Liberalism in South Korea

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This article gives an overview of liberalism in South Korea. It is limited to liberal democratic parties with substantial support, mainly proven by having had a representation in parliament.

Introduction[edit]

Note: the word liberal in South Korea is often used by conservative groupings (See New Right in South Korea), in the European fashion. Liberal parties (in the American sense of the term) tend to label themselves as "Democratic" or "Progressive" instead.

There has been a tradition of liberal parties since 1955, often organized around persons. Presently the New Politics Alliance for Democracy, the Unified Progressive Party, the Justice Party and the Labor Party are the main successors of the liberal parties' tradition

"Liberal" movements in Korea also differ markedly from liberal movements elsewhere by strongly emphasizing patriotism and ethnic nationalism (especially with regard to Korean reunification) instead of "civic," or "liberal nationalism", a characteristic shared with North Korea.[1][2][3][4][5][6] These emphasis has resulted in "Liberalism" being closely associated with Pro-North Korea sentiments in the political sphere.[7] In this critical respect "liberalism" in South Korea bears very little resemblance to "liberalism" as it is understood elsewhere in the world.

Timeline[edit]

N.B.: The sign ⇒ means a reference to another party in that scheme. For inclusion in this scheme it is not required for parties to label themselves as a "liberal party."

Christian Social Democratic Party to Korea Democratic Party[edit]

Democratic National Party[edit]

Democratic Party (1955)[edit]

  • 1955: Chang Myon founds the Democratic Party (1955) (Minju Dang)
  • 1957: Unity Party secedes from the Democratic Party (1955)
  • 1961: Party is banned and splits into the Democratic Party (1963) and the Civil Rule Party

Civil Rule Party[edit]

  • 1963: The Civil Rule Party founded after the banned of Democratic Party (1955)
  • 1967: merged with the Civil Rule Party and forms the New Democratic Korea Party

Democratic Party (1963)[edit]

  • 1963: The Democratic Party (1963) founded after the banned of Democratic Party (1955)
  • 1967: merged with the Democratic Party (1963) and forms the New Democratic Korea Party

New Democratic Korea Party[edit]

  • 1967: Party is refounded as the New Democratic Party (Sinmin Dang), led from 1971 by Kim Dae-jung. When Kim fled to Japan, Kim Young-sam became the party leader
  • 1981: Party is banned and Kim Dae-jung is sentenced to the death penalty. Factions of the party continue as the Democratic Korea Party (Minjuhanguk Dang)
  • 1985: Most of the party joins the ⇒ New Korean Democratic Party, a small and unsuccessful faction

New Korean Democratic Party[edit]

  • 1985: Lee Min Woo founds the New Korean Democratic Party (Sinhanminju Dang), joined after the 1985 elections by the majority of the ⇒ Democratic Korea Party (including Kim Dae-jung and Kim Young-sam)
  • 1987: The "two Kims" and their followers leave the party to form the ⇒ Reunification Democratic Party; the New Korean Democratic Party disappears

Reunification Democratic Party[edit]

  • 1987: Kim Dae-jung and Kim Young-sam leave the ⇒ New Korean Democratic Party and form the Reunification Democratic Party (Tongil Minju Dang)
  • 1987: Kim Dae-jung leaves the Democratic Reunification Party and forms the ⇒ Party for Peace and Democracy
  • 1990: The party merges with the conservative Democratic Justice Party and the New Democratic Republican Party into the conservative Democratic Liberal Party (Minju Jayu Dang). A faction forms the ⇒ Democratic Party (1990)

Party for Peace and Democracy to Democratic Party (1991)[edit]

  • 1987: Kim Dae-jung leaves the ⇒ Reunification Democratic Party and forms the Party for Peace and Democracy (P'yonghwa Minjudang)
  • 1991: The party is reorganised into the New United Democratic Party (Sinminju Yeonhapdang, Sinmindang for short)
  • 1991: The party merges with the ⇒ Democratic Party (1990) and takes the name Democratic Party (1991) (Minjudang)
  • 1995: Most of the party follows Kim into the ⇒ National Congress for New Politics or Democratic Party (2005), the Democratic Party (1991) disappears

Democratic Party (1990)[edit]

  • 1990: A faction of the ⇒ Democratic Reunification Party forms the Democratic Party (1990) (Minjudang)
  • 1991: The party merges with the ⇒ Party for Peace and Democracy into the ⇒ New Democratic Party

Democratic Party (1995)[edit]

  • 1995: A faction of the ⇒ Democratic Party (1990) forms the Democratic Party (1995)
  • 1997: The party merges with the ⇒ National Congress for New Politics

National Congress for New Politics[edit]

  • 1995: Most of the ⇒ Democratic Party follows Kim Dae-jung into the National Congress for New Politics (Saejeongchi Gungminhoeui) and succeeded in 1997 in electing Kim to the presidency of South Korea
  • 2000: The party is merged with New People Party to formed the Millennium Democratic Party (Sae Cheonnyeon Minjudang, 새천년민주당)

Millennium Democratic Party to Democratic Party (2000)[edit]

Uri Party[edit]

  • 2003: After the election of its candidate Roh Moo-hyun to the presidency, his followers leave the ⇒ Millennium Democratic Party and form the Uri Party (Yeollin Uri Dang, 열린 우리당), sometimes known as "Our Open Party." Lasted until August 19, 2007.

Democratic Party (2007) to Centrist Reformists Democratic Party[edit]

United New Democratic Party[edit]

  • 2007: Most members of the Uri Party, Son Hak-gyu's conservative-liberal benches, and a group of the civil movement organizations are united as a new political party called The United New Democratic Party (Daetonghap Minju Sindang, 대통합민주신당).

United Democratic Party to Democratic Party (2008)[edit]

On 17 February 2008, the UNDP merged with the Democratic Party (2000) (민주당), forming the United Democratic Party (통합민주당). This was four years after the Uri Party (열린우리당)'s split from Millennium Democratic Party (새천년민주당).[8] On July 2008 the party is renamed Democratic Party (2008) (Min-ju Dang).

Democratic United Party to Democratic Party (2011)[edit]

In December 16, 2011, with the unity of Democratic Party, Citizens United Party and cooperation of Korean Confederation of Trade Unions, formed Democratic United Party. In 2013 the party is renamed Democratic Party (2011) (Min-ju Dang).

New Politics Alliance for Democracy[edit]

On 26 March 2014, the Democratic Party (2011) merged with New Political Vision Party (새정치연합), forming the New Politics Alliance for Democracy (Saejeongchi Minju Yeonhap, 새정치민주연합).

Liberal leaders[edit]

Major liberal parties election results of South Korea[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election Candidate Total votes Share of votes Outcome Party Name
1952 Yi Si-yeong 764,715 10.9% Lost Red XN Democratic National Party
1956 Shin Ik-hee 0 0.0% died before election Democratic Party (1955)
March 1960 Chough Pyung-ok 0 (electoral vote) 0.0% died before election Democratic Party (1955)
August 1960 Yun Bo-seon 208 (electoral vote) 82.2% Elected Green tickY Democratic Party (1955)
1963 Yun Bo-seon 4,546,614 45.1% Lost Red XN Civil Rule Party
1967 Yun Bo-seon 4,526,541 40.9% Lost Red XN New Democratic Party
1971 Kim Dae-jung 5,395,900 45.3% Lost Red XN New Democratic Party
1981 Yu Chi-song 404 7.7% Lost Red XN Democratic Korea Party
1987 Kim Dae-jung 6,113,375 27.0% Lost Red XN Party for Peace and Democracy
1992 Kim Dae-jung 8,041,284 33.8% Lost Red XN Democratic Party (1991)
1997 Kim Dae-jung
Lee In-je
10,326,275
4,925,591
40.3%
19.2%
Elected Green tickY
Lost Red XN
National Congress for New Politics
New People Party
2002 Roh Moo-hyun 12,014,277 48.9% Elected Green tickY Millennium Democratic Party
2007 Chung Dong-young
Lee In-je
6,174,681
160,708
26.1%
0.7%
Lost Red XN
Lost Red XN
United New Democratic Party
Centrist Reformists Democratic Party
2012 Moon Jae-in 14,692,632 48.0% Lost Red XN Democratic United Party

Legislative elections[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader Party Name
1948
29 / 200
916,322 13.5% Increase29 seats; Minority Kim Seong-su Korera Democratic Party
1950
24 / 210
683,910 9.8% Increase29 seats; Minority Shin Ik-hee Democratic National Party
1954
15 / 203
593,499 7.9% Increase29 seats; Minority Shin Ik-hee Democratic National Party
1958
79 / 233
2,914,049 34.0% Increase79 seats; Minority Chough Pyung-ok Democratic Party (1955)
1960
175 / 233
3,786,401 41.7% Increase96 seats; Majority Chough Pyung-ok Democratic Party (1955)
1963
41 / 175
14 / 175
1,870,976
1,264,285
20.1%
13.6%
Increase41 seats; Minority
Increase14 seats; Minority
Yun Bo-seon
Park Soon-cheon
Civil Rule Party
Democratic Party (1963)
1967
45 / 175
3,554,224 32.7% Increase45 seats; Minority Yu Jin-o New Democratic Party
1971
89 / 204
4,969,050 44.4% Increase44 seats; Minority Kim Hong-il New Democratic Party
1973
52 / 219
3,577,300 32.5% Decrease37 seats; Minority Yu Chin-san New Democratic Party
1978
61 / 231
4,861,204 32.8% Increase9 seats; Minority Yi Cheol-seung New Democratic Party
1981
81 / 276
3,495,829 21.6% Increase81 seats; Minority Lee Man-sup Democratic Korea Party
1988
70 / 299
3,783,279 19.3% Increase70 seats; in Coalition (PPD-DRP-NDRP) Lee Min-woo Party for Peace and Democracy
1992
97 / 299
6,004,577 29.2% Increase97 seats; Minority Kim Dae-jung Democratic Party (1991)
1996
79 / 299
4,971,961 25.3% Increase14 seats; in Coalition (NCNP-ULD-Democrats) Kim Dae-jung National Congress for New Politics
2000
115 / 299
6,780,625 35.9% Increase36 seats; in Coalition (MDP-ULD-DPP) Kim Dae-jung Millennium Democratic Party
2004
152 / 299
9 / 299
8,145,824
1,510,178
38.3%
7.1%
Increase102 seats; Majority
Decrease53 seats; Minority
Chung Dong-young
Choug Soon-hyung
Uri Party
Millennium Democratic Party
2008
81 / 299
4,313,111 25.1% Decrease55 seats; Minority Son Hak-gyu United Democratic Party
2012
127 / 300
7,777,123 36.5% Increase38 seats; Minority Han Myeong-sook Democratic United Party

Local elections[edit]

Election Metropolitan mayor/Governor Provincial legislature Municipal mayor Municipal legislature Party Name
1995
4 / 15
353 / 875
84 / 230
Democratic Party (1991)
1998
6 / 16
0 / 16
271 / 616
0 / 616
84 / 232
1 / 232
National Congress for New Politics
New People Party
2002
1 / 16
33 / 682
16 / 227
Millennium Democratic Party
2006
1 / 16
2 / 16
52 / 733
80 / 733
19 / 230
20 / 230
630 / 2,888
276 / 2,888
Uri Party
Democratic Party (2005)
2010
7 / 16
360 / 761
92 / 228
1,025 / 2,888
Democratic Party (2008)
2014
9 / 17
349 / 789
80 / 226
1,157 / 2,898
New Politics Alliance for Democracy

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “세계화 시대, 개인주의로 가는 포스트 386 주목”
  2. ^ Distorting Nation - Hankyoreh Reporter Go Meong-seop endorses "peace and reunification-oriented ethnic nationalism" over "anti-communist and 'divided' state-based nationalism"
  3. ^ Juche: Idea for All Times: "If we have a more careful look through the 1955 speech and other early references to Juche we will see that this was what Kim Il Song meant: not a coherent ideology, not even the idea of "self-reliance," but rather the need to emphasize one's national identity as a Korean, a need to see Korea's national interests as the top priority."
  4. ^ Reformed Socialist’ Professor Skewers Anachronistic Korean Left - Former leftist student activist Shin Ji-Ho notes the political "primacy on race and reunification" on the part of his former comrades
  5. ^ Why Korea Should Embrace Multi-Culturalism
  6. ^ Amid the anti-dictatorship democratization movement, the leftists of the South were divided, fighting each other over whether they should follow the North’s ideology or not... The concept of “blood is thicker than water” intervened, and the leftists soon became uncomfortable whenever the North was mentioned.
  7. ^ http://www.dailynk.com/korean/read.php?cataId=nk00100&num=84061
  8. ^ 통합민주당 공식 출범, the Hankyoreh, Retrieved on 5 March 2008