|• Chinese||辽宁省 (Liáoníng Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||辽 (pinyin: Liáo)|
|Named for||Peace forever for the Liao River watershed|
(and largest city)
|Divisions||14 prefectures, 100 counties, 1511 townships|
|• Secretary||Wang Min|
|• Governor||Chen Zhenggao|
|• Total||145,900 km2 (56,300 sq mi)|
|• Density||300/km2 (780/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||15th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han - 84%
Manchu - 13%
Mongol - 2%
Hui - 0.6%
Korean - 0.6%
Xibe - 0.3%
|• Languages and dialects||Northeastern Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Pyongan Korean, Manchu|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-21|
|GDP (2012)||CNY 2.480 trillion
US$ 398,73 billion (7th)
|- per capita||CNY 56,693
US$ 9,115 (7th)
|HDI (2008)||0.835 (high) (7th)|
Liaoning (simplified Chinese: 辽宁; traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: Liáoníng; Manchu: ᠯᡳᠶᠣᠣ ᠨᡳᠩ, Liyoo ning) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" (liáo), a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. The second character of the name, "宁" (níng) means "peaceful". The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian province (Chinese: 奉天; pinyin: Fèngtiān; Postal map spelling: Fengtien; Manchu: ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠩᡤᠠ, Abkai imiyangga) and the name was changed to Liaoning in 1929. Under the Japanese puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name, but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945.
Liaoning is located in the southern part of the Northeast, and is often called "the Golden Triangle" because of its strategic geographical location, with the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay and Bohai Sea) in the south, North Korea's North Pyongan and Chagang provinces in the southeast, Jilin to the northeast, Hebei to the southwest, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The Yalu River marks the international border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong, Liaoning and Sinuiju, North Korea.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Education
- 10 Paleontology
- 11 Sports
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Liaoning is located in the southern part of Northeast China. The governments headed by various people such as the Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon, Goguryeo, Balhae, the Chinese as the Yan state, Han Dynasty, and the nomadic peoples as Donghu, Xianbei, Khitan and Jurchen ruled Liaoning.
The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the northwestern frontier of the province from a potential threat from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries). In 1467-1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.
Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Ming Liaodong was conquered by the Manchus in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616-1621 in Xingjing (兴京), which was located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province (near today's Xilaocheng Village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (新宾满族自治县), part of Fushun City). It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning), and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era.
The Qing conquest of Liaodong resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (Fuyin) of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang, and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining.
In the last half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653), the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning). Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin and Heilongjiang, as well as the adjacent parts of Inner Mongolia), the so-called Willow Palisade was constructed (ca. 1638 - ca. 1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest.
Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence - or, failing that, to legalize them. E.g. an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them to either properly register and to join a local defense group (保, bao), or to leave the province for their original places within the next 10 years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants... In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734.
During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing, ruled much of modern Liaoning.
In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region.
In the 20th century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought.
During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang; in 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.
At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.
Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.
The politics of Liaoning is structured in a single party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning (Chinese: 辽宁省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's single party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Liaoning Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (Chinese: 辽宁省委书记), colloquially termed the "Liaoning CCP Party Chief".
Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian, and was governed by a zongdu or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces, Chinese: 东三省总督), along with the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor (xunfu).
It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east.
The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qianshan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.
|— Sub-provincial city —|
|— Prefecture-level city —|
These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (17 county-level cities, 19 counties, eight autonomous counties, and 56 districts), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistricts).
Liaoning has the largest economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 2.20 trillion yuan (ca. US$348 billion) making it the 7th largest in China (out of 31 provinces). Its per capita GDP was 41,782 yuan (US$6,172). Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP.
In 2008, Liaoning was the region with the highest GDP growth among global G8x8, the eight provinces or states below national level with the highest GDP of the top eight GDP nations. According to preliminary statistics, Liaoning maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth.
Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery. On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance.
Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province’s light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery.
In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics.
Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong.
Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.
Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil, especially in the Liaohe Oilfield.
Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on.
The sea off Dalian abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.
Economic and technological development zones
Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level. These zones are further grouped into Economic Development Zones, High-Tech Zones, Free Trade and Export Processing Zones, and Special Development Zones.
- Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone
In October 1995, Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone was approved to be established by State Council. Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone is the only zone established in Hi-Tech Industrial Zone. It has a total area of 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi). It welcomes all the investors from the world, especially Taiwan to invest in the zone. Investors can enjoy many preferential policies. It focuses on the development of instruments manufacturing, telecommunication, bio-pharmacy, electronics, new materials. It is an important part of Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.
- Liaoning Shenyang Export Processing Zone
Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone was approved to be established by the state government in June 2005. It is located in National-level Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, with a planned area of 62 km2 (24 sq mi) and current area of 14.1 km2 (5.4 sq mi). It encourages and focuses on the development of auto and auto parts, electronics, precision machinery, new energy, new materials and fine chemical industry.
Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone used to be called Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Established in 1988, it is a national hi-tech development zone approved by State Council. The zone is located in the west of Shenyang City with an area of 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi). Its encouraged industries include electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, energy saving and environmental protection.
- Anshan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone
Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in September 1984, as one of the first of the China National Economic and Technological Development Zones. The zone had a GDP of 70.31 billion yuan in 2007 and the total volume of import and export trade is 14.92 billion dollars, which accounts for a quarter of the whole Liaoning Province's. Most of the enterprises in Dalian ETDZ are factories foreign enterprises, especially from Japan, South Korea and USA, such as Canon, Pfizer, Toshiba and Intel.
- Dalian Export Processing Zone
Dalian Export Processing Zone was approved to be set up by State Council in April 2000, with a planned area of 2.95 km2 (1.14 sq mi). It is divided into two parts, A zone and B zone. A zone has a construction area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), and started operation in May 2001. All the basic infrastructure are available, which include road, water, gas, and power supply, telecommunication and so on. In A zone, it encourages several leading industries, such as home appliances, light industry, machinery, construction materials, medicine instruments.
- Dalian Free Trade Zone
Dalian Free Trade Zone was approved to be set up by government in May, 1992. Investors can enjoys preferential policies, including duty-free. Inside the zone, all the infrastructures are available. The trade zone enjoys strategic location and convenient traffic. It has formed some leading industries, such as electronics, machinery and plastics.
- Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 35.6 square kilometres (13.7 sq mi). Inside the zone, all the infrastructure are available. It focuses and encourages the following industries: electronic information, bio-pharmacy, and new materials.
- Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone
Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved to be national-level development zone in 1992. It is located in the bank of Yalu River, and opposite the Sinuiju, a Korean city. It has completed the infrastructure. It has formed and encourages the following industries which is electronic information, machinery manufacturing, bio-pharmaceuticals.
- Yingkou Economic & Technical Development Zone
Regional development strategies
Central Liaoning City Cluster (Shenyang Metro Area)
The Central Liaoning city cluster is a Megalopolis centering at Shenyang (urban population 4 million). Within its 150 km (93 mi) radius, it has Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun (1.3 million), Yingkou (1.1 million), Benxi (0.95 million), Liaoyang (0.7 million), and Tieling (0.4 million).
In April 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved a national development strategy for the Shenyang Metro Area. The core of this strategy is innovation in industrial development, integration of the eight cities, integration of urban and rural areas as well as interventions towards more market-oriented development.
Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt
The Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as the "rustbelt" of Chinese State Owned Enterprises.
The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.
The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi).
The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new motorway along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. The new coastal motorway will directly connect the entire rim of five zones around the Bohai sea, and will be completed by 2009.
|Ethnic groups in Liaoning, 2000 census|
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
In paleontology, Liaoning is well known for its extraordinary fossils from the Lower Cretaceous period; e.g., the early 'placental' mammal known as Eomaia. The first widely acknowledged feathered dinosaur, Sinosauropteryx prima, was discovered in Liaoning and unveiled at a scientific meeting in 1996. Other notable discoveries have been an intact embryo of a pterosaur, Repenomamus robustus—a cat-sized mammal who ate dinosaurs, and Sinornithosaurus millenii, nicknamed "Dave the Fuzzy Raptor".
The Mukden Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as famous as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO World Heritage Site as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing.
In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The port city of Dalian (a former Russian and Japanese port city), located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China.
Bijia Mountain is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.
Colleges and universities
Under the national Ministry of Education:
Under various other national agencies:
- China Criminal Police College (中国刑警学院)
- Dalian Maritime University (大连海事大学)
- Dalian Nationalities University (大连民族大学)
Under the provincial government:
- China Medical University (中国医科大学)
- Shenyang Normal University (沈阳师范大学)
- Shenyang Medical College (沈阳医学院)
- Liaoning Medical University (辽宁医学院)
- Liaoning Normal University (辽宁师范大学)
- Liaoning Technical University (辽宁工程技术大学)
- Liaoning University (辽宁大学)
- Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology (辽宁石油化工大学)
- Shenyang Agricultural University (沈阳农业大学)
- Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering (沈阳航空工业学院)
- Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology (沈阳化工学院)
- Shenyang Jianzhu University (沈阳建筑大学)
- Shenyang Ligong University (沈阳理工大学)
- Shenyang Pharmaceutical University (沈阳药科大学)
- Shenyang University (沈阳大学)
- Shenyang University of Technology (沈阳工业大学)
- Anshan Normal University (鞍山师范学院)
- Bohai University (渤海大学)
- Dalian Jiaotong University (大连交通大学)
- Dalian Medical University (大连医科大学)
- Dalian University (大连大学)
- Dalian University of Foreign Languages (大连外国语学院)
- Dongbei University of Finance and Economics (东北财经大学)
- Liaoning Institute of Technology (辽宁工学院)
- Liaoning Radio and TV University (辽宁广播电视大学)
- Shenyang Polytechnic College (沈阳职业技术学院)
Liaoning contains one of the foremost paleontological sites in the world since the discovery of Sinosauropteryx, a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation. Since the 1990s dozens of groundbreaking finds have been discovered there, including the earliest flower, placental mammal, and marsupial, as well as several birds and feathered dinosaurs, including one that was found in a sleeping position. These have added further evidence that birds and dinosaurs may be directly related.
Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:
- Chinese Football Association Super League
- Chinese Football Association Jia League
- Chinese Basketball Association
- Shenyang Mandarin
- 12th National Games of the People's Republic of China
- Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning
- Gojoseon–Yan War
- "中国各省及自治区名称历史由来和变化" [Origins of and changes to the names of China's provinces and autonomous regions] (in Simplified Chinese). The People's Daily Online. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
- "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census  (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Liaoning Travel Guide: Map, History, Sightseeing, Ethnic Minority, Climate". Retrieved 2010-03-14.
- Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 38–40. ISBN 0-89065-118-3.
- Edmonds (1985), p. 113
- Edmonds (1985), p. 74
- Edmonds (1985), pp. 74-75
- Edmonds (1985), pp. 58-61
- Edmonds (1985), p. 76
- China Liaoning Business Guide
- RightSite.asia | Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone
- RightSite.asia | Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone
- RightSite.asia | Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Export Processing Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Free Trade Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone
- China Liaoning Business Guide
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liaoning.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Liaoning.|
- Liaoning travel guide from Wikivoyage
- (Chinese) Official website of the Liaoning Provincial Government
- (English) Liaoning Information Guide
- (English) (Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
|Hebei||North Pyongan, North Korea|
|Bohai Sea||Korea Bay|