Lexington, Massachusetts

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Lexington, Massachusetts
Town
Minuteman Statue and Hayes Memorial Fountain on Lexington Common, by H. H. Kitson
Minuteman Statue and Hayes Memorial Fountain on Lexington Common, by H. H. Kitson
Flag of Lexington, Massachusetts
Flag
Official seal of Lexington, Massachusetts
Seal
Nickname(s): Birthplace of American Liberty
Motto: "What a Glorious Morning for America!"
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°26′50″N 71°13′30″W / 42.44722°N 71.22500°W / 42.44722; -71.22500Coordinates: 42°26′50″N 71°13′30″W / 42.44722°N 71.22500°W / 42.44722; -71.22500
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1642
Incorporated 1713
Government
 • Type Representative town meeting
Area
 • Total 16.5 sq mi (42.8 km2)
 • Land 16.4 sq mi (42.5 km2)
 • Water 0.1 sq mi (0.4 km2)
Elevation 210 ft (64 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 31,394
 • Density 1,900/sq mi (730/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 02420 / 02421
Area code(s) 339 / 781
FIPS code 25-35215
GNIS feature ID 0619401
Website www.lexingtonma.gov

Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 31,527 at the 2014 census,[1] in nearly 11,100 households. Settled in 1642, this town is famous for being the site of the first shot of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775, as the "Shot heard 'round the world" when news spread about the revolution.

History[edit]

Buckman Tavern, built 1690

Lexington was first settled circa 1642[2] as part of Cambridge, Massachusetts.[2] What is now Lexington was then incorporated as a parish, called Cambridge Farms, in 1691. This allowed them to have a separate church and minister, but were still under jurisdiction of the Town of Cambridge. Lexington was incorporated as a separate town in 1713. It was then that it got the name Lexington.[3] How it received its name is the subject of some controversy. Some people believe that it was named in honor of Lord Lexington, an English peer.[4] Some, on the other hand, believe that it was named after Lexington (which was pronounced and today spelled Laxton) in Nottinghamshire, England.[5]

In the early colonial days, Vine Brook, which runs through Lexington, Burlington, and Bedford, and then empties into the Shawsheen River, was a focal point of the farming and industry of the town. It provided for many types of mills, and later, in the 20th Century for farm irrigation.

For decades, Lexington showed modest growth while remaining largely a farming community, providing Boston with much of its produce. It always had a bustling downtown area, which remains so to this day. Lexington began to prosper, helped by its proximity to Boston, and having a rail line (originally the Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad, later the Boston and Maine Railroad) service its citizens and businesses, beginning in 1846. (Today, the Minuteman Bikeway occupies the site of the former rail line.) For many years, East Lexington was considered a separate village from the rest of the town, though it still had the same officers and Town Hall. Most of the farms of Lexington became housing developments by the end of the 1960s.

Lexington, as well as many of the towns along the Route 128 corridor, experienced a jump in population in the 1960s and 70s, due to the high-tech boom. Property values in the town soared, and the school system became nationally recognized for its excellence.[citation needed] The town participates in the METCO program, which buses minority students from Boston to suburban towns to receive better educational opportunities than those available to them in the Boston Public Schools.[6]

On April 19, 1775, the first battle of the American Revolutionary War was a battle at Lexington where the Shot heard round the world was fired. After the rout, the British march on toward Concord where the militia had been allowed time to organize at the Old North Bridge and turn back the British and prevent them from capturing and destroying the militia's arms stores.[7]

Lexington was the Cold War location of the USAF "Experimental SAGE Subsector"[8] for testing a prototype IBM computer that arrived in July 1955[9] for development of a computerized "national air defense network"[10] (the namesake "Lexington Discrimination System" for incoming ICBM warheads was developed in the late 1960s.)[11]

Geography[edit]

Lexington is located at 42°26′39″N 71°13′36″W / 42.44417°N 71.22667°W / 42.44417; -71.22667 (42.444345, -71.226928).[12]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.5 square miles (42.8 km²), of which 16.4 square miles (42.5 km²) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.4 km²), or 0.85%, is water.

Lexington borders the following towns: Burlington, Woburn, Winchester, Arlington, Belmont, Waltham, Lincoln, and Bedford. It has more area than all other municipalities that it borders.

Demographics[edit]

Topography of Lexington and environs
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1850 1,893 —    
1860 2,329 +23.0%
1870 2,277 −2.2%
1880 2,460 +8.0%
1890 3,197 +30.0%
1900 3,831 +19.8%
1910 4,918 +28.4%
1920 6,350 +29.1%
1930 9,467 +49.1%
1940 13,187 +39.3%
1950 17,335 +31.5%
1960 27,691 +59.7%
1970 31,886 +15.1%
1980 29,479 −7.5%
1990 28,974 −1.7%
2000 30,355 +4.8%
2010 31,394 +3.4%

Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

By the 2010 census, the population had reached 31,394.

As of the census[23] of 2010, there had been 31,394 people, 11,530 households, and 8,807 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,851.0 people per square mile (714.6/km²). There were 12,019 housing units at an average density of 691.1 per square mile (266.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 75.5% White, 19.9% Asian (8.6% Chinese, 4.8% Asian Indian, 3.2% Korean[24]), 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population.

There were 11,530 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.1% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the town the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, and 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males.

In 2014,[25] the median home price was $857,984. According to a 2012 estimate,[26] the median income for a household in the town was $191,350, and the median income for a family was $218,890. Males had a median income of $101,334 versus $77,923 for females. The per capita income for the town was $70,132. About 1.8% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over.

By race, the median household income was highest for mixed race households, at $263,321. Hispanic households had a median income of $233,875. Asian households had a median income of $178,988. White households had a median income of $154,533. Black households had a median income of $139,398. American Indian or Alaskan Native households had a median income of $125,139.[27]

Education[edit]

Cary Memorial Library

Public schools[edit]

Lexington's public education system includes six elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. Overall the Lexington school district is among the top ranked in the state and nationally. Bridge Elementary School and Jonas Clarke Middle School were both High Performing National Blue Ribbon Schools in 2010 and 2013 respectively.[28][29] Both middle schools have been ranked as top schools based on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) test scores. Lexington High School was ranked in 2013 as the 204th best high school in the Nation by USNews and the 194th in the Nation in 2012 by Newsweek.[30] In 2012, Lexington High School won the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Science Bowl competition.[31] In addition to Lexington High School, students may also attend Minuteman Regional High School.

Points of interest[edit]

Engraved memorial bricks lining the Lexington Depot sidewalk
  • Lexington is probably most well known for its history and is home to many historical buildings, parks, and monuments, most dating from Colonial and Revolutionary times.
  • One of the most prominent historical landmarks, located in Lexington Centre, is the Common, or as it later became known, the Battle Green, where the battle was fought, and the Minuteman Statue in front of it.
  • Another important historical monument is the Revolutionary Monument, the nation's oldest standing war memorial (completed on July 4, 1799) and the gravesite of those colonists slain in the Battle of Lexington.
Historic Mullikan Oak Tree, September 2012
Mario's Italian Restaurant
  • Other landmarks of historical importance include the Old Burying Ground (with gravestones dating back to 1690), the Old Belfry, Buckman Tavern (circa 1704-1710), Munroe Tavern (circa 1695), the Hancock-Clarke House (1737), the U.S.S. Lexington Memorial, the Centre Depot (old Boston and Maine train station, today the headquarters of the town Historical Society), Follen Church (the oldest standing church building in Lexington, built in 1839), and the Mullikan White Oak (one of Lexington's most distinguished and oldest trees).[32]
  • Lexington is also home to the 900-acre (3.6 km2) Minute Man National Historical Park and the National Heritage Museum, which showcases exhibits on American history and popular culture.
  • Central to the town is Lexington's town center, home to numerous dining opportunities, fine art galleries, retail shopping, a small cinema, the Cary Memorial Library, the Minuteman Bikeway, Depot Square, and many of the aforementioned historical landmarks.
  • The Great Meadow a.k.a. Arlington's Great Meadows, is a sprawling meadow and marshland located in East Lexington, but owned by the town of Arlington, Lexington's neighbor to the east.
  • Willards Woods Conservation Area, a small forest of conservation land donated years ago by the Willard Sisters.[33] Willards Woods is referenced in the classic Saturday Night Live skit "Donnie's Party".
  • Wilson Farm, a farm and farm stand in operation since 1884.
  • Notable Lexington neighborhoods include Lexington Centre, Meriam Hill (and Granny Hill), Irish Village, Loring Hill, Belfry Hill, Munroe Hill, Countryside (sometimes referred to as "Scotland"), the Munroe District, the Manor Section, Four Corners, Grapevine Corner, Woodhaven, and East Lexington (fondly "East Village", or "The East End").
  • Marrett Square, at the intersection of Marrett Road and Waltham Street, is the location of some light shopping and dining.
  • The "Old Reservoir," sometimes referred to by locals as "The Res," used to provide drinking water to Lexington residents and surrounding areas. Now it offers a place to swim and picnic in the summer time. In the winter, when it freezes over, it is used as an ice skating area.
  • Book publisher D.C. Heath was founded in 1885 at 125 Spring Street in Lexington, near the present day intersection of Route 128 and MA Route 2, and was headquartered on that spot until its 1995 sale to Houghton Mifflin.
  • Lexington is home to several historically significant modernist communities built by notable architects. These neighborhoods include Six Moon Hill, Peacock Farm, and Five Fields.[34]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Lexington is a sister city of

France Antony, France
Mexico Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Mexico
Ukraine Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
Israel Haifa, Israel

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Lexington town, Middlesex County, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Tracing the Past in Lexington, Massachusetts. Edwin B. Worthen.
  3. ^ Lexington, MA Chamber of Commerce Home Page
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ Lexington - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  6. ^ "METCO FAQ". Massachusetts Department of Education. 
  7. ^ Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride, pp. 184-232, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.
  8. ^ http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=AD0419183
  9. ^ (minutes (MC665_r14_6M-3797.pdf)) Biweekly Report for 29 July 1955 (Report). Memorandum 6M-3797. Lincoln Laboratory Division 6. "All XD-1 frames have now been delivered. The LRI and output frame3 arrived 29 July."
  10. ^ "Overview". SAGE: The First [computerized]National Air Defense Network. IBM.com. Retrieved 2013-05-08. "the AN/FSQ-7…was developed, built and maintained by IBM. … In June 1956, IBM delivered the prototype of the computer to be used in SAGE." 
  11. ^ Lemnios, William Z.; Grometstein, Alan A. (November 1, 2002). "Overview of the Lincoln Laboratory Ballistic Missile Defense Program". Lincoln Laboratory journal 13. 
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  13. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  14. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  15. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  17. ^ "1950 Census of Population". 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  18. ^ "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  19. ^ "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  20. ^ "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  21. ^ "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  22. ^ "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  23. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  24. ^ "QT-P8: Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". factfinder2.census.gov. 2010 Census. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ [3]
  27. ^ [4]
  28. ^ "2010 National Blue Ribbon Exemplary High Performing Schools". U.S. Department of Education. 
  29. ^ "2013 National Blue Ribbon Exemplary High Performing Schools". U.S. Department of Education. 
  30. ^ [5][6].
  31. ^ Past High School National Science Bowl Winners (1991 - 2012) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC). Science.energy.gov (2013-05-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  32. ^ We Are Lexington, MA - Celebrating 300 Years, "The Oldest Tree in Lexington" by Nell Walker.
  33. ^ Willards Woods Conservation Area
  34. ^ Kathleen Burge, Boston Globe, Out to save the modern home, 2011 Feb 24
  35. ^ "29 Are Chosen for Fellowships From the MacArthur Foundation", The New York Times, June 2, 1998, retrieved January 29, 2012 
  36. ^ Wishart, David J., ed. (2004), Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, Center for Great Plains Studies, p. 112, retrieved January 29, 2012 
  37. ^ Hudson, Charles (1913), History of the town of Lexington, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, from its first settlement to 1868, Houghton Mifflin, p. 80, retrieved January 31, 2012 
  38. ^ Famous folks from Lexington, Boston.com, retrieved July 31, 2012 
  39. ^ Fox, Margalit. "Gerald S. Lesser, Shaper of ‘Sesame Street,’ Dies at 84", The New York Times, October 4, 2010. Accessed October 4, 2010.
  40. ^ Shaw, Jim (August–September 2014). "Lexington Mother And Son Team Produce Limited Edition Children's Book" (Print). Lexington, MA: Lexington's Colonial Times Magazine. p. 19. 
  41. ^ "Famous folks from Lexington". Boston.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012. 
  42. ^ Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride, pp. 149-51, 158, 160, 180, 182, 188, 191, 193, 197, 201, 203, 210, 228, 229, 285, 319, 395, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.
  43. ^ Commager, Henry Steele. Theodore Parker: An Anthology, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1960.
  44. ^ Commager, Henry Steele. Theodore Parker, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1947.
  45. ^ "Famous folks from Lexington". Boston.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lexington (Massachusetts).