Lewis Howard Latimer
|Lewis Howard Latimer|
Latimer in 1882
September 4, 1848|
Chelsea, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Died||December 11, 1928
New York, New York, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Mary Wilson Lewis|
|Children||Jeanette (Mrs. Gerald F. Norman), Louise|
|Parents||George W. Latimer (1818-1896) and Rebecca Smith(1823-1910)|
Lewis Howard Latimer was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts on September 4, 1848, and was the youngest of five children of Rebecca Latimer (1826–1910) and George Latimer (July 4, 1818  - May 29, 1896). George Latimer had been the slave of James B. Gray of Virginia. George Latimer ran away to freedom in Trenton, New Jersey in October,1842, along with his wife Rebecca, who had been the slave of another man. When Gray, the owner, appeared in Boston to take them back to Virginia, it became a noted case in the movement for abolition of slavery, gaining the involvement of such abolitionists as William Lloyd Garrison. Eventually funds were raised to pay Gray $400 for the freedom of George Latimer. Lewis Latimer joined the U.S. Navy at the age of 15 on September 16, 1863, and served as a Landsman on the USS Massasoit. After receiving an honorable discharge from the Navy on July 3, 1865, he gained employment as an office boy with a patent law firm, Crosby Halstead and Gould, with a $3.00 per week salary. He learned how to use a set square, ruler, and other tools. Later, after his boss recognized his talent for sketching patent drawings, Latimer was promoted to the position of head draftsman earning $20.00 a week by 1872.
He married Mary Wilson Lewis on November 15, 1873 in Fall River, Massachusetts. She was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the daughter of William and Louisa M. Lewis. The couple had two daughters, Emma Jeanette (June 12, 1883 – February 1978) and Louise Rebecca (April 19, 1890 – January 1963). Jeanette married Gerald F. Norman, the first black hired as a high school teacher in the New York City public school system, and had two children: Winifred Latimer Norman (October 7, 1914 – February 4, 2014), a social worker who served as the guardian of her grandfather's legacy; and Gerald L. Norman (1911 – 1990), who became an administrative law judge.
Technical work and inventions
In 1874, he co patented (with Charles W. Brown) an improved toilet system for railroad cars called the Water Closet for Railroad Cars (U.S. Patent 147,363).
In 1879, he moved to Bridgeport, Connecticut with his brother, William, his mother, Rebecca, and his wife, Mary. Other family members, his brother George A. Latimer and his wife Jane, and his sister Margaret and her husband Augustus T. Hawley and their children, were already living there. Lewis was hired as assistant manager and draftsman for the U.S. Electric Lighting Company, a company owned by Hiram Maxim, a rival of Thomas A. Edison.
The Edison Electric Light Company in New York City hired Latimer in 1884, as a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigation on electric lights. Latimer is credited with an improved process for creating a carbon filament at this time, which was an improvement on Thomas Edison's original paper filament, which would burn out quickly.  When that company was combined in 1892 with the Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric, he continued to work in the legal department. When General Electric and Westinghouse Electric Company formed the "Board of Patent Control" in 1896, to coordinate patent licensing and litigation, Latimer was employed as chief draftsman. In 1911 he became a patent consultant to law firms.
A set of apartment houses in Flushing are called "Latimer Gardens".
P.S. 56 in Clinton Hill, Brooklyn, is named Lewis H. Latimer School in Latimer's honor.
- U.S. Patent 147,363 "Water closets for railway cars," February 10, 1874
- U.S. Patent 247,097 "Electric lamp," (with Nichols, Joseph V.), September 13, 1881
- U.S. Patent 252,386 "Process of Manufacturing Carbons," January 17, 1882,
- U.S. Patent 255,212 "Globe supporter for electric lamps," (with Tregoning, John), March 21, 1882
- U.S. Patent 334,078 "Apparatus for cooling and disinfecting," January 12, 1886
- U.S. Patent 557,076 "Locking rack for hats, coats, and umbrellas," March 24, 1896
- U.S. Patent 968,787 "Lamp fixture,"(with Brown, Charles W), August 30, 1910
- Fouché, Rayvon, "Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation: Granville T. Woods, Lewis H. Latimer, and Shelby J. Davidson." The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London, 2003, ISBN 0-8018-7319-3
- Massachusetts Marriages 253:121, Massachusetts Archives, Columbia Point, Boston
- Russell, and Alvin F. Poussaint (2009): Black Genius: Inspirational Portraits of America's Black Leaders New York: Skyhorse Publications. Chapter 15 ISBN=978-1-60239-369-1
- Clarke, John Henrik (1983). Ivan Van Sertima, ed. Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern. Piscataway,NJ: Transaction. pp. 230–233. ISBN 978-0-87855-941-1.
- "Lewis Howard Latimer". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
- U.S. Patent 252,386PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING CARBONS. by LEWIS H. LATIMER. Application on February 19, 1881
- Gates, Louis Henry, & Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, "African American Lives," Oxford University Press, 2004, pages 515-516. ISBN 0-19-516024-X
- List of 2006 NIHF inductees http://www.invent.org/2006Induction/historical2006.asp
- Historic House Trust NYC http://www.historichousetrust.org/item.php?i_id=39
- Latimer Gardens Apartments http://www.nyc.gov/html/nycha/html/developments/queenslatimer.shtml
- Lewis Latimer at the IEEE
- Lewis Howard Latimer: Inventor, Engineer (Mechanical and Electrical)
- Bibliography about Latimer and scans of pages from his book
- Lewis Latimer: Renaissance Man by the Smithsonian Institution
- Teachers' guide by Luvenia George on Latimer. the Smithsonian Institution
- "Blueprint for Change", a 1995 exhibition honoring Latimer at the which holds a collection of his papers and artifacts.
- Lewis Latimer biography at About.com
- Profile of Lewis Latimer - The Black Inventor Online Museum
- Lewis Howard Latimer at Find A Grave
- Lewis Howard Latimer, C. J. Field, John White Howell (1890). Incandescent Electric Lighting. D. Van Nostrand company.