Lezgic languages

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Lezgic
Geographic
distribution:
Dagestan, Azerbaijan
Linguistic classification: Northeast Caucasian
Subdivisions:
  • Archi (Peripheral Lezgic)
  • Samur (Nuclear Lezgic)
Glottolog: lezg1248  (Samur)[1]
arch1244  (Archi)[2]
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  Lezgic

The Lezgic languages are one of seven branches of the Northeast Caucasian language family. Lezgian and Tabasaran are literary languages.

Classification[edit]

  • Peripheral: Archi – 1,200 speakers[3]
  • Samur[4] (Nuclear Lezgic)
    • Eastern Samur
      • Udi – 5,000 speakers
      • Lezgi–Aghul–Tabasaran[4]
    • Southern Samur
      • Kryts – 6,000 speakers in 1975
      • Budukh – 1,000 speakers
    • Western Samur

The voicing of ejective consonants[edit]

The Lezgic languages are relevant to the glottalic theory of Indo-European, because several have undergone the voicing of ejectives that have been postulated but widely derided as improbable in that family. The correspondences have not been well worked out (Rutul is inconsistent in the examples), but a few examples are:

  • Non-Lezgic: Avar tstsʼar; Lezgic: Rutul dur, Caxur do 'name'
  • Non-Lezgic: Archi motʃʼor, Lak tʃʼiri; Lezgic: Rutul mitʃʼri, Tabassaran midʒir, Aɡul mudʒur 'beard'
  • Non-Lezgic: Avar motsʼ; Lezgic: Tabassaran vaz 'moon'

A similar change has taken place in non-initial position in the Nakh languages.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Samur". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Archi". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Ethnologue report for Archi
  4. ^ a b Languages in the Caucasus, by Wolfgang Schulze (2009)
  5. ^ Paul Fallon, 2002. The synchronic and diachronic phonology of ejectives, p 245.

External links[edit]