Lezgian people

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Lezgi
Lezgijar/Лезгияр
Lezgin map.png
Total population
800,000–900,000[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
 Russia
473,722
385,240[3]
 Azerbaijan 180,300 to 364 000[4][5]
 Turkmenistan 16,000
 Ukraine 4,349
 Uzbekistan 4,300
 Kazakhstan 3,481
 Kyrgyzstan 2,603
 Turkey 2,000–10,000
 Belarus 404
 Latvia 280
 Estonia 121
 Lithuania 82
 Moldova 74
 Georgia 44–2,900
Languages
Lezgian
Religion
Sunni Islam, Shi'a minority
Related ethnic groups
Tabasarans, Aghuls, Rutuls, Budukhs, Kryts, Tsakhurs, Archi, Shahdagh, Udi, and other Northeast Caucasian peoples
A historical photo of Lezgian people. (1900)
Painting of the famous Russian artist Vasily Vereshchagin "Lezghinka" which after visiting southern Dagestan and Yelizavetpol province wrote this painting, watching Lezghins customs and traditions. (1867)

The Lezgians (Lezgian: лезгияр, lezgiyar, Russian: лезгины, lezginy; also called Lezgins, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, Lezgin) are an ethnic group living predominantly in southern Dagestan and northeastern Azerbaijan and who speak the Lezgian language.

Еthnonym[edit]

Warrior of Lezghia (1883)

The question of origin of the ethnonym Lezgin still requires a more in-depth and comprehensive analysis. Nevertheless, most researchers displays the ethnonym Lezgi of the ancient Legi and early medieval Lakzi.

Modern-day Lezgins speak Northeast Caucasian languages that preceded European languages in the region. They are closely-related, both culturally and linguistically, to the Aghuls of southern Dagestan and, somewhat more distantly, to the Tsakhurs, Rutuls, and Tabasarans (the northern neighbors of the Lezgins). Also related, albeit more distantly, are the numerically small Jek, Kryts, Shahdagh, Budukh, and Khinalug peoples of northern Azerbaijan. These groups, together with the Lezgins, form the Samur branch of the indigenous Lezgic peoples.

Lezgins are believed to descend partly from people who inhabited the region of southern Dagestan in the Bronze Age. However, there is some DNA evidence of significant admixture during the last 4,000 years from a Central Asian population, as shown by genetic links to populations throughout Europe and Asia, with notable similarities to the Burusho of Pakistan. [6]

Prior to the Russian Revolution, the Lezgins did not have a common self-designation as an ethnic group. They referred to themselves by village, region, religion, clan, or free society. Before the revolution, the Lezgins were called "Kyurintsy", "Akhtintsy", or "Lezgintsy" by the Russians. The ethnonym "Lezgin" itself is quite problematic. Prior to the Soviet period, the term "Lezgin" was used in different contexts. At times, it referred only to the people known today as Lezgins. At others, it referred variously to all of the peoples of southern Daghestan (Lezgin, Aghul, Rutul, Tabasaran, and Tsakhur); all of the peoples of southern Daghestan and northern Azerbaijan (Kryts Jek, Khinalug, Budukh, Shahdagh); all Nakh-Daghestani peoples; or all of the indigenous Muslim peoples of the Northeast Caucasian peoples (Caucasian Avars, Dargwa, Laks, Chechens, and Ingush). In reading pre-Revolutionary works one must be aware of these different possible meanings and scope of the ethnonym "Lezgin".

Geography[edit]

Lezgistan from map of the Caucasus by Johann Gustav Gaerber (1728)

The Lezgins inhabit a compact territory that straddles the border area of southern Daghestan and northern Azerbaijan. It lies for the most part, in the southeastern portion of Daghestan in (Akhtynsky District, Dokuzparinsky District, Suleyman-Stalsky District, Kurakhsky District, Magaramkentsky District, Khivsky District, Derbentsky District and Rutulsky District) and contiguous northeastern Azerbaijan (in Kuba, Qusar, Qakh, Khachmaz, Oguz, Qabala, Nukha, and Ismailli districts).

The Lezgin territories are divided into two physiographic zones: a region of high, rugged mountains and the piedmont (foothills). Most of the Lezgin territory is in the mountainous zone, where a number of peaks (like Baba Dagh) reach over 3,500 meters in elevation. There are deep and isolated canyons and gorges formed by the tributaries of the Samur and Gulgeri Chai rivers. In the mountainous zones the summers are very hot and dry, with drought conditions a constant threat. There are few trees in this region aside from those in the deep canyons and along the streams themselves. Drought-resistant shrubs and weeds dominate the natural flora. The winters here are frequently windy and brutally cold. In this zone the Lezgins engaged primarily in animal husbandry (mostly sheep and goats) and in craft industries.

In the extreme east of the Lezgin territory, where the mountains give way to the narrow coastal plain of the Caspian Sea, and to the far south, in Azerbaijan, are the foothills. This region has relatively mild, very dry winters and hot, dry summers. Trees are few here also. In this region animal husbandry and artisanry were supplemented by some agriculture (along the alluvial deposits near the rivers).

History[edit]

In the 4th century BC, the numerous tribes speaking Lezgic languages, which is part of the Nakh-Dagestan family of languages, united in a union of 26 tribes, formed in the Eastern Caucasus state of Caucasian Albania, which existed before the 8th century BC. Under the influence of foreign invaders Caucasian Albania was divided into several areas - Lakzi, Shirvan, etc.

Although Lezgins were first introduced to Islam perhaps as early as the 8th century, the Lezgins remained primarily animist until the 15th century, when Muslim influence became stronger, with Persian traders coming in from the south, and the Golden Horde increasingly pressing from the north. In the 16th century, the Persian Safavids started with consolidating their control over Dagestan for many centuries onwards, with the Ottoman Turks who occasionally briefly occupied the area as well, and both also helped to consolidate Islam in the region. By the 19th century, the Lezgins had all been converted to Islam, and they have since then been very devout in their faith. The Lezgins did not form their own country. Some were part of the Kuba Khanate in Azerbaijan, some were under control of the Derbent Khanate, who were both under Persian suzerainty. The Lak Kazi Kumukh Khanate contrtolled the Lezgins for a time in the 18th century, but from 1812 onwards, the Russians took over, following the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813), and permanently after the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828). They created the Kiurin Khanate, later to become the Kiurin district.

At the beginning of the 18th century in eastern Transcaucasia there were anti-Persian uprising by the Lezgins and other peoples of Dagestan and Azerbaijan. Under the leadership of Haji Dawood Myushkyurskogo (r. 1721–1728) In the vast territory of Shirvan they created the Lezgin State Khanate with its capital in Shemakha.

In the first half of the 18th century, Persia was able to restore its full authority throughout the entire Eastern Caucasus under Nadir Shah. After the death of Nadir Shah, he created the state into divided several smaller khanates. The main part of Lezgins united in "free society" (Magalim) (Akhty para, Alti-para, Kure, Dokuz-para); Lezghians Azerbaijani khanate in the Kuba and Dagestan Lezgins - in Derbent Khanate. In 1812 most of the Dagestani Lezgins became part of the educated in southern Dagestan, a Russian protectorate Kyurinskoe Khanate, which was transformed in 1864 into Kyurinsky District, and the rest - in the Samur district, most of the Azerbaijani Lezgins - in the Kuban district of Baku province.

By 1813, all Lezgins came under nominal Russian rule. Many Lezgins in Dagestan, however, participated in the Great Caucasian War and fought against Russians alongside the Avar Imam Shamil, who for 25 years (1834–1859) defied Russian rule. It was not until after his defeat in 1859 that the Russians consolidated their rule over Dagestan and the Lezgins.

In 1930, Sheikh Mohammed Effendi Shtulskim organized an uprising against Soviet rule, which was suppressed after several months [61]. In the 20th century, attempts were made to create a republic Lezgistan (independent or as autonomy) [62].

Historical concept[edit]

While ancient Greek historians, including Herodotus, Strabo, and Pliny the Elder, referred to Legoi people who inhabited Caucasian Albania, Arab historians of the 9th and 10th centuries mention the kingdom of Lakz in present-day southern Dagestan.[7] Al Masoudi referred to inhabitants of this area as Lakzams (Lezgins),[8] who defended Shirvan against invaders from the north.[9] The Lezgin ethnic group probably resulted from a merger of the Akhty, the Alty and Dokus Para federations, and some clans from among the Rutuls.

Language[edit]

The Lezgian language belongs (with Aghul, Rutul, Tsakhur, Tabasaran, Budukh, Khinalugh, Jek, Khaput, Kryz [K'rits'], and Udi) to the Lezgian or Samurian group of the northeast Caucasian (Checheno-Daghestani) language family.

The Lezgian language has three closely related (mutually intelligible) dialects: Kurin (also referred to as Gunei or Kurakh), Akhti, and Kuba. The Kurin dialect is the most widespread of the three and is spoken throughout most of the Lezgin territories in Daghestan, including the town of Kurakh, which, historically, was the most important cultural, political, and economic center in the Lezgin territory in Daghestan and is the former seat of the khanate of Kurin. The Akhti dialect is spoken in southeastern Daghestan. The Kuba dialect, the most Turkicized of the three, is widespread among the Lezgins of northern Azerbaijan (named for the town of Kuba, the cultural and economical focus of the region).

Modern times[edit]

Prior to the Russian Revolution, "Lezgin" was a term applied to all ethnic groups inhabiting the present-day Russian Republic of Dagestan.[10]

In the 19th century, the term was used more broadly for all ethnic groups speaking non-Nakh Northeast Caucasian languages, including Caucasian Avars, Laks, and many others (although the Vainakh peoples, who were Northeast Caucasian language speakers were referred to as "Circassians").

The area known as Lezgistan was divided between the Tsarist districts of Derbent and Baku in 1860, a division which continues into the 21st century.

Today, the Lezgins are predominately Sunni Muslims, with a Shi'a minority living in Miskindja village in Daghestan.

The Lezgins resisted Russification by refusing to participate in programs to relocate them from the highlands and into lowland towns and collective farms. Thus, the majority of the Lezgins still maintain a traditional lifestyle.

Glasnost and Perestroyka policies in the late 1980s, early 1990s, economic collapse, and the fall of the Soviet Union exacerbated nationalistic tensions and unleashed centrifugal ethnic forces. The Lezgins, as so many other ethnic groups, became more strident in their demands for independence from Moscow and for self-determination.

For the most part, the relations between the various ethnic groups of Dagestan are remarkably less competitive than those of the titular nationalities in the other North Caucasian republics. This may change if nationalism, as expressed in the concept of the national state, gains more currency among the larger national groups, like Lezgins or Dargins.

Lezgins live mainly in Azerbaijan and in the Russian Federation (Dagestan). The total population is believed to be around 700,000, with 474,000 living in Russian Federation.

In the Republic of Azerbaijan, the government census counts 180,300.[5] However, Lezgin national organizations mention 600,000 to 900,000, the disparity being that many Lezgins claim Azeri nationality to escape job and education discrimination in Azerbaijan.[1] Despite the assimilationist policy of the Azeri government, the Lezgin population is undoubtedly greater than it appears.[11]

Lezgins also live in Central Asia.[12]

Situation in Azerbaijan[edit]

In 1992 a Lezgin organization named Sadval was established to promote Lezgin rights. Sadval campaigned for the redrawing of the Russian–Azerbaijani border to allow for the creation of a single Lezgin state encompassing areas in Russia and Azerbaijan where Lezgins were compactly settled. In Azerbaijan a more moderate organization called Samur was formed, advocating more cultural autonomy for Lezgins in Azerbaijan.

Lezgins traditionally suffered from unemployment and a shortage of land. Resentments were fuelled in 1992 by the resettlement of 105,000 Azeri refugees from the Karabakh conflict on Lezgin lands and by the forced conscription of Lezgins to fight in the conflict. This contributed to an increase in tensions between the Lezgin community and the Azeri government over issues of land, employment, language and the absence of internal autonomy. A major consequence of the outbreak of the war in Chechnya in 1994 was the closure of the border between Russia and Azerbaijan: as a result the Lezgins were for the first time in their history separated by an international border restricting their movement.

The high tide of Lezgin mobilization in Azerbaijan appeared to have passed towards the end of the 1990s. Sadval was banned by the Azerbaijani authorities after official allegations that it was involved in a bombing of the Baku underground. The end of the Karabakh war, and Lezgin resistance to forced conscription, deprived the movement of a key issue on which to mobilize. In 1998 Sadval split into ‘moderate’ and ‘radical’ wings, following which it appeared to lose much of its popularity on both sides of the Russian–Azerbaijani border.

However, Azerbaijani–Lezgin relations continued to be complicated by claims that Islamic fundamentalism enjoyed disproportionate popularity among Lezgins. In July 2000 Azerbaijani security forces arrested members of Lezgin and Avar ethnicity of a group named the Warriors of Islam, which allegedly was planning an insurgency against the Azerbaijani state.

Lezgins expressed concern over under-representation in the Azerbaijani Parliament (Milli Meclis) after a shift away from proportional representation in the parliamentary elections of November 2005. Lezgins had been represented by two members of parliament in the previous parliament, but are now represented by only one.

Lezgin is taught as a foreign language in areas where many Lezgins are settled, but teaching resources are scarce. Lezgin textbooks come from Russia and are not adapted to local conditions. Although Lezgin newspapers are available, Lezgins have also expressed concern over the disappearance of their rich oral tradition. The only Lezgin television broadcasting available in Azerbaijan is that received over the border from Russia.

In March 2006 Azerbaijani media reported that Sadval had formed an 'underground' terrorist unit carrying out operations in Dagestan. Security forces across the border in Dagestan in Russia, responded sceptically to these reports.

Situation in Dagestan[edit]

According to reports Lezgins in Dagestan suffer disproportionately from unemployment, with unemployment rates in Lezgin-populated areas of southern Dagestan twice the republican average of 32 per cent. This may be one contributory factor to renewed calls from within the Sadval movement in January 2006 for a redrawing of the Russian-Azerbaijani border to incorporate Lezgin-populated areas of southern Dagestan within Azerbaijan.

In March 1999 another organization, the Federal Lezgin National Cultural Autonomy, was established as an extraterritorial movement advocating cultural autonomy for Lezgins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b [1] James Minahan,"Encyclopaedia of stateless nations: L-R by James Mihanan", Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. pp 1084: "Lezgin national organizations estimate the actual Lezgin population in Azerbaijan at between 600,000 and 900,000, much higher than the official estimates. The disparity arises from the number of ethnic Lezgins registered as ethnic Azeris during the soviet period and continue to claim Azeri nationality to escape job and education discrimination in Azerbaijan"
  2. ^ Ethnologue report for Lezgi
  3. ^ "Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации согласно переписи аселения 2010 года". gks.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  4. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/language/lez
  5. ^ a b The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Population by ethnic groups
  6. ^ New York Times, 2014, "Genetic Mixing" (February 13; interactive). (Access: October 15 2014).
  7. ^ Haspelmath, Martin (1993). A grammar of Lezgian. Walter de Gruyter. p. 17. ISBN 3-11-013735-6. 
  8. ^ Yakut, IV, 364. According to al-Masoudi (Murudzh, II, 5)
  9. ^ VFMinorsky. History of Shirvan. M. 1963
  10. ^ Olson, James Stuart; Pappas, Nicholas Charles (1994). An Ethnohistorical dictionary of the Russian and Soviet empires. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 438. ISBN 0-313-27497-5. 
  11. ^ Robert Bruce Ware, Enver Kisriew, E.F. Kisriew, "Dagestan: Russian hegemony and Islamic resistance in the North Caucasus",M.E. Sharpe, 2009 "given the assimilationist policies of the Azeri authories, the Lezgin population of that state is undoubtedly greater than it appears" [2]
  12. ^ Yo'av Karny,"Highlanders: A Journey to the Caucasus in Quest of Memory",Macmillan, 2001. pp 112:"The last 1989 all Soviet census recorded 204,400 Lezgins in Daghestan and 171,395 Lezgins in Azerbaijan. Both figures reflected a relative, almost identical decline (5 percent) in Lezgin numbers in both "homelands". Roughtly 65,000 Lezgins were counted in other parts of the Soviet Union, mostly Russia, Kazakhistan and Turkmenistan"