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Lex Calpurnia (also Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis or Lex de Rebus Repetundis) was a law established in 149 BC by Tribune Lucius Calpurnius Piso. According to this law, a permanent court with a praetor who observed provincial governors has been established. The main reason was the increasing extortion in provinces. Provincial governors tried to compensate for their preceding service in Rome, which was unpaid, therefore levying too high taxes. The penalties were probably only pecuniary as a compensation and did not include exsilium.
According to Cicero, it was the first law dealing with this concern. Newer laws continued to make penalties heavier. Another laws on this subject were Lex Junia (probably 126 BC), Lex Acilia repetundarum (123 BC), Lex Servilia Glaucia (100 BC), Lex Cornelia de maiestate (81 BC) and Lex Iulia de Repetundis (59 BC).
Also it is the first case of a permanent court established.
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