Part of speech

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A part of speech is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties. Words that are assigned to the same part of speech generally display similar behavior in terms of syntax – they play similar roles within the grammatical structure of sentences – and sometimes in terms of morphology, in that they undergo inflection for similar properties. Commonly encountered parts of speech include noun, verb and adjective.

A part of speech may also be called a word class, lexical class, or lexical category, although the term lexical category refers in some contexts to a particular type of syntactic category, and may therefore exclude parts of speech that are considered to be functional, such as pronouns. The term form class is also used, although this has various conflicting definitions.[1]

Nouns, verbs and adjectives are examples of open classes, which constantly acquire new members; there are also closed classes, such as pronouns and conjunctions, which acquire new members infrequently, if at all.

Almost all languages have the word classes noun and verb, but beyond these there are significant variations in different languages.[2] For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has one; Chinese, Korean and Japanese have nominal classifiers; many languages lack a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, adjectives and verbs (see stative verbs) or adjectives and nouns[citation needed], etc. This variation in the number of categories and their identifying properties means that analysis needs to be done for each individual language. Nevertheless, the labels for each category are assigned on the basis of universal criteria.[2]

History[edit]

The classification of words into lexical categories is found from the earliest moments in the history of linguistics.[3] In the Nirukta, written in the 5th or 6th century BC, the Sanskrit grammarian Yāska defined four main categories of words:[4]

  1. nāmanouns or substantives
  2. ākhyātaverbs
  3. upasarga – pre-verbs or prefixes
  4. nipātaparticles, invariant words (perhaps prepositions)

These four were grouped into two larger classes: inflected (nouns and verbs) and uninflected (pre-verbs and particles).

The ancient work on the grammar of the Tamil language, Tolkappiyam, dated variously between the 1st and 10th centuries AD, classifies Tamil words as peyar (noun), vinai (verb), idai (part of speech which modifies the relationships between verbs and nouns), and uri (word that further qualifies a noun or verb).[5]

A century or two after the work of Nirukta, the Greek scholar Plato wrote in the Cratylus dialog that "... sentences are, I conceive, a combination of verbs [rhēma] and nouns [ónoma]".[6] Another class, "conjunctions" (including conjunctions, pronouns, and the article) was later added by Aristotle.

By the end of the 2nd century BC, this classification scheme had been expanded into eight categories, seen in the Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική):

  1. Noun: a part of speech inflected for case, signifying a concrete or abstract entity
  2. Verb: a part of speech without case inflection, but inflected for tense, person and number, signifying an activity or process performed or undergone
  3. Participle: a part of speech sharing features of the verb and the noun
  4. Interjection: a part of speech expressing emotion alone
  5. Pronoun: a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for a person
  6. Preposition: a part of speech placed before other words in composition and in syntax
  7. Adverb: a part of speech without inflection, in modification of or in addition to a verb, adjective, clause, sentence, or other adverb
  8. Conjunction: a part of speech binding together the discourse and filling gaps in its interpretation

It can be seen that these parts of speech are defined by morphological, syntactic and semantic criteria.

The Latin grammarian Priscian (fl. 500 AD) modified the above eightfold system, substituting "article" for "interjection". It was not until 1767 that the adjective was taken as a separate class.[7]

Traditional English grammar follows the pattern of the European tradition above. Eight parts of speech are commonly listed: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection (sometimes called "exclamation"). In more modern classifications, further classes are generally defined in addition to these. For further discussion see below.

Traditional parts of speech in English[edit]

English words have been traditionally classified into eight parts of speech (and this scheme, or slight expansions of it, is still followed in most dictionaries):

Noun
a word or lexical item denoting any abstract or concrete entity; a person (police officer, Michael), place (coastline, London), thing (necktie, television), idea (happiness), or quality (bravery)
Pronoun
a substitute for a noun or noun phrase (them)
Adjective
a qualifier of a noun or pronoun (big)
Verb
a word denoting an action (walk), occurrence (happen), or state of being (be)
Adverb
a qualifier of an adjective, verb, clause, sentence, or other adverb (very)
Preposition
an establisher of relation and syntactic context (in)
Conjunction
a syntactic connector (and)
Interjection
an emotional greeting or exclamation (ow)

English words are not generally marked as belonging to one part of speech or another; this contrasts with many other European languages, which use inflection more extensively, meaning that a given word form can often be identified as belonging to a particular part of speech and having certain additional grammatical properties. In English, most words are uninflected, while the inflective endings that exist are mostly ambiguous: -ed may mark a verbal past tense, a participle or a fully adjectival form; -s may mark a plural noun or a present-tense verb form; -ing may mark a participle, gerund, or pure adjective or noun. Although -ly is a frequent adverb marker, some adverbs (e.g. tomorrow, fast, very) do not have that ending, while some words with that ending (e.g. friendly, ugly) are not adverbs.

Many English words can belong to more than one part of speech. Words like neigh, break, outlaw, laser, microwave, and telephone might all be either verbs or nouns. In certain circumstances, even words with primarily grammatical functions can be used as verbs or nouns, as in, "We must look to the hows and not just the whys." The process whereby a word comes to be used as a different part of speech is called conversion or zero derivation.

Functional classification[edit]

Linguists recognize that the above list of eight traditional word classes is drastically simplified and artificial.[8] For example, "adverb" is to some extent a catch-all class that includes words with many different functions. Some have even argued that the most basic of category distinctions, that of nouns and verbs, is unfounded,[9] or not applicable to certain languages.[10][11] Modern linguists have proposed many different schemes whereby the words of English or other languages are placed into more specific categories and subcategories based on a more precise understanding of their grammatical functions.

Common lexical categories defined by function may include the following (not all of them will necessarily be applicable in a given language):

Within a given category, subgroups of words may be identified based on more precise grammatical properties. For example, verbs may be specified according to the number and type of objects or other complements which they take. This is called subcategorization.

Many modern descriptions of grammar include not only lexical categories or word classes, but also phrasal categories, used to classify phrases, in the sense of groups of words that form units having specific grammatical functions. Phrasal categories may include noun phrases (NP), verb phrases (VP) and so on. Lexical and phrasal categories together are called syntactic categories.

A diagram showing some of the posited English syntactic categories

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John Lyons, Semantics, CUP 1977, p. 424.
  2. ^ a b Kroeger, Paul (2005). Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-521-01653-7. 
  3. ^ Robins RH (1989). General Linguistics (4th ed.). London: Longman. 
  4. ^ Bimal Krishna Matilal (1990). The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language (Chapter 3). 
  5. ^ Ilakkuvanar S (1994). Tholkappiyam in English with critical studies (2nd ed.). Educational Publisher. 
  6. ^ Cratylus 431b
  7. ^ Beauzée, Nicolas, Grammaire générale, ou exposition raisonnée des éléments nécessaires du langage (Paris, 1767).
  8. ^ Zwicky, Arnold (30 March 2006). "What part of speech is "the"". Language Log. Retrieved 26 December 2009. ...the school tradition about parts of speech is so desperately impoverished 
  9. ^ Hopper, P; Thompson, S (1985). "The Iconicity of the Universal Categories 'Noun' and 'Verbs'". In John Haiman. Typological Studies in Language: Iconicity and Syntax 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 151–183. 
  10. ^ Launey, Michel (1994). Une grammaire omniprédicative: essai sur la morphosyntaxe du nahuatl classique. Paris: CNRS Editions. 
  11. ^ Broschart, Jürgen (1997). "Why Tongan does it differently: Categorial Distinctions in a Language without Nouns and Verbs". Linguistic Typology 1 (2): 123–165. doi:10.1515/lity.1997.1.2.123. 

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