Liang Qichao

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Liang Qichao
Liang-Qichao.jpg
Liang Qichao in 1901
Born (1873-02-23)23 February 1873
Xinhui, Guangdong, Qing China
Died 19 January 1929(1929-01-19) (aged 55)
Beijing, China
Occupation scholar, journalist, philosopher, reformist
Political party
Progressive Party
Spouse(s) Li Huixian
Wang Guiquan (m.1903–1929)
Liang Qichao
Simplified Chinese 梁启超
Traditional Chinese 梁啟超
Zhuoru
(courtesy name)
Chinese 卓如
Rengong
(pseudonym)
Chinese 任公

Liang Qichao (February 23, 1873 – January 19, 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, pseudonym Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist who lived during the late Qing Dynasty and early Republican China. He inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and reform movements.[1]

Biography[edit]

Family[edit]

Liang Qichao was born in a small village in Xinhui, Guangdong Province on February 23, 1873.

Liang's father, Liang Baoying (梁寶瑛, courtesy name Lianjian 蓮澗), was a farmer, but a background in classics allowed him to introduce Liang to various literary works when Liang was six years old. By the age of nine, Liang started writing thousand-word essays and became a district-school student soon after.

Liang had two wives: Li Huixian (李惠仙) and Wang Guiquan (王桂荃). They gave birth to nine children, all of whom became successful individuals through Liang's strict and effective education. Three of them were scientific personnel at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, including Liang Sicheng, the prominent historian of Chinese architecture.

Early life[edit]

Liang Qichao in his youth

Liang passed the Xiucai (秀才) degree provincial examination at the age of 11. In 1884, he undertook the arduous task of studying for the traditional governmental exams. At the age of 16, he passed the Juren (舉人) second level provincial exams and was the youngest successful candidate at that time.

In 1890, Liang failed in his Jinshi (進士) degree national examinations in Beijing and never earned a higher degree. He took the exams along with Kang Youwei, a famous Chinese scholar and reformist. The examiner was determined to flunk Kang for his heterodox challenge to existing institutions, but since the exams were all anonymous, he could only presume that the exam with the most unorthodox views was Kang's. Instead, Kang disguised himself by writing an examination essay espousing traditionalist ideas and passed the exam while Liang's paper was assumed to be Kang's and picked out to be failed.

Inspired by the book A short account of the maritime circuit ,[2] Liang became extremely interested in western ideologies. After returning home, Liang went on to study with Kang Youwei, who was teaching at Wanmu Caotang (萬木草堂) in Guangzhou. Kang's teachings about foreign affairs fuelled Liang's interest in reforming China.

In 1895, Liang went to the capital Beijing again with Kang for the national examination. During the examination, he was a leader of the Gongche Shangshu movement. After failing to pass the examination for a second time, he stayed in Beijing to help Kang publish Domestic and Foreign Information. He also helped to organise the Society for National Strengthening (強學會), where Liang served as secretary. For time, he was also enlisted by the governor of Hunan, Chen Baozhen to edit reform-friendly publications, such as the Hunan Daily (Xiangbao 湘報) and the Hunan Journal (Xiang xuebao 湘學報).

Reform movements[edit]

Kang Youwei – a mentor of Liang Qichao.

As an advocate of constitutional monarchy, Liang was unhappy with the governance of the Qing Government and wanted to change the status quo in China. He organized reforms with Kang Youwei by putting their ideas on paper and sending them to the Guangxu Emperor reigned 1875–1908) of the Qing Dynasty. This movement is known as the Wuxu Reform or the Hundred Days' Reform. Their proposal asserted that China was in need of more than "self-strengthening", and called for many institutional and ideological changes such as getting rid of corruption and remodeling the state examination system. Liang thus was a major influence in the debates on democracy in China.[3]

This proposal soon ignited a frenzy of disagreement, and Liang became a wanted man by order of Empress Dowager Cixi, the leader of the political conservative faction who later took over the government as regent. Cixi strongly opposed reforms at that time and along with her supporters, condemned the "Hundred Days' Reform" as being too radical.

In 1898, the Conservative Coup ended all reforms, and Liang fled to Japan, where he stayed for the next 14 years. While in Tokyo he befriended the influential politician and future Japanese Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi. In Japan, he continued to actively advocate the democratic cause by using his writings to raise support for the reformers’ cause among overseas Chinese and foreign governments. He continued to emphasize the importance of individualism, and to support the concept of a constitutional monarchy as opposed to the radical republicanism supported by the Tokyo-based Tongmeng Hui (the forerunner of the Kuomintang). During his time in Japan, Liang also served as a benefactor and colleague to Phan Boi Chau, one of Vietnam's most important anti-colonial revolutionaries.

In 1899, Liang went to Canada, where he met Dr. Sun Yat-Sen among others, then to Honolulu in Hawaii. During the Boxer Rebellion, Liang was back in Canada, where he formed the "Royalist Society" (保皇會). This organisation later became the Constitutionalist Party which advocated constitutional monarchy. While Sun promoted revolution, Liang preached reform.

In 1900-1901, Liang visited Australia on a six-month tour which aimed at raising support for a campaign to reform the Chinese empire in order to modernise China through adopting the best of Western technology, industry and government systems. He also gave public lectures to both Chinese and Western audiences around the country. This visit coincided with the Federation of the six British colonies into the new nation of Australia in 1901. He felt this model of integration might well be copied in the diverse regions of China. He was feted by politicians, and met the first Prime Minister of Australia, Edmund Barton.[4] He returned to Japan later that year.

In 1903, Liang embarked on an eight-month lecture tour throughout the United States, which included a meeting with President Theodore Roosevelt in Washington, DC, before returning to Japan via Vancouver, Canada.

Politician[edit]

With the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, constitutional monarchy became an increasingly irrelevant topic in early republican China. He merged his renamed Democratic Party with the Republicans to form the new Progressive Party. He was very critical of Sun Yatsen's attempts to undermine President Yuan Shikai. Though usually supportive of the government, he opposed the expulsion of the Nationalists from parliament.

In 1915, he opposed Yuan's attempt to make himself emperor. He convinced his disciple Cai E, the military governor of Yunnan, to rebel. Progressive party branches agitated for the overthrow of Yuan and more provinces declared their independence. The revolutionary activity that he had frowned upon was utilised successfully. Besides Duan Qirui, Liang was the biggest advocate of entering World War I on the Allied side. He felt it would boost China's status and ameliorate foreign debts. He condemned his mentor, Kang Youwei, for assisting in the failed attempt to restore the Qing in July 1917. After failing to turn Duan and Feng Guozhang into responsible statesmen, he left politics.

Contributions to journalism[edit]

As a journalist[edit]

Lin Yutang (林語堂) once called Liang "the greatest personality in the history of Chinese journalism," while Joseph Levenson, author of Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and the Mind of Modern China, described Liang as "a brilliant scholar, journalist, and political figure."

Liang Qichao was the "most influential turn-of-the-century scholar-journalist," according to Levenson. Liang showed that newspapers and magazines could serve as an effective medium for communicating political ideas.

Liang, as a historian and a journalist, believed that both careers must have the same purpose and "moral commitment," as he proclaimed, "by examining the past and revealing the future, I will show the path of progress to the people of the nation." Thus, he founded his first newspaper, called the Qing Yi Bao (清議報), named after a student movement of the Han Dynasty.

Liang's exile to Japan allowed him to speak freely and exercise his intellectual autonomy. During his career in journalism, he edited two premier newspapers, Zhongwai Gongbao (中外公報) and Shiwu Bao (時務報). He also published his moral and political ideals in Qing Yi Bao (清議報) and New Citizen (新民叢報).

In addition, he used his literary works to further spread his views on republicanism both in China and across the world. Accordingly, he had become an influential journalist in terms of political and cultural aspects by writing new forms of periodical journals. Furthermore, journalism paved the way for him to express his patriotism.

Commitment to journalistic principles[edit]

One way to bring Liang's journalistic works into perspective is to consider if his works contained the "elements of journalism" put forth in Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel's book The Elements of Journalism. Although published 72 years after his death, The Elements of Journalism is still a useful tool in understanding what kind of journalist Liang was because, as stated in the book's introduction "...the same basic news values have held constant through time."

"Journalism's first obligation is to the truth."

The kind of "truth" Liang felt he was obligated to bring to his readers was more ideological than factual. New Citizen, of which Liang was editor in chief, was one of the first publications of its kind. Instead of simply reporting events to his readers, Liang was bringing them relevant new ideas and insights. In his newspapers and essays Liang spread his views on Democracy, Republicanism and Sovereignty throughout his readership in both China and overseas. To many of his readers these were new ideas. Although Democracy and Republicanism are not "truths" in the conventional sense of the word, they are what Liang truthfully believed to be the best systems for governing China. And his commitment in bringing these ideas to the citizens explained why Liang's work contained the first Element of Journalism.

"Its first loyalty is to citizens."

Liang asserted that a newspaper "is the mirror of society," "the sustenance of the present," and "the lamp for the future." He categorized newspapers into four types: the newspaper of an individual, of a party, of a nation, and of the world. Ultimately, his goal was to produce a "newspaper of the world", because as he proclaimed, "a newspaper of the world serves the interests of all humanity."

Liang was an advocate of democracy and republicanism. One can see this in his manifesto New People. His publications focused on educating his readers about on empowering the citizenry through these political ideas. With his writings he reached a large audience. His works helped educate his readers on ideas which they might have not been exposed to. Arguments have been put forth that through his work, Liang strove "to provide citizens with the information they need to be free and self governing" which is what Kovach and Rosenstiel name as the primary purpose of journalism.

"Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover."

Liang once declared, "How great is the force of the newspaper! And how grave is the duty of the newspaper!" Liang also believed that the "freedom of conscience, freedom of expression, and freedom of the press" were "indeed the mother of all civilisation."

During the WuXu Reform Liang was highly critical of the Qing Dynasty and for his views he was exiled to Japan. However, this did not deter Liang as he continued to write articles and essays on how political change was needed in China. Despite political pressure Liang stood up to the Qing Dynasty and chose exile over being robbed of his literary and political freedoms. Through his exile he remained independent from the Qing Government which he often wrote about. This independence from those who wished to suppress him (mainly the Empress Cixi) allowed Liang to freely and objectively express his views and ideas on the political situation in China.

New Citizen Journal (Xinmin Congbao 新民叢報)[edit]

Liang produced a widely read biweekly journal called New Citizen (Xinmin Congbao 新民叢報), first published in Yokohama, Japan on February 8, 1902.

The journal covered many different topics, including politics, religion, law, economics, business, geography and current and international affairs. In the journal, Liang coined many Chinese equivalents for never-before-heard theories or expressions and used the journal to help communicate public opinion in China to faraway readers. Through news analyses and essays, Liang hoped that the New Citizen would be able to start a "new stage in Chinese newspaper history."

A year later, Liang and his co-workers saw a change in the newspaper industry and remarked, "Since the inauguration of our journal last year, there have come into being almost ten separate journals with the same style and design."

Liang spread his notions about democracy as chief editor of the New Citizen Journal. The journal was published without hindrance for five years but eventually ceased in 1907 after 96 issues. Its readership was estimated to be 200,000.

Role of the newspaper[edit]

As one of the pioneers of Chinese journalism of his time, Liang believed in the "power" of newspaper, especially its influence over government policies.

Using newspapers and magazines to communicate political ideas: Liang realised the importance of journalism's social role and supported the idea of a strong relationship between politics and journalism before the May Fourth Movement, (also known as the New Culture Movement). He believed that newspapers and magazines should serve as an essential and effective tool in communicating political ideas. He believed that newspapers did not only act as a historical record, but was also a means to "shape the course of history."

Press as a weapon in revolution: Liang also thought that the press was an "effective weapon in the service of a nationalist uprising". In Liang's words, the newspaper is a “revolution of ink, not a revolution of blood.” He wrote, "so a newspaper regards the government the way a father or elder brother regards a son or younger brother — teaching him when he does not understand, and reprimanding him when he gets something wrong." Undoubtedly, his attempt to unify and dominate a fast growing and highly competitive press market has set the tone for the first generation of newspaper historians of the May Fourth Movement.

Newspaper as an educational program: Liang was well aware that the newspaper could serve as an "educational program", and said, "the newspaper gathers virtually all the thoughts and expressions of the nation and systematically introduces them to the citizenry, it being irrelevant whether they are important or not, concise or not, radical or not. The press, therefore, can contain, reject, produce, as well as destroy, everything."

For example, Liang wrote a well known essay during his most radical period titled "The Young China" and published it in his newspaper Qing Yi Bao (清議報) on February 2, 1900. The essay established the concept of the nation-state and argued that the young revolutionaries were the holders of the future of China. This essay was influential on the Chinese political culture during the May Fourth Movement in the 1920s.

Weak press: However, Liang thought that the press in China at that time was quite weak, not only due to lack of financial resources and to conventional social prejudices, but also because "the social atmosphere was not free enough to encourage more readers and there was a lack of roads and highways that made it hard to distribute newspapers". Liang felt that the prevalent newspapers of the time were "no more than a mass commodity". He criticized that those newspapers "failed to have the slightest influence upon the nation as a society".

Literary career[edit]

Liang Qichao was both a traditional Confucian scholar and a reformist. Liang Qichao contributed to the reform in late Qing by writing various articles interpreting non-Chinese ideas of history and government, with the intent of stimulating Chinese citizens' minds to build a new China. In his writings, he argued that China should protect the ancient teachings of Confucianism, but also learn from the successes of Western political life and not just Western technology. Therefore, he was regarded as the pioneer of political friction.

Liang shaped the ideas of democracy in China, using his writings as a medium to combine Western scientific methods with traditional Chinese historical studies. Liang's works were strongly influenced by the Japanese political scholar Katō Hiroyuki, who used methods of social Darwinism to promote the statist ideology in Japanese society. Liang drew from much of his work and subsequently influenced Korean nationalists in the 1900s.

Historiographical thought[edit]

Liang Qichao’s historiographical thought represents the beginning of modern Chinese historiography and reveals some important directions of Chinese historiography in the twentieth century.

For Liang, the major flaw of "old historians" (舊史家) was their failure to foster the national awareness necessary for a strong and modern nation. Liang's call for new history not only pointed to a new orientation for historical writing in China, but also indicated the rise of modern historical consciousness among Chinese intellectuals. He advocated the Great Man theory in his 1899 piece, "Heroes and the Times" (英雄与时势, Yīngxióng yǔ Shíshì), and he also wrote biographies of European state-builders such as Otto von Bismarck, Horatio Nelson, Oliver Cromwell, Lajos Kossuth, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour; as well as Chinese men including Zheng He, Tan Sitong, and Wang Anshi.[5][6]

During this period of Japan's challenge in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), Liang was involved in protests in Beijing pushing for an increased participation in the governance by the Chinese people. It was the first protest of its kind in modern Chinese history. This changing outlook on tradition was shown in the historiographical revolution (史學革命) launched by Liang Qichao in the early twentieth century. Frustrated by his failure at political reform, Liang embarked upon cultural reform. In 1902, while in exile in Japan, Liang wrote "The New Historiography" (新史學), which called on Chinese to study world history to understand China rather than just Chinese history.[6] The article also attacked old historiographical methods, which he lamented focused on dynasty over state; the individual over the group; the past but not the present; and facts, rather than ideals.[7]

Translator[edit]

Liang's calligraphy

Liang was head of the Translation Bureau and oversaw the training of students who were learning to translate Western works into Chinese. He believed that this task was "the most essential of all essential undertakings to accomplish" because he believed Westerners were successful - politically, technologically and economically.

Philosophical Works: After escaping Beijing and the government crackdown on anti-Qing protesters, Liang studied the works of Western philosophers of the Enlightenment period, namely Hobbes, Rousseau, Locke, Hume and Bentham, translating them and introducing his own interpretation of their works. His essays were published in a number of journals, drawing interest among Chinese intellectuals who had been taken aback by the dismemberment of China's formidable empire at the hands of foreign powers.

Western Social and Political Theories: In the early 20th century, Liang Qichao played a significant role in introducing Western social and political theories in Korea such as Social Darwinism and international law. Liang wrote in his well-known manifesto, New People (新民說):

“Freedom means Freedom for the Group, not Freedom for the Individual. (…) Men must not be slaves to other men, but they must be slaves to their group. For, if they are not slaves to their own group, they will assuredly become slaves to some other.”

Poet and novelist[edit]

Liang Qichao

Liang advocated reform in both the genres of poem and novel. The Collected Works from the Ice-Drinker's Studio (飲冰室合集) is his representative works in literature compiled into 148 volumes.

Liang gained his idea of calling his work as Collected Works of Yinbingshi from a passage of Zhuangzi (《莊子•人間世》). It states that "Every morning, I receive the mandate [for action], every evening I drink the ice [of disillusion], but I remain ardent in my inner mind" (吾朝受命而夕飲冰,我其內熱與). As a result, Liang called his workplace as "The Ice-drinker studio" (Yinbingshi), and addressed himself as Yinbingshi Zhuren (飲冰室主人), literally Host of the Ice-drinker studio, in order to present his idea that he was worrying about all the policial matters, so he would still try his best to reform the society by the effort of writings.

Liang also wrote fiction and scholarly essays on fiction, which included Fleeing to Japan after failure of Hundred Days' Reform (1898) and the essay On the Relationship Between Fiction and the Government of the People (論小說與群治之關係,1902). These novels emphasized modernization in the West and the call for reform.

Educator[edit]

In the late 1920s, Liang retired from politics and taught at the Tung-nan University in Shanghai and the Tsinghua Research Institute in Peking as a tutor. He founded Chiang-hsüeh she (Chinese Lecture Association) and brought many intellectual figures to China, including Driesch and Tagore. Academically he was a renowned scholar of his time, introducing Western learning and ideology, and making extensive studies of ancient Chinese culture.

During this last decade of his life, he wrote many books documenting Chinese cultural history, Chinese literary history and historiography. He also had a strong interest in Buddhism and wrote numerous historical and political articles on its influence in China. Liang influenced many of his students in producing their own literary works. They included Xu Zhimo, renowned modern poet, and Wang Li, an accomplished poet and founder of Chinese linguistics as a modern discipline.

Publications[edit]

Collected Works of Yinbingshi vol 1-12
  • Introduction to the Learning of the Qing Dynasty (清代學術概論,1920)
  • The Learning of Mohism (墨子學案,1921)
  • Chinese Academic History of the Recent 300 Years (中國近三百年學術史,1924)
  • History of Chinese Culture (中國文化史,1927)
  • The Construction of New China
  • The Philosophy of Laozi (老子哲學)
  • The History of Buddhism in China (中國佛教史)
  • Collected Works of Yinbingshi, Zhonghua Book Co, Shanghai 1936, republished in Beijing, 2003, ISBN 7-101-00475-X /K.210

Family[edit]

  • Paternal grandfather
    • Liang Weiqing (梁維清) (1815 - 1892), pseudonym Jingquan (鏡泉)
  • Paternal grandmother
    • Lady Li (黎氏) (1817 - 1873), daughter of Guangxi admiral Li Diguang (黎第光)
  • Father
    • Liang Baoying (梁寶瑛) (1849 - 1916), courtesy name Lianjian (蓮澗)
  • Mother
    • Lady Zhao (趙氏) (1852 - 1887)
  • First wife
    • Li Huixian (李蕙仙), married Liang Qichao in 1891, died of illness on 13 September 1924
  • Second wife
    • Wang Guiquan (王桂荃), initially Li Huixian's handmaiden, became Liang Qichao's concubine in 1903

Issue and descendants[edit]

  • Eldest daughter: Liang Sishun (梁思順) (14 April 1893 – 1966), became an accomplished poet, married Zhou Xizhe (周希哲) in 1925
    • Zhou Nianci (週念慈)
    • Zhou Tongshi (周同軾)
    • Zhou Youfei (周有斐)
    • Zhou Jiaping (周嘉平)
  • Eldest son: Liang Sicheng (梁思成) (20 April 1901 - 9 January 1972), became a famous architect and teacher, married Lin Huiyin (10 June 1904 - 1 April 1955) in 1928
    • Son: Liang Congjie (梁從誡) (4 August 1932 - 28 October 2010), prominent environmental activist, married firstly Zhou Rumei (周如枚), married secondly Fang Jing (方晶)
      • Son: Liang Jian (梁鑑), son of Zhou Rumei
      • Daughter: Liang Fan (梁帆), daughter of Fang Jing
    • Daughter: Liang Zaibing (梁再冰)
  • 2nd son: Liang Siyong (梁思永) (24 July 1904 - 2 April 1954), married Li Fuman (李福曼)
    • Son: Liang Baiyou (梁柏有)
  • 3rd son: Liang Sizhong (梁思忠) (6 August 1907 – 1932)
  • 2nd daughter: Liang Sizhuang (梁思莊) (1908 - 20 May 1986), married Wu Luqiang (吳魯強) in 1933
    • Daughter: Wu Liming (吳荔明)
      • Son: Yang Nianqun (楊念群) (20 January 1964-), male-line great-grandson late-Qing era personage Yang Du
  • 4th son: Liang Sida (梁思達) (16 December 1912 – 2001), married Yu Xuezhen (俞雪臻)
    • Daughter: Liang Yibing (梁憶冰)
    • 1st son: Liang Renyou (梁任又)
    • 2nd son: Liang Renkan (梁任堪)
  • 3rd daughter: Liang Siyi (梁思懿) (13 December 1914 – 1988), married Zhang Weixun (張偉遜)
    • 1st son: Zhang Yuwen (張郁文)
    • 2nd son: Zhang Anwen (張安文)
  • 4th daughter: Liang Sining (梁思寧) (30 October 1916 – 2006), married Zhang Ke (章柯)
    • Zhang Antai (章安泰)
    • Zhang Anqiu (章安秋)
    • Zhang Anjian (章安建)
    • Zhang Hui (章惠)
    • Zhang Anning (章安寧)
  • 5th son: Liang Sili (梁思禮) (24 August 1924-), married Mai Xiuqiong (麥秀瓊)
    • Liang Zuojun (梁左軍)
    • Liang Hong (梁紅)
    • Liang Xuan (梁旋)

Liang Sishun, Liang Sicheng, and Liang Sizhuang were borne by Li Huixian. Liang Siyong, Liang Sizhong, Liang Sida, Liang Siyi, Liang Sining, and Liang Sili were borne by Wang Guiquan.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://personal.kenyon.edu/xiaoy/Yang%20Xiao%20Liang%20Qichao's%20Political%20and%20Social%20Philosophy.pdf
  2. ^ 徐继畬 (Xu Jiyu) . 1849 . 瀛環志略 (A short account of the maritime circuit )
  3. ^ Ch 3, "Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and the Chinese Democracy Movement," Andrew Nathan, Chinese Democracy (1985): 45-66.
  4. ^ John Schauble, Australia visit shaped ideas of Mao favourite, The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 December 2000
  5. ^ Matten, Marc Andre (March 2011). "The Worship of General Yue Fei and His Problematic Creation as a National Hero in Twentieth Century China". Frontiers of History in China 6 (1): 74–94. 
  6. ^ a b Horner, Charles (2009). Rising China and Its Postmodern Fate: Memories of Empire in a New Global Context. University of Georgia Press. p. 102. 
  7. ^ Chen, Qineng (2005). "The "New History" in China: A Contrast to the West". Storia della Storiografia [History of Historiography] 48: 112–118. 

References[edit]

  • Chang, Hao. Liang Ch'i-Ch'ao and Intellectual Transition in China. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.
  • Chen, Chun-chi. Politics and the novel: a study of Liang Ch'i-Ch'ao's future of New China and his views on fiction. Ann Arbor: UMI dissertation services, 1998.
  • Huang, Philip: Liang Ch’i-ch’ao and Modern Chinese Liberalism (1972). Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.
  • Kovach, Bill and Rosenstiel, Tom. The Elements of Journalism. New York: Random House, 2001.
  • Levenson, Joseph. Liang Ch'i-Ch'ao and the Mind of Modern China. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970.
  • Li Xiaodong [李暁東]: Kindai Chūgoku no rikken kōsō – Gen Puku, Yō Do, Ryō Keichō to Meiji keimō shisō [近代中国の立憲構想-厳復・楊度・梁啓超と明治啓蒙思想] (2005). Tokio: Hōsei daigaku shuppankyoku.
  • Li Xisuo [李喜所] (ed.): Liang Qichao yu jindai zhongguo shehui wenhua [梁启超与近代中国社会文化] (2005). Tianjin: Tianjin guji chubanshe.
  • Shin, Tim Sung Wook. The concepts of state (kuo-chia) and people (min) in the late Ch'ing, 1890 - 1907: the Case of Liang Ch'i Ch'ao, T'an S'su-t'ung and Huang Tsun-Hsien. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1986.
  • Tang, Xiaobing. Global space and the Nationalist Discourse of Modernity" the Historical Thinking of Liang Qichao. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.
  • Wang, Xunmin. Liang Qichao zhuan. Beijing: Tuan jie chu ban she, 1998.
  • Wu, Qichang. Liang Qichao zhuan. Beijing: Tuan jie chu ban she, 2004.
  • Xiao, Xiaoxui. China encounters Western ideas (1895 - 1905): a rhetorical analysis of Yan Fu, Tan Sitong and Liang Qichao. Ann Arbor: UMI dissertation services, 1992.
  • Yang Gang [杨钢] and Wang Xiangyi [王相宜] (ed.): Liang Qichao quanji [梁启超全集] (1999). Beijing: Beijing chubanshe. (dates of letter before mid 1912 messed up).
  • Xiao, Yang. Liang Qichao’s Political and Social Philosophy, in Chung-ying Cheng, Nicholas Bunnin (eds.), Contemporary Chinese Philosophy (Malden: Blackwell), 2002, pp. 17–36.

Further reading[edit]

  • Pankaj Mishra (2012). "Liang Qichao's China and the Fate of Asia". From the Ruins of Empire:The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0374249598. 

External links[edit]