Libertadores

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This article is about the historical figures. For the South American football competition, see Copa Libertadores.
The Guayaquil conference(1822) between Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín, the greatest libertadores (liberators) of Spanish America.

Libertadores (Spanish: [liβertaˈðoɾes], Portuguese: [libeʁtaˈdoɾis], "Liberators") refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal. They are named that way in contrast with the Conquistadors, who were so far the only Spanish/Portuguese peoples recorded in the South American history.[1]

They were largely bourgeois, criollos (local-born people of European, mostly of Spanish or Portuguese, ancestry) influenced by liberalism and in most cases with military training in the metropole (mother country).

Liberators identified as among the most prominent by historians are:

List of libertadores[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took part in Contributed to the independence of Refs
Miguel Hidalgo.jpg Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
(1753-1811)
Grito de Dolores Mexico [2]
Smartin.JPG José de San Martín
(1778-1850)
Crossing of the Andes Argentina, Chile and Peru [3]
Bolivar Arturo Michelena.jpg Simón Bolívar
(1783-1830)
Admirable Campaign Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia [4]
Mexico.JoseMariaMorelos.01.jpg José María Morelos
(1765-1815)
Batalla de Cuautla and Wrote Sentimientos de la Nación Mexico [5]
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla
(1797-1867)
Peruvian War of Independence Peru [6]
Andréssantacruz2.jpg Andrés de Santa Cruz
(1764-1850)
Battle of Pichincha Bolivia and Peru [7]
Juan Manuel Blanes - Artigas en la Ciudadela.jpg José Gervasio Artigas
(1764-1850)
Uruguay [8]
Manuelbelgrano.jpg Manuel Belgrano
(1770-1820)
Paraguay, Argentina and Bolivia [9]
Lord Cochrane(2).jpg Thomas Cochrane
(1775-1860)
Brazil, Chile [10]
Iturbide Emperador by Josephus Arias Huerta.jpg Agustín de Iturbide
(1783-1824)
Designed of Plan de Iguala and a Flag of Mexico Mexico [10]
Francisco de Miranda by Lewis B. Adams.jpg Francisco de Miranda
(1750-1816)
Venezuela [11]
Mariano Moreno en su mesa de trabajo.jpg Mariano Moreno
(1778-1811)
Argentina [12]
Ohiggins.jpg Bernardo O'Higgins
(1778-1842)
Chile and Peru [13][14]
Anônimo - D. Pedro, Duque de Bragança.JPG Pedro I of Brazil
(1798-1834)
Brazil [15]
Gran marical de ayacucho.jpg Antonio José de Sucre
(1795-1830)
Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela [16]

Legacy[edit]

The flags of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador follow Francisco de Miranda's design of 1806. Also, Bolivia was named after Bolivar, who in turn was president of Colombia, Bolivia and twice of Venezuela. San Martín served as "President Protector" of Peru.

Liberators' names were used all over South America to name anything from towns and places to institutions and sports clubs. Also, the most prestigious international club football competition in South America is named the Copa Libertadores in their honour.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  • James Higgins (editor). The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts, 2014. Online at https://sites.google.com/site/jhemanperu
  • Marion Lansing. Liberators and Heroes of South America. Boston, L. C. Page & Co., 1940.
  • Irene Nicholson. The Liberators: A Study of Independence Movements in Spanish America. New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1968.
  • Pigna, Felipe (2010). Libertadores de América. Buenos Aires: Planeta. ISBN 978-950-49-2420-3. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pigna, p. 9
  2. ^ Lansing, pp. 15-39
  3. ^ Pigna, pp. 195-272
  4. ^ Pigna, pp. 135-192
  5. ^ Lansing, pp. 39-59
  6. ^ Lansing, p. 121
  7. ^ Lansing, p. 121
  8. ^ Lansing, p. 121
  9. ^ Pigna, p. 55-91
  10. ^ a b Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  11. ^ Pigna, pp. 13-52
  12. ^ Lansing, pp. 119
  13. ^ page 429 Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  14. ^ Pigna, pp. 93-133
  15. ^ page 511, Robert Harvey. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence. Woodstock, The Overlook Press, 2000. ISBN 1-58567-072-3
  16. ^ Lansing, pp. 219

External links[edit]