Liberalism and radicalism in Spain

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This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Spain. It is limited to liberal and radical parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having been represented in parliament. The sign ⇒ denotes another party in that scheme. For inclusion in this scheme it is not necessary that parties labeled themselves as a liberal party.

Background[edit]

In the nineteenth century, liberalism was a dominant political force in Spain, but the label itself was also used by the conservative current. In the twentieth century, liberal parties tended to name themselves radical, democratic or republican.

History[edit]

From Liberals to Fusionist Liberal Party[edit]

A common grave for six Liberal politicians from the 19th century at the Panteón de Hombres Ilustres, Madrid.
  • 1812: The Spanish liberals, known as Liberals (Liberales, 1812-1836), Exaltados (1836-1839), Progressives (Progresistas, 1839-1880), led by people like Baldomero Espartero, Salustiano Olózoga, Juan Prim, Práxedes Sagasta and Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, Duke de la Torre, were not organised in a well-established party, but formed their own factions. Out of this current the ⇒ Democrats in 1843, the ⇒ Liberal Union in 1854, the ⇒ Radical Democratic Party in 1869 and the ⇒ Progressive Democratic Party in 1879 seceded
  • 1880: The liberals united in the Fusionist Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Fusionista), led by Sagasta, though sometimes factions remain outside the party
  • 1882: A left-wing faction of the party established the ⇒ Dynastic Left, most of its members returned between 1884 and 1886 to the Fusionist Liberal Party
  • 1890: The ⇒ Posibilist Party joined the party
  • 1907: A left-wing faction of the party seceded as the ⇒ Monarchist Democratic Party
  • 1918: A faction seceded as the ⇒ Liberal Left
  • 1923: The party disappeared due to the Miguel Primo de Rivera coup

Democratic Party[edit]

  • 1843: The left-wing of the ⇒ Progressives established the Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata) as a rally of left wing liberals and moderate socialists
  • 1868: The republican wing formed the ⇒ Federal Republican Party
  • 1871: The party disappeared and remnants of the party continue as a monarchist party

Liberal Union[edit]

  • 1854: Moderate ⇒ progressives established the Liberal Union (Unión Liberal), led by Leopoldo O'Donnell
  • 1868: The party merged with the conservative Moderates into the Liberal Conservative Party

Federal Republican Party[edit]

  • 1868: The republican wing of the ⇒ Democratic Party established the Federal Republican Party (Partido Republicano Federal), also known as the Republican Democratic Party
  • 1878: A faction joined the ⇒ Reformist Republican Party
  • 1879: A faction seceded as the ⇒ Posibilist Party
  • 1923: The party disappeared due to the Primo de Rivera coup

From Radical Democratic Party to Centralist Party[edit]

  • 1869: A left-wing faction of the Progressives seceded as the Radical Democratic Party (Partido Radical Demócrata), led by Ruiz Zorilla
  • 1876: The party is reorganised into the Reformist Republican Party, led by Nicolás Salmerón
  • 1878: A faction of the ⇒ Federal Republican Party joined the party
  • 1879: A faction joined the ⇒ Progressive Democratic Party
  • 1890: The party is renamed Centralist Party (Partido Centralista)
  • 1891: The party is absorbed by the ⇒ Federal Republican Party

Posibilist Party[edit]

  • 1879: A faction of the ⇒ Federal Republican Party formed the Posibilist Party ('Partido Posibilista'), led by Emilio Castelar
  • 1890: The party joins the ⇒ Fusionist Liberal Party

Progressive Democratic Party[edit]

  • 1879: A left wing faction of the ⇒ Progressives with dissidents of the Reformist Republican Party formed the Progressive Democratic Party (Partido Progresista Democrático)
  • 1882: The party merges into the ⇒ Dynastic Left

Dynastic Left[edit]

  • 1882: A faction of the ⇒ Fusionist Liberal Party together with the Progressive Democratic Party established the Dynastic Left (Izquierda Dinástica), led by Francisco Serrano and Adolfo Posada
  • 1886: Between 1884 and 1886 most of the members returned to the ⇒ Fusionist Liberal Party

Liberal Democratic Party[edit]

Republican Union (1906)[edit]

  • 1906: A faction of the ⇒ Federal Republican Union seceded as the Republican Union (Unión Republicana), led by Nicolás Salmerón
  • 1908: A faction seceded as the ⇒ Radical Republican Party
  • 1923: The party disappeared due to the Primo de Rivera coup

Monarchist Democratic Party[edit]

  • 1907: A left-wing faction of the ⇒ Fusionist Liberal Party seceded as the Monarchist Democratic Party (Partido Democrático Monnárquico) of José Canajelas
  • 1923: The party disappeared due to the Primo de Rivera coup

Radical Republican Party[edit]

  • 1908: A faction of the ⇒ Republican Union established the Radical Republican Party (Partido Republicano Radical), led by Alejandro Lerroux
  • 1929: A left-wing faction established the ⇒ Radical Socialist Republican Party
  • 1933: Due to the development into a conservative party, the liberal wing sededed as the ⇒ Radical Democratic Party. The original party disappeared in 1939

Liberal Lefts[edit]

  • 1918: A faction of the ⇒ Fusionist Liberal Party seceded to form the Liberal Left (Izquierda Liberal)
  • 1923: The party disappeared due to the Primo de Rivera coup

From Republican Action to Republican Left[edit]

  • 1926: Manuel Azaña established the Republican Action (Acción Republicana)
  • 1934: The party merged with a Galician regional party and a faction of the ⇒ Radical Socialist Republican Party into the Republican Left (Izquierda Republicana)
  • 1939: The party is banned, though there are attempts to revive the party after 1976

Radical Socialist Republican Party[edit]

  • 1929: A left-wing faction of the ⇒ Radical Republican Party established the Radical Socialist Republican Party (Partido Republicano Radical Socialista)
  • 1934: The party is dissolved, members joined the ⇒ Republican Left or the ⇒ Republican Union

From Radical Democratic Party to Republican Union[edit]

  • 1933: Due to the development of the ⇒ Radical Republican Party, the liberal wing sededed as the Radical Democratic Party (Partido Radical Demócrata)
  • 1934: The party merged with a faction of the ⇒ Radical Socialist Republican Party into the Republican Union (Unión Republicana)
  • 1939: The party is banned

Democratic Convergence of Catalonia[edit]

Democratic and Social Centre[edit]

  • 1982: Former prime minister Adolfo Suárez left the Union of the Democratic Centre and establishes the liberal Democratic and Social Centre (Centro Democrático y Social). The party lost parliamentary representation in 1993, but continues to exist.

Union, Progress and Democracy[edit]

Liberal leaders[edit]

Liberal thinkers[edit]

In the Contributions to liberal theory the following Spanish thinkers are included:

See also[edit]