He taught at Princeton University from 1958 to 1980, and at Harvard University from 1980 to 2002. He is currently a Distinguished Senior Scholar at Boston University. He edited the Journal of the American Musicological Society from 1964 to 1967 and was president of the American Musicological Society from 1987 to 1988. In 2013 he was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society.
His main fields are the music of the Italian Renaissance and the life and music of Beethoven. In 2003 Joseph Kerman called him "a leading musical scholar of the postwar generation, and the leading American authority on Beethoven."
A festschrift in his honor was published in 1996. The Lewis Lockwood Award of the American Musicological Society, awarded annually to an exceptional book by a musicologist within ten years of his or her Ph.D., is named in Lockwood's honor.
- Paula Morgan, "Lewis Lockwood". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, online.
- Press Release, "Lewis Lockwood to join the BU Faculty, October 10, 2011"
- Cummings, Anthony M.; Owens, Jessie Ann, eds. (1996), Music in Renaissance Cities and Courts: Studies in Honor of Lewis Lockwood, Detroit Monographs in Musicology, Harmonie Park Press, ISBN 978-0-89990-102-2.
- Lewis Lockwood Award, American Musicological Society, retrieved 2010-04-28.