Wallace contributed on this occasion by the defeat of the troops under him, a greater benefit to the cause than often falls to the lot of a commander of an equal force to render by means of a victory.[44]

Wallace suffered greatly by the loss of his reputation as a result of Shiloh. He worked all his life to change public opinion about his role in the battle, even begging Grant in letters and in person to vindicate him. Grant refused to do so, and in 1884 wrote an article on Shiloh for The Century Magazine again stating his belief that Wallace had taken the wrong road on the first day of battle. The letter Wallace had written stating his plans to take the shunpike was found after the article's publication, causing Grant to change his mind; he wrote that the letter "modifies very materially what I have said, and what has been said by others, about the conduct of General Lew. Wallace at the battle of Shiloh." While reaffirming that he had ordered Wallace to take the river road, Grant stated that he could not be sure how accurately Wallace had received his verbal orders. The Century article, however, became the chapter on Shiloh in Grant's memoirs of the war, and has influenced many later accounts of Wallace's actions on the first day of battle. Despite his great fame and fortune from Ben-Hur Wallace lamented, "Shiloh and its slanders! Will the world ever acquit me of them? If I were guilty I would not feel them as keenly."[32]

Later in the war, Wallace directed the U.S. government's secret efforts to aid Mexico in expelling the French occupation forces which had seized control of their country in 1864. He participated in the military commission trial of the Lincoln assassination conspirators, as well as the court-martial of Henry Wirz, the commandant in charge of the South's Andersonville prison camp.[19]

Post-war career[edit]

Wallace resigned from the army on November 30, 1865.[40] After the end of the war, Wallace continued to try to help the Mexican army to expel the French and was offered a major general's commission in the Mexican army. Multiple promises by the Mexicans were never fulfilled, and Wallace incurred deep financial debt.

Wallace held a number of important political posts during the 1870s and 1880s. He was appointed as governor of New Mexico Territory from 1878 to 1881, during a time of violence and political corruption. He was appointed as U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire from 1881 to 1885.

In 1883, for reflecting upon Wallace, the American Minister to the Ottoman Empire, in an editorial in Havatzelet (xiii. No. 6), headed "An American and yet a Despot", the Havatzelet was suspended, and its' editor was imprisoned for forty-five days, by order from Constantinople directed to the pasha of Jerusalem. The incident which caused the editorial was the dismissal of Joseph Kriger, the Jewish secretary and interpreter to the pasha of Jerusalem, at the request of Wallace, who complained that Kriger had failed to receive him with the honor due to his rank, and who refused to issue any apology for the alleged shortcoming. Havatzelet claimed that the proceeding was instigated by the missionaries, whom Wallace strongly supported

As governor, Wallace offered amnesty to many men involved in the Lincoln County War. In the process he met with the outlawed William Henry McCarty, also known as Billy the Kid. On March 17, 1879, the pair arranged that the Kid would act as an informant and testify against others involved in the Lincoln County War, and, it has been claimed, that in return the Kid would be "scot free with a pardon in [his] pocket for all [his] misdeeds."[citation needed] According to this account, Wallace, facing the political forces then ruling New Mexico, was unable to come through on his end of the bargain. The Kid returned to his outlaw ways and killed additional men.

In the 21st century, supporters of Billy the Kid made a request for a posthumous pardon, based on the claim of a pardon promised and not delivered by Wallace, to then-Governor Bill Richardson of New Mexico. On December 31, 2010, on the eve of leaving office, Richardson turned down the pardon request, citing a "lack of conclusiveness and the historical ambiguity" over Wallace's actions. Descendants of Wallace and Billy the Kid's killer, Sheriff Pat Garrett, were among those who opposed the pardon.[45]

Taking up writing again after the war, Wallace published his first novel in 1873. While serving as governor, Wallace completed his second novel, which made him famous: Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). It became the best-selling American novel of the 19th century, surpassing Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin,[46] and is considered the most influential Christian book of the 19th century.[1] The book has never been out of print and has been adapted for film four times. The historian Victor Davis Hanson has argued that the novel drew from Wallace's life, particularly his experiences at Shiloh, and the damage it did to his reputation. The book's main character, Judah Ben-Hur, accidentally causes injury to a high-ranking commander, for which he and his family suffer tribulations and calumny.[47] He first seeks revenge, and then redemption.

Wallace went on to publish several novels and biographies, plus his autobiography; but Ben-Hur was his most important book. He designed a writing study, built 1895–1898, adjacent to his residence in Crawfordsville. Now called the General Lew Wallace Study & Museum, it was designated a National Historic Landmark and is operated as a house museum, open to the public.[1][48]

Despite using many friends in Washington to influence the government, Wallace's offer in 1898 to raise and lead a division of soldiers for the Spanish-American War was refused; when he attempted to enlist as a private, he was rejected given his age of 71.

Death[edit]

Wallace died at home in Crawfordsville, on February 15, 1905,[32] of atrophic gastritis.[49] He was seventy-seven years old.[1] Wallace is buried in Crawfordsvill'e Oak Hill Cemetery.[50]

Legacy and honors[edit]

Wallace was a man of many interests and a life-long adventure seeker, who remained a persistent, self-confident man of action. He was also impatient and highly sensitive to personal criticisms, especially those related to his command decisions at Shiloh.[51] Despite Wallace's career in law and politics, combined with years of military and diplomatic service, he achieved his greatest fame as a novelist, most notably for a best-selling biblical tale, Ben-Hur.

Following Wallace's death, the State of Indiana commissioned sculptor Andrew O'Connor to create a marble statue of Wallace dressed in a military uniform for the National Statuary Hall Collection in the U.S. Capitol. The statue was unveiled during a ceremony held on January 11, 1910.[52] Wallace is the only novelist honored in the hall.[1] A bronze copy of the statue is installed on the grounds of Wallace's study in Crawfordsville.[52][53]

Lew Wallace High School opened in 1926 at 415 West 45th Avenue in Gary, Indiana. On June 3, 2014, the Gary School Board voted 4 to 2 to close Lew Wallace, along with five other schools.[54]

Published works[edit]

  • The Fair God; or, The Last of the 'Tzins: A Tale of the Conquest of Mexico (Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1873.)[55]
  • Commodus: An Historical Play (Crawfordsville, IN: privately published by the author, 1876.) Revised and reissued in the same year.[56]
  • Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1880.)[57]
  • The Boyhood of Christ (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1888.)[58]
  • Life of Gen. Ben Harrison (bound with Life of Hon. Levi P. Morton, by George Alfred Townsend), (Philadelphia: Hubbard Brothers, 1888.)[59]
  • Life of Gen. Ben Harrison (Philadelphia: Hubbard Brothers, 1888.)[60]
  • The First Christmas from Ben-Hur (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1899.)[61]
  • Life and Public Services of Hon. Benjamin Harrison, President of the U.S. With a Concise Biographical Sketch of Hon. Whitelaw Reid, Ex-Minister to France [by Murat Halstad] (Philadelphia: Edgewood Publishing Co., 1892.)
  • The Prince of India; or, Why Constantinople Fell (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1893.) Two volumes.[62]
  • The Wooing of Malkatoon [and] Commodus (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1898.)[63]
  • Lew Wallace: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1906.) Two volumes.[64]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Ben-Hur: The Book That Shook the World", Humanities, November/December 2009 Volume 30, Number 6, Accessed 2010-04-20
  2. ^ McKee, "The Early Life of Lew Wallace", p. 206.
  3. ^ Woodworth, p. 63.
  4. ^ Gugin and St. Clair, p. 82 and 85.
  5. ^ Boomhower, p. 13–14.
  6. ^ Stephens, p. 1; Boomhower, p. 14 and 16; and McKee, "The Early Life of Lew Wallace", p. 207.
  7. ^ Gugin and St. Clair, p. 82 and 85; Boomhower, p. 19; and Stephens, p. 2.
  8. ^ Morrow, p. 3.
  9. ^ Boomhower, p. 9 and 15, and Morrow, p. 4.
  10. ^ Boomhower, p. 17.
  11. ^ a b Gronert, p. 71.
  12. ^ Boomhower, p. 9 and 20–21, and McKee, "The Early Life of Lew Wallace", p. 211.
  13. ^ Boomhower, p. 22.
  14. ^ McKee, "The Early Life of Lew Wallace", p. 214.
  15. ^ Stephens, p. 2–3 and 13, and Boomhower, p. 3, 9, and 23–26.
  16. ^ Boomhower, p. 11.
  17. ^ Stephens, p. 4; oomhower, p. 3, 26–27; and Morrow, p. 6.
  18. ^ Warner, p. 536–37; Woodworth, p. 64.
  19. ^ a b c d Eicher, p. 551.
  20. ^ Stephens, p. 8.
  21. ^ "Free Soil Banner", digitized by the Indianapolis Marion County Public Library.
  22. ^ Boomhower, p. 35.
  23. ^ Stephens, p. 10.
  24. ^ Boomhower, p. 39–41.
  25. ^ Morrow, p. 8.
  26. ^ Stephens, p. 9, 11, and 13, and Boomhower, p. 41 and 44.
  27. ^ a b c Forbes, p. 388.
  28. ^ a b c Morrow, p. 9.
  29. ^ Stephens, p. 14, and Boomhower, p. 4 and 44.
  30. ^ Timeline from the General Lew Wallace Study and Museum.
  31. ^ Morsberger and Morseberger, p. 54.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Swansburg, John (2013-03-26). "The Passion of Lew Wallace". Slate. Retrieved March 30, 2013. 
  33. ^ Stephens, p. 17–18.
  34. ^ Boomhower, p. 2 and 47.
  35. ^ Stephens, p. 19.
  36. ^ It was misdated on Wallace's official report. See Stephens, p. 24.
  37. ^ Stephens, p. 27.
  38. ^ Boomhower, p. 80, and Stephens, p. 212–17.
  39. ^ Stephens, p. 219, 221–23, and 226; Boomhower, 85–87; and Morrow, p. 11.
  40. ^ a b Eicher, p. 773.
  41. ^ "The March of Lew Wallace's Division to Shiloh." In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol. 1, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence C. Buel. New York: Century Co., 1884–1888. 608–610. OCLC 2048818. (Johnson and Buel list no author for this article, but indicate it was based on material from Wallace.)
  42. ^ Kennedy, p. 305.
  43. ^ Kennedy, p. 308.
  44. ^ Grant, Chapter LVII, p. 13.
  45. ^ Marc Lacey, "No Pardon for Billy the Kid", New York Times, December 31, 2010. Accessed on December 31, 2010 at:
  46. ^ Wallace, Ben-Hur Introduction, Page vii.
  47. ^ Hanson, Victor Davis, (2003) Ripples of Battle: How Wars of the Past Still Determine How We Fight, How We Live, and How We Think, Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-50400-4
  48. ^ Adams, George R.; Ralph Christian (1975). Wallace, Gen. Lew, Study NRHP Nomination Form. American Assoc. for State and Local History. 
  49. ^ The physician's cause of death on his death certificate is "atrophy of stomach", which is consistent with documented reports of his health beginning in Fall 1904. See, "General Lew Wallace dies at Indiana home". New York Times. February 16, 1905. p. 9.  See also, Welsh, p. 357.
  50. ^ Boomhower, p. 12 and 134.
  51. ^ Forbes, p. 389–91 and 149–50.
  52. ^ a b Boomhower, p. 138.
  53. ^ Morrow, p. 22.
  54. ^ {{cite journal|author=Carole Carlson|title=Gary to Close Lew Wallace, Five Other Schools |journal=Post-Tribune|publisher=Sun-Times Media, LLC|location=Gary, Indiana|date=2014-06-03 |url=http://posttrib.suntimes.com/27846922-537/gary-to-close-lew-wallace-five-other-schools.html |accessdate=2014-08-24
  55. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 311.
  56. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 314.
  57. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 315.
  58. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 340.
  59. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 335.
  60. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 338.
  61. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 347.
  62. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 341.
  63. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 345.
  64. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 348.

References[edit]

  • Boomhower, Ray E. (2005). The Sword and the Pen. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87195-185-1. 
  • Eicher, John H. & Eicher, David J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. 
  • Ferraro, William M. (June 2008). "A Struggle for Respect: Lew Wallace’s Relationships with Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman After Shiloh". Indiana Magazine of History (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University) 104 (2): 125–152. Retrieved 2014-09-09. 
  • Forbes, John D. (December 1948). "Lew Wallace, Romantic". Indiana Magazine of History (Bloomington: Indiana University) 44 (4): 385–92. Retrieved 2014-09-08. 
  • Grant, Ulysses S. (1885–86). Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. I & II. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co. ISBN 0-914427-67-9. 
  • Gronert, Theodore G. (1958). Sugar Creek Saga: A History and Development of Montgomery County. Wabash College. 
  • Gugin, Linda C., and James E. St. Clair (2006). The Governors of Indiana. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87195-196-7. 
  • Hanson, Victor Davis (2003). Ripples of Battle: How Wars of the Past Still Determine How We Fight, How We Live, and How We Think. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50400-4. 
  • Kennedy, Frances H., ed. (1998). The Civil War Battlefield Guide (2nd ed.). Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-74012-6. 
  • Lifson, Amy (2009). "Ben-Hur". Humanities (Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities) 30 (6). Retrieved 2014-08-27. 
  • McKee, Irving (September 1941). "The Early Life of Lew Wallace". Indiana Magazine of History (Bloomington: Indiana University) 37 (3): 205–16. Retrieved 2014-09-08. 
  • Morrow, Barbara Olenyik (1994). From Ben-Hur to Sister Carrie: Remembering the Lives and Works of Five Indiana Authors. Indianapolis, Indiana: Guild Press of Indiana. 
  • Morsberger, Robert E., and Katharine M. Morsberger (1980). Lew Wallace: Militant Romantic. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-043305-4. 
  • Russo, Dorothy Ritter, and Thelma Lois Sullivan. Bibliographical Studies of Seven Authors of Crawfordsville, Indiana. 
  • Stephens, Gail (2010). The Shadow of Shiloh: Major General Lew Wallace in the Civil War. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-87195-287-5. 
  • Utley, Robert (1989). Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-80324-553-2. 
  • Wallace, Lew (1998). Ben-Hur. Oxford World's Classics. 
  • Warner, Ezra J. (1964). Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7. 
  • Welsh, Jack D. (1996). Medical Histories of Union Generals. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-552-7. 
  • Woodworth, Steven E., ed. (2001). Grant's Lieutenants: From Cairo to Vicksburg. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1127-4. 

Further reading[edit]

Biographies[edit]

  • Boomhower, Ray E. (2005). The Sword and the Pen. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87195-185-1. 
  • McKee, Irving (1947). "Ben-Hur" Wallace: the Life of General Lew Wallace. Berkley: University of California Press. 
  • Morsberger, Robert E. and Katharine M. Morsberger (1980). Lew Wallace: Militant Romantic. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-043305-4. 
  • Stephens, Gail (2010). Shadow of Shiloh: Major General Lew Wallace in the Civil War. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-87195-287-5. 
  • Wallace, Lew (1906). Lew Wallace: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. 
Other works
  • Compilation of Works of Art and Other Objects in the United States Capitol. Prepared by the Architect of the Capitol under the Joint Committee on the Library. Washington: United States Government Printing House. 1965. 
  • Hanson, Victor Davis (2002). "Lew Wallace and the Ghosts of the Shunpike". In Cowley, Robert. What If? 2: Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. Berkley Books. ISBN 978-0-425-18613-8. 
  • Leepson, Marc (2007). Desperate Engagement: How a Little-Known Civil War Battle Saved Washington, D.C., and Changed American History. Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-36364-8. 
  • Lighty, Shaun Chandler. "The Fall and Rise of Lew Wallace: Gaining Legitimacy Through Popular Culture." Master's thesis, Miami University, 2005. Available online at ohiolink.edu.
  • Swansburg, John. "The Incredible Life of Lew Wallace, Civil War Hero and Author of Ben-Hur", March 26, 2013, Slate (on-line magazine).
  • Swansburg, John. "Lew Wallace a Life in Artifacts", March 26, 2013, Slate (on-line magazine).

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Henry H. Lockwood
Commander of the VIII Corps (Union Army)
March 22, 1864 – February 1, 1865
Succeeded by
William W. Morris
Preceded by
Henry H. Lockwood
Commander of the VIII Corps (Union Army)
April 19, 1865 – August 1, 1865
Succeeded by
None, end of war
Political offices
Preceded by
Samuel Beach Axtell
Governor of New Mexico
1878–1881
Succeeded by
Lionel Allen Sheldon