Liberalism in Mexico is limited to liberalparties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament.
Since the 19th century, the political territory of Mexico witnessed turbulent clashes between the conservative and liberal ideologies, an inheritance of the 300 years of European colonialism at its rawest and the influence of the French and American Revolutions, respectively. Several of the conflicts in the country throughout the 19th and first half of the 20th century can be attributed to social origins.
Some of the events emanating from the radical practices of both ideologies include the very War for Independence and Revolution, not to mention countless revolts and the overthrowing of several presidents and even two emperors. So turbulent was the political stage that, in an ironic twist that is almost a cliché, those who occupied the presidency after a coup d'état found themselves the subject of a putsch: Anastasio Bustamante, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Ignacio Comonfort and Porfirio Díaz to name a few.
To some their beliefs were worth taking to their grave, while others saw the parties as merely marketing strategies. Agustin de Iturbide, head of the Royalist Army, for example defected to the insurgency and wound up as the first Emperor of Mexico, and Santa Anna, ever an opportunist, changed his party to suit convenience, ultimately serving eleven times as President. And in what may only be portrayed as novel-like, the liberal ideal always managed to “win.”
One of the last (and perhaps most glorious) liberal victories was the 1917 Constitution. Political and social clashes defined Mexico and although the end of the “war” between liberalism and conservatism (one which was not silent nor forgiving) ended by the time of Lazaro Cardenas’ presidency, the legacy of liberalism continues to be felt as, not just in the ideology itself but in its sustenance.
Juan Francisco Lucas is a key figure in 19th century Mexican history for his prominent role as a leader of the indigenous guerrilla 'the Cuatecomacos', who took part in several clashes against the French Army in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862 and other guerrilla warfare in the Sierra Norte de Puebla in 1865 against the Austrian Voluntary Corps commanded by General Franz von Thun.