Li Xiucheng

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Li Xiucheng
StatueofLiXiucheng.jpeg
Li Xiucheng
Nickname(s) Philanthropist
Born (1823-12-00)December 1823
Teng County, Guangxi, Qing Empire
Died 7 August 1864(1864-08-07) (aged 41)
Jiangning, Nanjing, Qing Empire
Allegiance Qing Empire (to 1849)
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (to 1864)
Years of service 1852–1864
Rank Field Marshal
Battles/wars

Eastern campaign

Western campaign

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Li.

Li Xiucheng (Chinese: 李秀成; pinyin: Lǐ Xiùchéng; 1823 – August 7, 1864) was a military commander during the Taiping Rebellion. Born to a peasant family, he was known as the Loyal King (忠王) by the end of his life. This title was bestowed after he refused a bribe from a Qing general officer to kill Hong Xiuquan, the founder and leader of the rebellion. As a general, he led Taiping forces to several victories. After his capture and interrogation at the third and final Battle in Nanjing in 1864, he was executed by Zeng Guofan. Li was the most important military leader of the rebel forces by the end of the Taiping Rebellion.

Notable victories against the Qing military forces[edit]

Second rout of the Jiangnan Army Group[edit]

Army Group Jiangnan (江南大營) was an important Qing army barracks in Nanjing. Forces led by Li Xiucheng besieged the barracks in an attempt to force its occupants to surrender. Li Xiucheng, besides; in the second encirclement, the Qing army commanded 200,000 soldiers to fight with Taiping forces from March 1858, but they were routed by Li Xiucheng in May 1860. After that, Li went on to occupy all of Jiangsu provinces except Shanghai.

Two attacks on Shanghai[edit]

Escaped from Suzhou[edit]

Li Xiucheng's palace in Suzhou is the only one from the Taiping Rebellion that exists today. In July 1863, Li ordered his daughter's husband, Tan Shaoguang, to capture Suzhou. But Li Hongzhang led the Huai Army combined by the "Ever Victorious Army," which, having been raised by an American named Frederick Townsend Ward, was placed under the command of Charles George Gordon. With this support, Li Hongzhang gained numerous victories leading to the surrender of Suzhou.

Determining battle: lead defend capital Nanjing[edit]

Chiang Donkey[edit]

The Chiang Donkey (蔣驢子) was Li Xiucheng's stable manager. Three months into their business arrangement in 1864 - and Before the fall of Nanjing - Li Xiucheng took his wealth (including much treasure) to Chiang Donkey. At Li Xiucheng's request, Chiang transported that wealth outside the Nanjing area with haste, planning to meet back up with Li Xiucheng. Though Chiang delivered on his promise to accompany the transport via 20 horses and a cow, Li was captured and executed before he could rendezvous with Chiang, thus leaving Chiang with a treasure that he was able to bring back to Nanjing after the civil war.

Writing[edit]

Zhong Prince Li Xiucheng Describes Himself (《忠王李秀成自述》) is the autobiographical account of a prince of the Heavenly Kingdom written shortly before his execution.

Li's sword[edit]

When Li withdrew from Suzhou, his sword - the symbol of his power - was given to his young brother Li Shixian. Li Shixian took this sword; however it was confiscated when he was captured by Charles George Gordon in Liyang.

When Charles George Gordon returned to the UK with Li's sword, he presented it to Queen Victoria's cousin, Chief Commander of the Military the Duke of Cambridge.

On 30 August 1961. the sword ended up in the hands of a history professor at the University of London. In 1981, this sword was returned to China where it is currently stored in the National Museum of China.

Children[edit]

Li Xiucheng had a son Li Ronfar, and three daughters, whose husbands were Taiping generals (including Tan Shaoguang and Chen Binwen).

Sources[edit]

Tiān Guó Zwi(天國志)

[1]