Lexington High School (Massachusetts)
|Lexington High School|
|251 Waltham St.
Lexington, MA 02421
|School district||Lexington Public Schools|
|NCES District ID||2506840|
|NCES School ID||250684001001|
|Asst. Principal||Adam Goldberg|
|Houses||Arts & Humanities, Science, World Language, Math|
|Color(s)||Blue & Gold|
|Accreditation(s)||New England Association of Schools and Colleges
Massachusetts State Department of Education
|Average SAT scores||622 verbal
627 writing (2010)
|Feeder schools||Jonas Clarke Middle School
William Diamond Middle School
Lexington High School is a public high school located in Lexington, Massachusetts, United States. It teaches grades 9-12. The school's mascot is the Minuteman. Students attending Lexington High School generally attended one of the town's two 6th-8th grade middle schools, Jonas Clarke Middle School and William Diamond Middle School. In turn, Clarke is fed by three of the town's six elementary schools: Bowman, Bridge, and Harrington; while Diamond is fed by the other three: Estabrook, Fiske, and Hastings.
In 2003, Lexington was rated the 171st best high school in the country by Newsweek on its "America's Top Public Schools" list. It also appeared on the 2005 (302nd), 2006 (448th), and 2008 (466th) lists, but did not appear on the 2007 list.
Lexington's colors are blue and gold, and its teams are nicknamed the Minutemen, in honor of the colonial-time militiamen known by the same.
- 1 Building plan
- 2 Senate
- 3 Student body
- 4 Curriculum and class schedule
- 5 Academic competition
- 6 School sports
- 7 Notable alumni
- 8 Other details
- 9 Notes and references
- 10 External links
Lexington High School's facilities are divided into four buildings.
The Arts and Humanities House, contains the bulk of the following departments: English, Social Studies, Fine and Performing Arts, and Physical Education. It also has the Donald J. Gillespie, Jr. Auditorium, the Ralph Lord Gymnasium, and a fieldhouse. Commons I and Commons II are used as cafeterias and meeting places. The library and the main administration office are also in this building. Thus, the Arts and Humanities building is informally and frequently called the "main" building by many students. The gym, locker rooms, etc. are numbered in the 900s. Other rooms in the Arts and Humanities building are numbered by floor, 100s for the first floor and 200s for the second floor.
The Science House contains the Science department. The building contains the "Science Lecture Hall" (SLH), which has many purposes, and is used for, among other things, math competitions and detentions. Because of the detentions, the chairs and tables are known to have been scarred by delinquent etchings and markings. Rooms are numbered by floor, 300s for the first floor and 400s for the second floor.
The World Language House contains the World Language and the Health Education departments, and rooms are numbered by floor, 500s for the first floor and 600s for the second floor.
The Math House contains the Math department, as well as the LABBB program, and rooms are numbered by floor, 700s for the first floor and 800s for the second floor.
The "Quad" is an outdoor common area. It is bounded by the Main building (on two sides), the Science building, and a covered walkway between the Science building and the Foreign Language building.
In the 1980s, there was a movement to give students a bigger voice within the school. Soon enough a new school constitution was ratified, creating a new school Student/Faculty Senate. The Senate allots to the teachers and the students the power to make decisions about the implementation of policies within the school.
The philosophy behind the creation of the Senate (as quoted from the senate constitution) is as follows:
All members of the school community should have a meaningful voice in determining the policies of the school, in promoting a positive school climate, and in shaping the future of the school. It is essential that each member be kept informed through effective communications and have the power to influence decisions made at Lexington High School. For this purpose the Lexington High School Senate is established.
The Senate is not without its checks and balances, though. The school principal has veto power over the decisions of the Senate, but the Senate can choose to override the principal's veto with a three-fourths supermajority vote.
The Senate is made up of two elected groups, namely, staff representatives and student representatives. The faculty representatives are chosen at large, one representative for every ten high school staff, with the stipulation that at least one representative is elected from each of the various departments. Student representatives are elected one representative for every 50 members of the student body. The number of student representatives is determined annually based on current enrollment in grades 8-11, and then divided among the classes per the school constitution. Student representatives allotted to a class are elected by that class at large.
Up to five seats are open for students to represent under-represented groups. Said groups must petition the Senate for such representation.
The 1993 Massachusetts Education Reform Legislation makes institutions like the LHS Senate an advisory body only, but LHS Principals since 1993 have continued to work with Senate members to reach compromise legislation so the voice of the LHS Senate will still shape school policy.
In the 2011-2012 school year, Lexington High School had 1,991 students enrolled. 538 students were in 9th grade, 477 were in 10th grade, 470 were in 11th grade, and 506 were in 12th grade. The student body is 58.8% White, 29.2% Asian, 4.7% African American, 3.9% Hispanic, 3.3% multiracial, 0.2% Native American, and 0.1% Pacific Islander.
Curriculum and class schedule
Lexington High School offers a wide variety of courses for its students.
Classes begin at 7:45 a.m. and end at 2:25 p.m. Lexington High School operates on a block schedule containing 32 blocks per week, with classes between 45 and 55 minutes long. The blocks are organized in eight groups of four, assigned letter designations from A to H. The first A block of the week is denoted A1; the second, A2; etc. Meetings of the school senate take place during first block (denoted as X block) on Wednesdays; classes do not begin on Wednesday until 8:35. Z block is the 35-minute period between 2:25 pm and 3:00 pm; clubs and athletics are not allowed to begin mandatory meetings during this time to allow students the opportunity to meet with teachers. Among other times, students are also generally able to meet with teachers during X block. Students are required to attend homeroom on Tuesdays and Thursdays for announcements.
Credits at Lexington High School are usually awarded 1/4 credit per block-per-week per quarter. That is, a full-year, four block-per-week course will usually earn four credits. A half-year, 4 block-per-week course will usually earn two credits. A quarter-long, two block-per-week course (such as a gym course) will usually earn 1/2 credit. Hypothetically, a full-year class that meets only once a week will earn one credit. Most English, math, social studies and foreign language classes are worth four credits, as classes in these departments usually meet during one of these groups of blocks. Science classes are generally worth five credits, while the AP-level classes in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, are worth six credits, as they meet for six blocks a week, including a double lab block.
As there are 32 blocks per week, the maximum number of credits most students take is 32. There are some exceptions. For example, some (if not all) of the jazz ensembles meet after school, and they are worth four credits. Students taking this can achieve 36 credits. Students may also obtain transfer credit by taking classes at an approved location (such as the Harvard Extension School). Usually, partial credit will not be given for completing part of a class.
Lexington High School requires that all seniors maintain a schedule of at least 26 credits. Sophomores, and juniors are required a schedule of at least 27 credits. Freshmen are required a schedule of at least 28 credits (and it is recommended that freshmen take no more than 30 credits).
If a student does not have a class during a particular block, then that student is assigned a study hall, unless the student is a junior or a senior. These students have open campus privileges.
In order to graduate, students who attend LHS for all four high school years must complete the following:
- 104 total credits, including the subject requirements listed below
- 40 hours of community service
- Pass the MCAS exams in ELA (English and Language Arts) and Mathematics (This is a requirement of all Massachusetts schools.)
Core mathematics classes include each of the following:
- Integrated Math, a two-year sequence designed for students with difficulties in mathematical abstraction
- Algebra 1 or 1B, which is usually completed in the eighth grade curriculum
- Algebra 2 (Honors, Level 1, or Level 2), generally taken by freshmen
- Geometry (Honors, Level 1, or Level 2), generally taken by sophomores
- Advanced Mathematics (Honors, Level 1, or "Advanced Algebra and Trigonometry"), generally taken by juniors and covering pre-calculus topics
- Calculus (Honors-AP BC, Honors-AP AB, or Level 1), generally taken by seniors
- Statistics (Honors-AP or Level 1), generally taken by seniors in lieu of, in conjunction with, or after completion of, a calculus course
Lexington High School offers several computer courses which also receive mathematics credit:
- Level 1 Introduction to Programming I and II, both of which are 2 credit semester-long Level 1 courses taught using C++
- Honors-AP Computer Science, which was formerly in preparation for the AB exam, but is now in preparation for the A exam with the elimination of the AB
- Advanced Computer Programming, a 2 credit semester-long course that can be repeated for credit
Additionally, students may take Accounting 1 (and, upon completion, Accounting 2), a preparatory course for business management or business administration. Both accounting courses are 4 credit courses.
Students are required to accumulate 16 mathematics credits by graduation time.
Most science courses at Lexington High School are full-year, 5 credit classes, as although it meets four times a week, one class period takes two consecutive blocks in order to accommodate labs. The Honors-AP classes meet once every day but for two consecutive blocks on one of those days, and are thus full-year, 6 credit classes. Higher classes will usually require teacher recommendations and prerequisites/co-requisites.
Freshmen at Lexington High School are required to take one of three courses of Earth Science, which are designed to introduce students to the basics of astronomy, geology, meteorology and oceanography. Students may take Advanced Earth Systems Science, Level 1 Earth Science, or Explorations in Earth Science. Each are 5 credit classes.
Sophomores, juniors, and seniors usually take one of several courses in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, respectively. For each, there are three levels of courses: Honors-AP, Level 1, and Conceptual. As there are two classifications of Advanced Placement courses in physics (B and C), there are likewise two Honors-AP levels for physics, as opposed to one for Biology and Chemistry. Biology topics include biochemistry, cell biology, genetics evolution, physiology, anatomy, reproduction, development, biodiversity and ecology. Chemistry topics include the SI metric system of measurement, scientific notation, dimensional analysis, atomic structure, periodic relationships, chemical bonding, gases and kinetic theory, molecular structure, types of chemical reactions and quantitative relationships, solution chemistry, energy relationships, and equilibrium. Physics topics include kinematics, force and motion, momentum, energy, work, wave motion, optics, electrostatics, electricity, and magnetism.
In addition to these regular courses, Lexington High School offers Level 1 Astronomy, a four credit course; and Introduction to Robotics and Engineering, a 2 credit semester-long course. Self-motivated juniors and seniors can also do an individually developed independent research project with a sponsor teacher for variable credit. Students are required to accumulate 18 science credits by graduation time.
Students are required to accumulate 16 English credits by graduation time.
Freshmen take Literature and Composition I teamed with World History I in the same group of students, who are in the same homeroom. For instance, a section that meets for Literature and Composition I B block might meet for World History I C block. Teachers in these two courses collaborate extensively. There is no leveling of freshmen English or History classes.
Sophomores take Literature and Composition II, and juniors take American Literature. Both are offered as Level 2, Level 1, and Honors level classes.
Seniors can choose from an array of different semester-long English electives. These classes range in topic from Shakespeare to Creative Writing to Dystopias, and are meant to allow seniors to take the English class that they find most interesting.
Students are required to accumulate 16 social studies credits by graduation time. Freshmen take World History I, an unleveled course that covers topics from Ancient Rome, India, and China up to 1350. The course focuses on a largely non-Eurocentric approach. Sophomores then cover the remainder of World History. Juniors are obliged take U.S. History. Seniors have multiple electives to get their remaining credits. Electives include focused history courses and Debate.
Lexington High School offers sequences of classes in seven languages: ASL, French, German, Italian, Latin, Mandarin and Spanish. Among those classes are Advanced Placement courses in French, Mandarin, and Spanish.
Students are required to accumulate eight foreign language credits by graduation or generally two classes; many complete a full four years of a foreign language sequence.
Fine and Performing Arts
Many arts classes are worth two credits, meeting four times a week for a semester; and many are worth four credits, meeting four times a week for a full year.
Lexington High School has been well known for its award-winning music program which includes: multiple a cappella groups; three bands (wind ensemble, concert band, and symphonic band); three orchestras (chamber, symphony, and repertoire); and four choir groups. The jazz program includes a renowned jazz ensemble, a big band, a combo, and a septet. In August 2004, Lexington high school was invited to perform at the Edinburgh festival in Scotland.
The music program is under the direction of several faculty members, including: Jeffrey Leonard, a wind and jazz specialist and a Berklee graduate, who conducts the wind ensemble and is the current department head; Justin Aramati, a wind specialist and a New England Conservatory graduate; Janet Haas, a string specialist throughout the Lexington Public Schools; and Jason Iannuzzi, the choral director. The previous department head was Dr. Walter Pavasaris, the fine and performing Arts coordinator and a string conductor renowned throughout New England.
Students are required to accumulate eight fine and performing arts credits by graduation time.
The Lexington High School Drama department is known for having put on inventive shows led by former head director Steven Bogart. Each year a play is put on in the fall, a musical in the Spring, and a drama festival in the Winter, run and performed by students.
Special projects and grants in the Fine and Performing Arts department are funded by FOLMADS, Inc., a non-profit, tax-exempt organization with the mission of supporting the arts in the Lexington Public Schools.
Most physical education classes are worth 0.5 credits, as they are scheduled to meet twice a week for one quarter. The physical education class Athletic Training is worth 1 credit if 6 hours of training at sports is completed.
Students are required to accumulate six physical education credits by graduation time.
There are only two classes in this department: Adolescent Health Issues I, taken mostly by freshmen; and Adolescent Health Issues II, taken mostly by juniors. Both classes are worth 1 credit, as both classes meet twice a week for a semester.
Students are required to accumulate 2 health education credits by graduation time. Thus, students must take both Ad. Health I and Ad. Health II to graduate.
There are several classes that count for credits in more than one department, including web design, and dance.
Freshman and Seniors meet with their guidance counselors first quarter, while sophomores and juniors meet with their counselors 3rd quarter. This time is set aside for a 3-week program where counselors get to speak to their students about certain issues. For freshman it's mainly to discuss the transition from middle school into high school. For sophomores, career options is the major focus. For Juniors the purpose is to introduce the idea of taking the PSAT, SAT & ACT. Finally for seniors, the focus is the college admission process.
Computer Science Team
Lexington High School's Computer Science Team won second place in the Senior-5 division at the 2009-10 American Computer Science League All-Star Competition. The team finished third and fourth in the same division in 2010-11 and 2008-09 respectively.
Lexington High School's debate team has won the State Championship for the last 36 years[when?]. Lexington won the Tournament of Champions in 1994, and had the top speaker, Steve Lehotsky, in 1995.
A Lexington team (Garth Goldwater and Chrissy Kugel, both Class of 2007) also won the Tournament of Champions in the Public Forum division in 2007. 2011 was a particularly successful year for the Lexington Debate team, with the Lincoln-Douglas team winning the NDCA, and the Lexington Policy Debate Team of Tyler Engler and Arjun Vellayappan placing second at the Tournament of Champions. Noah Star also won the Tournament of Champions in Lincoln-Douglas in 2012.
The team annually hosts the Lexington Winter Invitational Tournament, nicknamed "Big Lex," with the categories of public forum debate, policy debate, and Lincoln-Douglas debate. The event drew 600 debaters in 2010 from as far away as California.
Lexington High School's math team is widely renowned for its successes. For more on Lexington High School's math team, see Math Teams in Lexington Public Schools (Massachusetts)
Lexington High School's National Ocean Sciences Bowl team won the National competition between 1998 and 2002, the first five years of the competition's existence. In 2009, the team won the regional Blue Lobster Bowl and returned to the National competition to win 2nd place. The team also won regionals in 2011 and repeated their 2nd place performance at the National competition. The team also won regionals in 2012 and placed 4th at the national competition.
Lexington High School's National Science Bowl team has qualified for the National competition 10 times, more than any other school in Massachusetts, doing so in 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2005, and in 2008-2012. The team won 2nd place nationally in 2009, losing in the final to Mira Loma High School. In 2010, the second team from Lexington also reached the semifinals of the regional qualifying competition before losing to the first team. In 2011, Lexington's B Team defeated Lexington's A Team in the regional finals to qualify for the National competition. In 2012, after defeating the B Team in the regional finals, Lexington's A Team outlasted 68 of the nation's finest science bowl teams, including semifinal and final victories over Mira Loma and North Hollywood High School, to win the National Science Bowl competition.
Science Olympiad teams also exist at both Lexington High School and Diamond Middle School. The High School team won the state competition from 2001 to 2003, second place in 2009 and third place in 2010 at the state competition. The middle school team won second in 2010, fourth in both 2008 and 2009, and third in 2007.
Lexington High School's Envirothon team qualified for the National competition in 2008 and placed 7th.
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In 2008, the Lexington High School chess team made its debut at the annual Hurvitz Cup of the Massachusetts State Team Championship where the team placed 4th overall. The following year, the team placed second in the grade nine team section of the annual National K-12 Scholastic Championship in Dallas, Texas. In March 2010, the team tied for first in the high school section of the annual Hurvitz Cup and placed second in the Rhode Island State Championship. In April and May 2011, respectively, the team won the high school section of the annual Hurvitz Cup and placed thirteenth in the K12 section of the National K12 High School Championship. The team currently consists of internationally ranked chess players and national and state champions.
Lexington High School offers the following sports:
Lexington's teams compete in the Middlesex League. Its main athletic rivalries are with Concord-Carlisle Regional High School (Concord, MA) and Burlington High School (Burlington, MA). In track and cross-country, its main competitors are Reading Memorial High School (Reading, MA) and Woburn Memorial High School (Woburn, MA).
Lexington High School students have repeatedly attempted to secure the formation of a Varsity Water Polo Team, but have been continually rejected without an apparent reason.
Lexington High School sports teams have received the following accolades:
- The Hucking Fooligans won the state championship with a victory over Needham High School in 2013.
- The Hucking Fooligans won the 2013 Northeastern High School Ultimate Championship, beating historically strong Amherst in a rematch of the 2012 MA State Championship final.
- The 1st girls' Hucking Fooligans team won the 2013 St. Johnsbury Invite and came in 4th at the State Championship.
- All Girl's running teams (Cross Country, Indoor Track and Outdoor track) has been undefeated in Middlesex League from 2010-2013. The Girl's Indoor Track team additionally won the Massachusetts Division I State Championships in 2013.
- The LHS golf team has won (or shared the title) of the Middlesex League 4 out of the past 6 years.[when?]
- The Lexington High School Boys soccer team has won the Middlesex League for the past several years[when?], and in the 2008 fall season, won every single league game, garnering nation-wide attention, being voted the #8 high school soccer team in the entire country by ESPN Rise.
- Boy's Swimming and Basketball were awarded the Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association's "sportsmanship award" for 2007-2008.
- Boy's Swimming were awarded the Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association's "sportsmanship award" for the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008–2009, and 2009-2010 seasons.
- The cross-country team was undefeated from 2000 to 2008.
- The Lexington High School Boys swim team won the Middlesex League Championship for thirteen straight years (1999-2011) in addition to many other league titles, making it the second most successful Lexington High School sports team.
- The LHS Boys Indoor Track team won the Massachusetts Division I State Championships in 2006 and repeated in 2007. In 2007, the Lexington Boys outdoor track team captured both the Division I State Championship and the All-State Championship.
- The LHS Girl's Varsity Softball team won the Massachusetts Division I State Championships in 2008 and 2009.
- Former LHS Football coach Bill Tighe was the oldest football coach in the country.
- Orny Adams born Adam Orenstein, comedian and writer
- Ben Bertini Class of '35 Bruins and Olympic Hockey Trainer 
- Carolyn Bertozzi, T.Z. and Irmgard Chu Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at UC Berkeley, member of US National Academy of Sciences '84
- James MacGregor Burns, Class of '35 presidential biographer,
- Kurt Busiek, writer '78
- Aly Camp, '11 singer/songwriter and a "bottle kid"/resident of Sunnyvale Trailer Park
- Bharath Chari, '15 notable television personality and former National Basketball Development League assistant coach
- Gerry Connell, TV host: Better Your Home, and The Home Pro on The Learning Channels
- Cecil Cox, Executive Producer: "Half Past Autumn" (3 Emmy Nominations 2001), formerly Senior Executive and manager of Mundy Lane Entertainment, formerly agent with the William Morris Talent Agency.
- Dawen, singer-songwriter
- Rachel Dratch, '84 former cast member of Saturday Night Live
- Brad Ellis, Pianist on the TV show Glee, '78
- Richard Friedenberg, Screenwriter, Emmy Winner, Grizzly Adams, Oscar nominee A River Runs Through It
- Bathsheba Grossman, sculptor '84
- Lev Grossman, novelist and senior writer at Time Magazine '87
- Pete Holmes, comedian '97
- Jon Landau, Class of '64, manager, Bruce Springsteen
- Ron Lee, former NBA basketball player (1977–82)
- Zachary Lemnios, Class of '72, Assistant Secretary of Defense
- Scott McCloud, cartoonist and comics theorist '78
- Bill McKibben, environmentalist and writer '77
- Dinny McNamara, Former MLB player (Boston Braves)
- Eugene Mirman, comedian, writer, and film maker '92
- Catherine Murphy, Class of '63, artist
- Matt Nathanson, singer/musician
- Don Nottebart Houston Astros baseball player '54
- Ryan Jude Novelline, contemporary artist and fashion designer '08
- Bill Nowlin, Class of '62, author of 20+ Red Sox history books, owner Rounder Records
- Meghan O'Sullivan, official in administration of George W. Bush '87
- Amanda Palmer, musical performer, composer, and member of the duo The Dresden Dolls '94
- Bob Sheridan, Class of '62, boxing announcer, Don King Productions
- Tom Silva, Class of 65, general contractor and on-screen personality for This Old House
- Amy Smith, Mechanical engineer, MacArthur Fellow '80 or '81
- Bill Staines, Class of 64, folk music artist
- Jim Storer, inventor of Lunar Lander (video game)
- Aaron Tap, guitarist and musician '87
- William G. Tapply, Class of '58, deceased, late author of Brady Coyne mystery series
- Melanie Thernstrom, author '82
- Ethan Zohn, winner of Survivor: Africa '92
In 2005, Fred Phelps, of Topeka, Kansas, and his church (the Westboro Baptist Church) protested the Lexington High School graduation because of the school's support of its gay-straight alliance. The group returned in 2009.
The LABBB program, a special education program serving mentally challenged students from surrounding towns (Lexington, Arlington, Burlington, Belmont and Bedford) emphasizes real world skills for the mentally handicapped. LHS students have the opportunity to work with the LABBB students in the Best Buddies program, special events, and classes.
Until 1965, the school newspaper was called The High-Spot; the name was changed to The Musket.
Notes and references
- "Search for Public School Districts – District Detail for Lexington". National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved Jun 29, 2012.
- "LHS School Profile".
- "Search for Public Schools - School Detail for Lexington High". National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved Jun 29, 2012.
- Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (2010). "2009-10 SAT Performance Report (DISTRICT) All Students". Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Mass.Gov. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "America's Top Public Schools".
- "Boston's Best Schools 2012: Top 50 Ranking of High Schools in Boston and Boston Suburbs".
- "Lexington (MA) High School Senate".
- "Enrollment". Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "Lexington High School Curriculum Overview".
- "Lexington Department of Fine and Performing Arts".
- "ACSL Programming contest computer contest".
- "Lexington Wins TOC Public Forum Debate Championship".
- Parker, Brock (14 January 2010). "Debaters bring annual war of words". The Boston Globe.
- "Welcome to the Blue Lobster Bowl".
- "Boston University Science Bowl".
- Past High School National Science Bowl Winners (1991 - 2012), US Department of Energy
- "2012 High School Double Elimination No-Loss Bracket".
- "MACA Cross Table: 2008 Hurvitz Cup/Massachusetts State Team Championships".
- "Chess Team Second in the Nation".
- "Hurvitz Cup State Team Champio".
- "2011 RI Scholastic Championship".
- "Lexington High chess team wins state title".
- "2011 National K12 High School Championship".
- "Athletics Department".
- "Middlesex League Home Page". Mlxctrack.com. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Hastings, Doug (2010-02-11). "Champs and then some - Lexington, MA - Lexington Minuteman". Wickedlocal.com. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Massachusetts Division I State Championships 2006-7 results[dead link]
- Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association. Miaa.ezstream.net (2007-02-16). Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- "Legendary coach Bill Tighe goes out with win". Necn.com. 2010-11-25. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
- "USA Hockey". USA Hockey. 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "Yale University School of Art: Catherine Murphy". Art.yale.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "Catherine Murphy's Photorealistic Paintings". Elledecor.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Technology, Massachusetts Institute of. "MacArthur Fellows". MIT. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
- "William G. Tapply Online". Williamgtapply.com. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- [dead link]
- "Westboro Baptist Church met with silence at high school protest - Lexington, MA - Lexington Minuteman". Wickedlocal.com. 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "Lexington High School / Homepage". Lhs.lexingtonma.org. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- wendypicnic (24 April 2012). "Lexington High School Newspapers". Yahoo! Groups. Yahoo!, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2012.