LGBT

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LGBT publications, pride parades, and related events, such as this stage at Bologna Pride 2008 in Italy, increasingly drop the LGBT initialism instead of regularly adding new letters, and dealing with issues of placement of those letters within the new title.

LGBT is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the term is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which itself started replacing the term gay when in reference to the LGBT community beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s,[1] as many felt the term gay community did not accurately represent all those to whom it referred.[2] The initialism has become mainstream as a self-designation and has been adopted by the majority of sexuality and gender identity-based community centers and media in the United States and some other English-speaking countries.[3][4] It is also used in some other countries in whose languages the initialism is meaningful, such as France.

The initialism LGBT is intended to emphasize a diversity of sexuality and gender identity-based cultures and is sometimes used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender instead of exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.[2][5] To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer and/or are questioning their sexual identity as LGBTQ, recorded since 1996.[6]

On the one hand, some intersex people who want to be included in LGBT groups suggest an extended initialism LGBTI (recorded since 1999[7]).[8] This initialism "LGBTI" is used in all parts of "The Activist's Guide" of the Yogyakarta Principles in Action.[9] Furthermore, the initialism LGBTIH has seen use in India to encompass the hijra third gender identity and the related subculture.[10] More recently the catch-all term "Gender and Sexual Diversity" GSD has been proposed.[11]

Whether or not LGBT people openly identify themselves may depend on whether they live in a discriminatory environment, as well as on the status of LGBT rights where they live.[12]

History

Before the sexual revolution of the 1960s, there was no common non-derogatory vocabulary for non-heterosexuality; the closest such term, "third gender", traces back to the 1860s but never gained wide acceptance in the United States.[13][14][15][16][17][18]

The first widely used term, homosexual, was thought to carry negative connotations and tended to be replaced by homophile in the 1950s and 1960s,[19] and subsequently gay in the 1970s.[13] As lesbians forged more public identities, the phrase "gay and lesbian" became more common.[2] The Daughters of Bilitis folded in 1970 over which direction to focus on: feminism or gay rights issues.[20] As equality was a priority for lesbian feminists, disparity of roles between men and women or butch and femme were viewed as patriarchal. Lesbian feminists eschewed gender role play that had been pervasive in bars, as well as the perceived chauvinism of gay men; many lesbian feminists refused to work with gay men, or take up their causes.[21] Lesbians who held a more essentialist view that they had been born homosexual and used the descriptor "lesbian" to define sexual attraction, often considered the separatist, angry opinions of lesbian-feminists to be detrimental to the cause of gay rights.[22] This was soon followed by bisexual and transgender people also seeking recognition as legitimate categories within the larger community.[2] After the initial euphoria of the Stonewall riots wore off, starting in the late 1970s and the early 1980s, there was a change in perception; some gays and lesbians became less accepting of bisexual or transgender people.[23][24] It was thought that transgender people were acting out stereotypes and bisexuals were simply gay men or lesbian women who were afraid to come out and be honest about their identity.[23] Each community that is collectively included has struggled to develop its own identity including whether, and how, to align with other gender and sexuality-based communities at times excluding other subgroups; these conflicts continue to this day.[24]

The initialism LGBT saw occasional use in the United States from about 1988.[25] Not until the 1990s did it become common to speak of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people with equal respect within the movement.[24] Although the LGBT community has seen much controversy regarding universal acceptance of different member groups (bisexual and transgender individuals, in particular, have sometimes been marginalized by the larger LGBT community), the term LGBT has been a positive symbol of inclusion.[5][24] Despite the fact that LGBT does not nominally encompass all individuals in smaller communities (see Variants below), the term is generally accepted to include those not identified in the four-letter acronym.[5][24] Overall, the use of the term LGBT has, over time, largely aided in bringing otherwise marginalized individuals into the general community.[5][24]

Transgender actress Candis Cayne in 2009 called the LGBT community "the last great minority", noting that "We can still be harassed openly" and be "called out on television."[26]

Variants

2007 Pride parade in Buenos Aires organized by the Argentine Federacion of LGBT people with the LGBT acronym visible in the groups' banner (top right of image)

Many variants exist including variations that merely change the order of the letters; LGBT or GLBT are the most common terms and the ones most frequently seen in current usage.[24] Although identical in meaning, "LGBT" may have a more feminist connotation than "GLBT" as it places the "L" (for "lesbian") first.[24] When not inclusive of transgender people it is sometimes shortened to LGB.[24][27] LGBT may also include additional "Q"s for "queer" or "questioning" (sometimes abbreviated with a question mark and sometimes used to mean anybody not literally L, G, B or T) which can then look like e.g., "LGBTQ" or "LGBTQQ"".[28][29][30]

Other variants may add a "U" for "unsure"; a "C" for "curious"; an "I" for "intersex"; another "T" for "transsexual" or "transvestite"; another "T", "TS", or "2" for "Two‐Spirit" persons; an "A" or "SA" for "straight allies"; or an "A" for "asexual".[31][32][33][34][35] Some may also add a "P" for "pansexual" or "polyamorous", an "H" for "HIV-affected", and/or an "O" for "other".[24][36]

The order of the letters has not been standardized; in addition to the variations between the positions of the initial "L" or "G", the mentioned, less‐common letters, if used, may appear in almost any order.[24] Variant terms do not typically represent political differences within the community, but arise simply from the preferences of individuals and groups.[37] The terms pansexual, omnisexual, fluid and queer-identified are regarded as falling under the umbrella term "bisexual".[38] Likewise, the terms transsexual and intersex are regarded by some people as falling under the umbrella term transgender though many transsexual and intersex people object to this (both for different reasons).[24]

"SGL" ("same gender loving") is sometimes favored among black Americans as a way of distinguishing themselves from what they regard as white-dominated LGBT communities.[39] "MSM" ("men who have sex with men") is clinically used to describe men who have sex with other men without referring to their sexual orientation.[40][41]

A phrase introduced in the 2000s, "minority sexual and gender identities" ("MSGI"), and the similar "gender and sexual minorities" ("GSM"), are intended as more inclusive identifiers, but have yet to find their way into common usage.[42] The magazine Anything That Moves coined the acronym "FABGLITTER" from Fetish (such as the BDSM lifestyle community), Allies or poly-Amorous (as in Polyamorous couples), Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian, Intersexed, Transgender, Transsexual Engendering Revolution or inter-Racial attraction; however, this term has not made its way into common usage.[2] Another acronym that has begun to spread is "QUILTBAG" from Queer or Questioning, Undecided, Intersex, Lesbian, Trans, Bisexual, Asexual, Gay; again, this is not a common term.[43] Similarly, in some areas people are starting to simply use "LGBTQetc" or "LGBTQ+" to be more inclusive.[44][45][46] The initial A for Allies comes from straight (heterosexual) allies who are in support of the GLBT community, and sometimes they form an alliance in sociopolitical affairs to further represent the umbrella initialism "GLBTA" (Gay Lesbian Bi Trans Alternative or Allies).[citation needed] The A may also be used to represent asexual people. "LGBTQIA" has some use among transgender American college students and their contemporaries.[47]

Criticism of the term

LGBT families, like these in a 2007 pride parade, are unlikely to label themselves non-heterosexual although researchers do so for a variety of reasons.[48]

The initialisms LGBT or GLBT are not agreeable to everyone that they literally encompass.[49] For example, some argue that transgender and transsexual causes are not the same as that of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people.[50] This argument centers on the idea that transgender and transsexuality have to do with gender identity or a person's understanding of being or not being a man and or woman irrespective of their sexual orientation.[24] LGB issues can be seen as a matter of sexual orientation or attraction.[24] These distinctions have been made in the context of political action in which LGB goals may be perceived to differ from transgender and transsexual goals like same‐sex marriage legislation and human rights work that is not inclusive of transgender and intersex people.[24]

Similarly, some intersex people want to be included in LGBT groups and would prefer the initialism "LGBTI" while others insist that they are not a part of the LGBT community and would rather that they not be included as part of the term.[8][51] In Australia, where LGBTI is increasingly used[52][53] and organisations representing cross-community interests have a history of collaboration including through a National LGBTI Health Alliance, anti-discrimination legislation recognises that intersex is a biological attribute distinct from both gender identity and sexual orientation.[52][54][55][56][57]

A reverse to the above situations is evident in the belief of "lesbian & gay separatism" (not to be confused with the related "lesbian separatism"), which holds that lesbians and gay men form (or should form) a community distinct and separate from other groups normally included in the LGBTQ sphere.[28][58] While not always appearing of sufficient number or organization to be called a movement, separatists are a significant, vocal, and active element within many parts of the LGBT community.[58][59][60] In some cases separatists will deny the existence or right‐to‐equality of non‐monosexual orientations and of transsexuality.[60] This can extend to public biphobia and transphobia.[58][60] In contrasts to separatists, Peter Tatchell of the LGBT human rights group OutRage! argues that to separate the transgender movement from the LGB would be "political madness".[61]

Many people have looked for a generic term to replace the numerous existing abbreviations.[60] Words like "queer" and "rainbow" have been tried but most have not been widely adopted.[60][62] "Queer" has many negative connotations to older people who remember the word as a taunt and insult and such (negative) usage of the term continues.[60][62] Many younger people also understand "queer" to be more politically‐charged than "LGBT".[62][63] "Rainbow" has connotations that recall hippies, New Age movements, and organizations like Jesse Jackson's Rainbow/PUSH Coalition in the United States.

The portrayal of an all-encompassing "LGBT community" or "LGB community" is also disliked by some lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.[28][64][65] Some do not subscribe to or approve of the political and social solidarity, and visibility and human rights campaigning that normally goes with it including gay pride marches and events.[64][65] Some of them believe that grouping together people with non-heterosexual orientations perpetuates the myth that being gay/lesbian/bi makes a person deficiently different from other people.[28][64] These people are often less visible compared to more mainstream gay or LGBT activists.[64][65] Since this faction is difficult to distinguish from the heterosexual majority, it is common for people to assume all LGBT people support LGBT liberation and the visibility of LGBT people in society, including the right to live one's life in a different way from the majority.[64][65][66] In the 1996 book Anti-Gay, a collection of essays edited by Mark Simpson, the concept of a 'one-size-fits-all' identity based on LGBT stereotypes is criticized for suppressing the individuality of LGBT people.[67]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Acronyms, initialisms & abbreviations dictionary, Volume 1, Part 1uu Gale Research Co., 1985, ISBN 978-0-8103-0683-7. Factsheet five, Issues 32–36, Mike Gunderloy, 1989
  2. ^ a b c d e Swain, Keith W. (21 June 2007). "Gay Pride Needs New Direction". Denver Post. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  3. ^ The 2008 Community Center Survey Report: Assessing the Capacity and Programs of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Community Centers August 29, 2008, Terry Stone, CenterLink (formerly The National Association of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Community Centers).Report link[dead link](2012 Report link)
  4. ^ National Lesbian & Gay Journalists Association: Stylebook Supplement on LGBT Terminology, NLGJA 2008. Stylebook Supplement
  5. ^ a b c d Shankle, Michael D. (2006). The Handbook of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Public Health: A Practitioner's Guide To Service. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-496-2. 
  6. ^ The Santa Cruz County in-queery, Volume 9, Santa Cruz Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgendered Community Center, 1996. Books.google.com. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  7. ^ William L. Maurice, Marjorie A. Bowman, Sexual medicine in primary care, Mosby Year Book, 1999, ISBN 978-0-8151-2797-0
  8. ^ a b Aragon, Angela Pattatuchi (2006). Challenging Lesbian Norms: Intersex, Transgender, Intersectional, and Queer Perspectives. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-645-0. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  9. ^ "Yogyakarta Principles in Action, Activist's Guide". Ypinaction.org. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  10. ^ HIV Awareness and First LGBT March in Pune a Short Report, December 22, 2011
  11. ^ Organisation proposes replacing the ‘limiting’ term LGBT with ‘more inclusive’ GSD, February 25, 2013
  12. ^ http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Gay_and_lesbian_issues_discrimination
  13. ^ a b Ross, E. Wayne (2006). The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-6909-3. 
  14. ^ Kennedy, Hubert C. (1980) The "third sex" theory of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, Journal of Homosexuality. 1980–1981 Fall–Winter; 6(1–2): pp. 103–1
  15. ^ Hirschfeld, Magnus, 1904. Berlins Drittes Geschlecht ("Berlin's Third Sex")
  16. ^ Ellis, Havelock and Symonds, J. A., 1897. Sexual Inversion.
  17. ^ Carpenter, Edward, 1908. The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women.
  18. ^ Duc, Aimée, 1901. Sind es Frauen? Roman über das dritte Geschlecht ("Are These Women? Novel about the Third Sex")
  19. ^ Minton, Henry (2002). Departing from Deviance. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-53043-4. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  20. ^ Esterberg, Kristen (September, 1994). "From Accommodation to Liberation: A Social Movement Analysis of Lesbians in the Homophile Movement." Gender and Society, 8, (3) p. 424–443.
  21. ^ Faderman, Lillian (1991). Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth Century America, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017122-3, p. 210–211.
  22. ^ Faderman (1991), p. 217–218.
  23. ^ a b Leli, Ubaldo; Drescher, Jack (2005). Transgender Subjectivities: A Clinician's Guide. Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-2576-0. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Alexander, Jonathan; Yescavage, Karen (2004). Bisexuality and Transgenderism: InterSEXions of The Others. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-287-0. 
  25. ^ Research, policy and practice: Annual meeting, American Educational Research Association Verlag AERA, 1988.
  26. ^ "I Advocate...". The Advocate (Issue #1024). March 2009. p. 80. 
  27. ^ Bohan, Janis S. (1996). Psychology and Sexual Orientation: Coming to Terms. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-91514-7. 
  28. ^ a b c d Bloodsworth-Lugo, Mary K. (2007). In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-7221-3. 
  29. ^ Alder, Christine; Worrall, Anne (2004). Girls' Violence: Myths and Realities. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-6110-6. 
  30. ^ Cherland, Meredith Rogers; Harper, Helen J. (2007). Advocacy Research in Literacy Education: Seeking Higher Ground. Routledge. ISBN 0-8058-5056-2. 
  31. ^ Lebaron, Sarah; Pecsenye, Jessica; Roland, Becerra; Skindzier, Jon (2005). Oberlin College: Oberlin, Ohio. College Prowler, Inc. ISBN 1-59658-092-5. 
  32. ^ Chen, Edith Wen-Chu; Omatsu, Glenn (2006). Teaching about Asian Pacific Americans: Effective Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities (Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5338-8. 
  33. ^ Babb, Florence E. (2001). After Revolution: Mapping Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70900-5. 
  34. ^ Padilla, Yolanda C. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Rights Organizing: Community-based Strategies. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-275-7. 
  35. ^ Swigonski, Mary E.; Mama, Robin S.; Ward, Kelly; Shepard, Matthew (2001). From Hate Crimes to Human Rights: A Tribute to Matthew Shepard. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-257-9. 
  36. ^ O'Rourke, P. J. (2001). Peace Kills: America's Fun New Imperialism. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-4198-6. 
  37. ^ Brown, Catrina; Augusta-Scott, Tod (2006). Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives. Sage Publications Inc. ISBN 1-4129-0988-0. 
  38. ^ Estraven We are all somewhere between straight and gay . . . . April 20, 2009 BiNet USA News and Opinions
  39. ^ Rimmerman, Craig A.; Wald, Kenneth D.; Wilcox, Clyde (2006). The Politics of Gay Rights. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 1-4129-0988-0. 
  40. ^ Young, R M & Meyer, I H (2005) The Trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": Erasure of the Sexual-Minority Person in Public Health Discourse American Journal of Public Health July 2005 Vol. 95 No. 7.
  41. ^ Glick, M Muzyka, B C Salkin, L M Lurie, D (1994) Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis: a marker for immune deterioration and a predictor for the diagnosis of AIDS Journal of Periodontology 1994 65 p. 393–397.
  42. ^ "Welcome to the Bradford University Minority Sexual and Gender Identity Site!". Bradford Uni MSGI Society. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  43. ^ Smith, S. E. (17 September 2010). "Separate But Equal Is Still Unequal". Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  44. ^ "Tom Claes | LGBTQ-etc Studies". Philosophy.ugent.be. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  45. ^ "Popular Lgbt Etc Books". Goodreads.com. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  46. ^ "Queer Basics « HUHC: The Conversation". Huhc.wordpress.com. 2011-03-23. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  47. ^ Michael Schulman (January 9, 2013). "Generation LGBTQIA". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  48. ^ Klesse, Christian (2007). The Spectre of Promiscuity: Gay Male and Bisexual Non-Monogamies and Polyamories. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-4906-7. 
  49. ^ Finnegan, Dana G.; McNally, Emily B. (2002). Counseling Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Substance Abusers: Dual Identities. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-925-5. 
  50. ^ Wilcox, Melissa M. (2003). Coming Out in Christianity: Religion, Identity, and Community. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21619-2. 
  51. ^ Makadon, Harvey J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Potter, Jennifer; Goldhammer, Hilary (2008). The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. ACP Press. ISBN 1-930513-95-X. 
  52. ^ a b Australian Parliament, Explanatory Memorandum to the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013"
  53. ^ Department of Health, Australia, 2013, "National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) Ageing and Aged Care Strategy"
  54. ^ "LGBTI groups welcome the passage of “historic” national discrimination laws", Organisation Intersex International Australia, 26 June 2013
  55. ^ Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, "On the historic passing of the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013", 25 June 2013
  56. ^ ComLaw, "Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013, No. 98, 2013. C2013A00098", 2013
  57. ^ Star Observer, "Historic anti-discrimination bill passes", June 26, 2013 (note that the newspaper is described as "Australia's most respected LGBTI news source"
  58. ^ a b c Mohr, Richard D. (1988). Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-06735-6. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  59. ^ Blasius, Mark (1994). Gay and Lesbian Politics: Sexuality and the Emergence of a New Ethic. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-173-3. 
  60. ^ a b c d e f Blasius, Mark (2001). Sexual Identities, Queer Politics: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Politics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05867-9. 
  61. ^ Abrehart, David. "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual — but Why Transgender?, Mothership Gay Dating". Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  62. ^ a b c Armstrong, Elizabeth A. (2002). Forging Gay Identities: Organizing Sexuality in San Francisco, 1950–1994. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-02694-9. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  63. ^ Halpin, Mikki (2004). It's Your World—If You Don't Like It, Change It: Activism for Teenagers. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-689-87448-0. 
  64. ^ a b c d e Sycamore, Matt Bernstein (2005). That's Revolting!: Queer Strategies for Resisting Assimilation. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1-932360-56-5. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  65. ^ a b c d Carlsson, Chris (2005). The Political Edge. City Lights Books. ISBN 1-931404-05-4. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  66. ^ Leondar-Wright, Betsy (2005). Class Matters: Cross-Class Alliance Building for Middle-Class Activists. New Society Publishers. ISBN 0-86571-523-8. 
  67. ^ "Anti-Gay". Marksimpson.com. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 

General references

External links