Liberdade class underwater glider
Liberdade XRay1 glider
|Name:||Liberdade wing gliders|
|Builders:||Legnos Boat (Massachusetts)|
|Operators:||United States Navy|
|Retired:||StingRay (2004), XRay1 (2006), XRay2 (2007)|
|Type:||Autonomous flying wing underwater glider|
|Range:||1200–1500 km (planned)|
|Test depth:||300 m|
|Hydrophone arrays, vector sensor and electric field sensors|
|Notes:||Acoustic and satellite communications capabilities|
Liberdade class flying wings are autonomous underwater gliders developed by the US Navy Office of Naval Research which use a blended wing body hullform to achieve hydrodynamic efficiency. It is an experimental class whose models were originally intended to track quiet diesel electric submarines in littoral waters, move at 1–3 knots and remain on station for up to six months. The "Liberdade" (Portuguese for "Liberty") was the name of a ship cobbled together by Joshua Slocum prior to the one he single-handedly piloted around the world.
Members of the Liberdade class are the world's largest known underwater gliders and were developed as part of the US Navy's Persistent Littoral Undersea Surveillance Network (PlusNet) system of unmanned surveillance vehicles. The gliders can be deployed covertly with the capability of monitoring over 1000 km of ocean. The glider is designed to be difficult to detect using passive acoustic sensing.
The Marine Physical Lab at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and the Applied Physics Lab at the University of Washington are the primary developers of the Liberdade class flying wings. The hull of the latest model was constructed by Legnos Boat, and consists of an ABS outer shell over a titanium frame. First major field tests of the Liberdade XRay took place in 2006 in Monterey Bay, California. Also participating in the development of the Liberdade class wings were:
- University of Texas at Austin’s Applied Research Lab
- Applied Research Lab at Penn State University
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
- Bluefin Robotics
In 2007, XRay 2 was completed and demonstrated a 20 to 1 lift-to-drag ratio. In 2008, 55 field tests were conducted. In 2010, the latest generation "ZRay" model was completed and includes a 27 channel hydrophone array. Its goal is to track and automatically identify marine mammals. ZRay has a 35 to 1 lift-to-drag ratio, and has water jets for fine attitude control, as well as propulsion on the surface.
- Wood, Stephen L. (November 7, 2008), "Autonomous Underwater Gliders" (pdf), Underwater vehicles, Florida Institute of Technology, p. 517, retrieved May 26, 2012
- Liberdade XRay Advanced Underwater Glider, Office of Naval Research, April 19, 2006, retrieved May 25,2012
- Hildebrand, John A.; D'Spain, Gerald L.; Roch, Marie A. (November 10, 2010), Glider-based Passive Acoustic Monitoring Techniques in the Southern California Region, Office of Naval Research, retrieved May 25, 2012
- D'Spain, Gerald L., XRay/ZRay Flying Wing Gliders, Scripps Oceanographic Institution, retrieved May 25, 2012