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Libertarianism (Latin: liber, free) is a classification of political philosophies that uphold liberty as their principal objective. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association and the primacy of individual judgment. While libertarians share a skepticism of authority, they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling to restrict or even to wholly dissolve pervasive social institutions. Rather than embodying a singular, rigid systematic theory or ideology, libertarianism has been applied as an umbrella term to a wide range of sometimes discordant political ideas through modern history.
Although some present-day libertarians advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights, such as in land, infrastructure and natural resources, others, notably libertarian socialists, seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production in favor of their common or cooperative ownership and management. While minarchists believe a limited centralized government is necessary to protect individuals and their property from certain transgressions, anarchists propose to completely eliminate the state as an illegitimate political system.
The term libertarianism originally referred to a philosophical belief in free will but later became associated with anti-state socialism and Enlightenment-influenced political movements critical of institutional authority believed to serve forms of social domination and injustice. While it has generally retained its earlier political usage as a synonym for either social or individualist anarchism through much of the world, in the United States it has since come to describe pro-capitalist economic liberalism more so than radical, anti-capitalist egalitarianism. In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, libertarianism is defined as the moral view that agents initially fully own themselves and have certain moral powers to acquire property rights in external things. As individualist opponents of social liberalism embraced the label and distanced themselves from the word liberal, American writers, political parties and think tanks adopted the word libertarian to describe advocacy of capitalist free market economics and a night-watchman state.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Philosophy
- 3 Prominent currents
- 4 History
- 5 Contemporary libertarianism
- 6 Contemporary libertarian organizations
- 7 Libertarian theorists
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
The term libertarian was first used by late-Enlightenment free-thinkers to refer to the metaphysical belief in free will, as opposed to determinism. The first recorded use was in 1789, when William Belsham wrote about libertarianism in opposition to "necessitarian", i.e. determinist, views.
Libertarian came to mean an advocate or defender of liberty, especially in the political and social spheres, as early as 1796, when the London Packet printed on 12 February: "Lately marched out of the Prison at Bristol, 450 of the French Libertarians." The word was again used in a political sense in 1802, in a short piece critiquing a poem by "the author of Gebir", and has been used in this context since.
The use of the word libertarian to describe a new set of political positions has been traced to the French cognate, libertaire, coined in a scathing letter French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque wrote to mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1857, castigating him for his sexist political views. Déjacque also used the term for his anarchist publication Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social, which was printed from 9 June 1858 to 4 February 1861. In the mid-1890s, Sébastien Faure began publishing a new Le Libertaire while France's Third Republic enacted the lois scélérates ("villainous laws"), which banned anarchist publications in France. Libertarianism has frequently been used as a synonym for anarchism since this time.
Although the word libertarian continues to be widely used to refer to socialists internationally, its meaning in the United States has deviated from its political origins. Libertarianism in the United States has been described as conservative on economic issues and liberal on personal freedom (for common meanings of conservative and liberal in the United States); it is also often associated with a foreign policy of non-interventionism. Since the resurgence of neoliberalism in the 1970s, free-market capitalist libertarianism has spread beyond North America via think tanks and political parties.
There is contention about whether right, left, and socialist libertarianism "represent distinct ideologies as opposed to variations on a theme." All libertarians begin with a conception of personal autonomy from which they argue in favor of civil liberties and a reduction or elimination of the state.
Libertarian socialists (social and individualist anarchists, libertarian Marxists, council communists, Luxemburgists, and DeLeonists) extoll personal autonomy and conclude from this premise that private property is inherently violent. Thus, they promote usufruct and socialist economic theories, including communism, syndicalism, and mutualism. They criticize the state for being the defender of private property and believe capitalism entails wage slavery.
Right-libertarianism developed in the United States in the mid-20th Century and is the most popular conception of libertarianism in that region. It is commonly referred to as a continuation or radicalization of classical liberalism. Right-libertarians value self-ownership and the non-aggression principle, which leads to strong support of private property and free-market capitalism, while rejecting most or all state functions. Anarcho-capitalists believe the state inherently violates the non-aggression principle, while minarchists defend night-watchman states on the grounds that certain government functions are required to protect individual rights. They defend wage labor and concentrations of wealth so long as they are voluntary.
Left-libertarianism encompasses those libertarian beliefs that claim the Earth's natural resources belong to everyone in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. This often includes libertarian socialists who reject private property in favor of usufruct and workers' self-management, but is sometimes defined as a narrower ideology. Contemporary left-libertarians such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Van Parijs, Michael Otsuka, and David Ellerman follow the classical liberal tradition and value self-ownership, but believe the appropriation of land must leave "enough and as good" for others or be taxed by society to compensate for the exclusionary effects of private property.
Anarchism envisages freedom as a form of autonomy, which Paul Goodman describes as "the ability to initiate a task and do it one's own way, without orders from authorities who do not know the actual problem and the available means." All anarchists oppose political and legal authority, but collectivist strains also oppose the economic authority of private property. These social anarchists emphasize mutual aid, whereas individualist anarchists extoll individual sovereignty.
The non-aggression principle (NAP) is the foundation of most present-day right-libertarian philosophies. It is a moral stance which asserts that aggression is inherently illegitimate. The NAP and property rights are closely linked, since what constitutes aggression depends on what rights a person has. Aggression, for the purposes of the NAP, is defined as the initiation or threat of violence against a person or his legitimately owned property. Specifically, any unsolicited action that physically affects another individual's property or person, no matter if the result of those actions is damaging, beneficial, or neutral to the owner, are considered violent or aggressive when they are against the owner's will and interfere with his right to self-ownership and self-determination. Supporters of the NAP often appeal to it in order to argue for the immorality of theft, vandalism, assault, and fraud. In contrast to nonviolence, the non-aggression principle does not preclude violence used in self-defense or the defense of others.
Libertarian socialists have been strong advocates and activists of civil liberties, including free love and free thought. Advocates of free love viewed sexual freedom as a clear, direct expression of individual sovereignty, and sometimes traced their roots back to the early anarchist Josiah Warren and experimental communities. They particularly stressed women's rights, as most sexual laws discriminated against women: for example, marriage laws and anti-birth control measures.
Free love appeared alongside anarcha-feminism and advocacy of LGBT rights. Anarcha-feminism developed as a synthesis of radical feminism and anarchism, and views patriarchy as a fundamental manifestation of compulsory government. It was inspired by the late 19th century writings of early feminist anarchists such as Lucy Parsons, Emma Goldman, Voltairine de Cleyre and Virginia Bolten. Anarcha-feminists, like other radical feminists, criticise and advocate the abolition of traditional conceptions of family, education and gender roles. Free Society (1895–1897 as The Firebrand, 1897–1904 as Free Society) was a major anarchist newspaper in the United States that staunchly advocated free love and women's rights, while criticizing "comstockery", the censorship of sexual information. In recent times, anarchism has also voiced opinions and taken action around certain sex related subjects such as pornography, BDSM, and the sex industry.
Free thought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds opinions should be formed on the basis of science, logic, and reason, in contrast with authority, tradition, or other dogmas. In the United States, "free thought was a basically anti-Christian, anti-clerical movement, whose purpose was to make the individual politically and spiritually free to decide for himself on religious matters. A number of contributors to Liberty were prominent figures in both free thought and anarchism. The individualist anarchist George MacDonald was a co-editor of Freethought and, for a time, The Truth Seeker. E.C. Walker was co-editor of the... free-thought/free-love journal Lucifer, the Light-Bearer". In 1901, Catalan anarchist and free-thinker Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia established "modern" or progressive schools in Barcelona in defiance of an educational system controlled by the Catholic Church. Fiercely anti-clerical, Ferrer believed in "freedom in education," i.e., education free from the authority of the church and state. The schools' stated goal was to "educate the working class in a rational, secular and non-coercive setting". Later in the 20th century austrian freudo-marxist Wilhelm Reich became a consistent propagandist for sexual freedom going as far as opening free sex-counselling clinics in Vienna for working-class patients as well as coining the phrase "sexual revolution" in one of his books from the 1940s.
Most left-libertarians are anarchists and believe the state inherently violates personal autonomy: "As Robert Paul Wolff has argued, since 'the state is authority, the right to rule', anarchism which rejects the State is the only political doctrine consistent with autonomy in which the individual alone is the judge of his moral constraints." Social anarchists believe the state defends private property, which they view as intrinsically harmful, while market-oriented left-libertarians argue that so-called free markets actually consist of economic privileges granted by the state. These latter libertarians advocate instead for freed markets, which are freed from these privileges.
There is a debate amongst right-libertarians as to whether or not the state is legitimate: while anarcho-capitalists advocate its abolition, minarchists support minimal states, often referred to as night-watchman states. Libertarians take a skeptical view of government authority.[unreliable source?] Minarchists maintain that the state is necessary for the protection of individuals from aggression, theft, breach of contract, and fraud. They believe the only legitimate governmental institutions are the military, police, and courts, though some expand this list to include fire departments, prisons, and the executive and legislative branches. They justify the state on the grounds that it is the logical consequence of adhering to the non-aggression principle and argue that anarchism is immoral because it implies that the non-aggression principle is optional, that the enforcement of laws under anarchism is open to competition. Another common justification is that private defense agencies and court firms would tend to represent the interests of those who pay them enough.
Anarcho-capitalists argue that the state violates the non-aggression principle by its nature because governments use force against those who have not stolen or vandalized private property, assaulted anyone, or committed fraud. Many also argue that monopolies tend to be corrupt and inefficient, that private defense and court agencies would have to have a good reputation in order to stay in business. Linda & Morris Tannehill argue that no coercive monopoly of force can arise on a truly free market and that a government's citizenry can't desert them in favor of a competent protection and defense agency.
Right-libertarians maintain that unowned natural resources "may be appropriated by the first person who discovers them, mixes her labor with them, or merely claims them—without the consent of others, and with little or no payment to them." They believe that natural resources are originally unowned, and therefore, private parties may appropriate them at will without the consent of, or owing to, others. Right-libertarians argue that self-ownership permits the unequal appropriation of natural resources, and are not opposed to concentrations of economic power, provided they arise through non-coercive means.
Left-libertarians believe that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights, and maintain that natural resources ought to be held in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Left-libertarianism often includes libertarian socialists who reject private property in favor of usufruct, the mutual enjoyment of natural resources, but other left-libertarians support private property under the condition that recompense is offered to the local community (e.g. a land value tax).
Libertarians are divided on economic issues: right-libertarians are economic liberals of either the Austrian School or Chicago school and support laissez-faire capitalism, while most left-libertarians (social and individualist anarchists, libertarian Marxists, and left-wing market anarchists) argue in favor of socialist theories such as communism, syndicalism, and mutualism. Daniel Guérin writes that "anarchism is really a synonym for socialism. The anarchist is primarily a socialist whose aim is to abolish the exploitation of man by man. Anarchism is only one of the streams of socialist thought, that stream whose main components are concern for liberty and haste to abolish the State." Other anarchists, including Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and Haymarket affair suspect Adolph Fischer, make the same point: "every anarchist is a socialist, but every socialist is not necessarily an anarchist." While social anarchists generally support communism and syndicalism, individualist anarchists emphasize mutualism.
Wage labour has long been compared by socialists and anarcho-syndicalists to slavery. As a result, the term wage slavery is often utilised as a pejorative for wage labor. Advocates of slavery looked upon the "comparative evils of Slave Society and of Free Society, of slavery to human Masters and slavery to Capital," and proceeded to argue persuasively that wage slavery was actually worse than chattel slavery. Slavery apologists like George Fitzhugh contended that workers only accepted wage labour with the passage of time, as they became "familiarized and inattentive to the infected social atmosphere they continually inhale[d]."
According to Noam Chomsky, analysis of the psychological implications of wage slavery goes back to the Enlightenment era. In his 1791 book On the Limits of State Action, classical liberal thinker Wilhelm von Humboldt explained how "whatever does not spring from a man's free choice, or is only the result of instruction and guidance, does not enter into his very nature; he does not perform it with truly human energies, but merely with mechanical exactness" and so when the labourer works under external control, "we may admire what he does, but we despise what he is." For Marxists, labour-as-commodity, which is how they regard wage labour, provides an absolutely fundamental point of attack against capitalism. "It can be persuasively argued," noted philosopher John Nelson, "that the conception of the worker's labour as a commodity confirms Marx's stigmatization of the wage system of private capitalism as 'wage-slavery;' that is, as an instrument of the capitalist's for reducing the worker's condition to that of a slave, if not below it." That this objection is fundamental follows immediately from Marx's conclusion that wage labour is the very foundation of capitalism: "Without a class dependent on wages, the moment individuals confront each other as free persons, there can be no production of surplus value; without the production of surplus-value there can be no capitalist production, and hence no capital and no capitalist!"
Traditional classical liberalism is a political philosophy and ideology belonging to liberalism in which primary emphasis is placed on securing the freedom of the individual by limiting the power of the government. The philosophy emerged as a response to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization in the 19th century in Europe and the United States. It advocates civil liberties with a limited government under the rule of law, and belief in laissez-faire economic policy. Classical liberalism is built on ideas that had already arisen by the end of the 18th century, such as selected ideas of Adam Smith, John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, stressing the belief in free market and natural law, utilitarianism, and progress. Classical liberals were more suspicious than conservatives of all but the most minimal government and, adopting Thomas Hobbes's theory of government, they believed government had been created by individuals to protect themselves from one another.
Neo-classical liberalism emerged in the era following World War II during which social liberalism and Keynesianism were the dominant ideologies in the Western world. It was led by economists such as Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman, who advocated the reduction of the state and a return to classical liberalism. It did however accept some aspects of social liberalism, such as some degree of welfare provision by the state, but on a greatly reduced scale. Hayek and Friedman used the term classical liberalism to refer to their ideas; however, others use the term to refer to all liberalism before the 20th century, not to designate any particular set of political views, and therefore see all modern developments as being, by definition, not classical. As a result, the term neoliberalism has often been used as an alternative, however this term has developed negative connotations and is now usually only used as a pejorative.
Anarcho-capitalism (also referred to as free-market anarchism, market anarchism, and private-property anarchism) is a political philosophy which advocates the elimination of the state in favor of individual sovereignty in a free market. In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services would be provided by privately funded competitors rather than through taxation, and money would be privately and competitively provided in an open market. Therefore, personal and economic activities under anarcho-capitalism would be regulated by privately run law rather than through politics.
Various theorists have differing, though similar, legal philosophies which have been considered to fall under anarcho-capitalism. However, the most well-known version, was formulated by Austrian School economist and libertarian Murray Rothbard, who coined the term and is widely regarded as its founder, in the mid-20th century, synthesizing elements from the Austrian School of economics, classical liberalism, and 19th-century American individualist anarchists Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker (while rejecting their anti-capitalism, along with the labor theory of value and the normative implications they derived from it).[note 1] In Rothbardian anarcho-capitalism, there would first be the implementation of a mutually agreed-upon libertarian "legal code which would be generally accepted, and which the courts would pledge themselves to follow." This legal code would recognize sovereignty of the individual and the principle of non-aggression.
Objectivism is a philosophy created by Russian-American novelist Ayn Rand, who condemned libertarianism as being a greater threat to freedom and capitalism than both modern liberalism and conservatism, due to what she saw as its lack of philosophic and moral foundation. She regarded Objectivism as an integrated philosophical system, whereas libertarianism is a political philosophy which confines its attention to matters of public policy. Objectivism's central tenets are that reality exists independent of consciousness; that human beings have direct contact with reality through sense perception; that one can attain objective knowledge from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive logic; that the proper moral purpose of one's life is the pursuit of one's own happiness (or rational self-interest); that the only social system consistent with this morality is full respect for individual rights embodied in laissez-faire capitalism; and that the role of art in human life is to transform humans' metaphysical ideas by selective reproduction of reality into a physical form—a work of art—that one can comprehend and to which one can respond emotionally. Rand believed that political advocacy could not succeed without addressing what she saw as its methodological prerequisites. Rand rejected any affiliation with the libertarian movement and many other Objectivists have done so as well.
Some Objectivists have argued that Objectivism is not limited to Rand's own positions on philosophical issues and are willing to work with and identify with the libertarian movement. This stance is most clearly identified with David Kelley (who separated from the Ayn Rand Institute because of disagreements over the relationship between Objectivists and libertarians), Chris Sciabarra, Barbara Branden (Nathaniel Branden's former wife), and others. Kelley's Atlas Society has focused on building a closer relationship between "open Objectivists" and the libertarian movement.
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Libertarian socialism (sometimes called social anarchism, left-libertarianism and socialist libertarianism) is a group of political philosophies that promote a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic society without private property in the means of production. Libertarian socialists believe in converting present-day private productive property into common or public goods, while retaining respect for personal property.[note 2] Libertarian socialism is opposed to coercive forms of social organization. It promotes free association in place of government and opposes the social relations of capitalism, such as wage labor. The term libertarian socialism is used by some socialists to differentiate their philosophy from state socialism,[note 3] and by some as a synonym for anarchism.[note 4]
Adherents of libertarian socialism assert that a society based on freedom and equality can be achieved through abolishing authoritarian institutions that control certain means of production and subordinate the majority to an owning class or political and economic elite.[note 5] Libertarian socialism also constitutes a tendency of thought that promotes the identification, criticism, and practical dismantling of illegitimate authority in all aspects of life.[note 6][note 7][note 8][note 9]
Accordingly, libertarian socialists believe that "the exercise of power in any institutionalized form—whether economic, political, religious, or sexual—brutalizes both the wielder of power and the one over whom it is exercised". Libertarian socialists generally place their hopes in decentralized means of direct democracy such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, trade unions, and workers' councils.
Geolibertarians are advocates of geoism, which is the position that all natural resources, most importantly land, are common assets to which all individuals have an equal right to access; therefore, individuals must pay rent to the community if they claim land as their private property. Rent need not be paid for the mere use of land, but only for the right to exclude others from that land, and for the protection of one's title by government. They simultaneously agree with the libertarian position that each individual has an exclusive right to the fruits of his or her labor as their private property, as opposed to this product being owned collectively by society or the community, and that "one's labor, wages, and the products of labor" should not be taxed. As with traditional libertarians, they advocate "full civil liberties, with no crimes unless there are victims who have been invaded." Geolibertarians generally advocate distributing the land rent to the community via a land value tax, as proposed by Henry George and others before him. For this reason, they are often called "single taxers". Fred E. Foldvary coined the word "geo-libertarianism" in an article so titled in Land and Liberty. In the case of geoanarchism, the voluntary form of geolibertarianism as described by Foldvary, rent would be collected by private associations with the opportunity to secede from a geocommunity (and not receive the geocommunity's services) if desired.
Geolibertarians are generally influenced by Georgism, but the ideas behind it pre-date Henry George, and can be found in different forms in the writings of John Locke, the French Physiocrats, Thomas Jefferson, Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, James Mill (John Stuart Mill's father), David Ricardo, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer and Thomas Spence. Perhaps the best summary of geolibertarianism is Thomas Paine's assertion that "Men did not make the earth. It is the value of the improvements only, and not the earth itself, that is individual property. Every proprietor owes to the community a ground rent for the land which he holds." On the other hand, Locke wrote that private land ownership should be praised, as long as its product was not left to spoil and there was "enough, and as good left in common for others"; when this Lockean proviso is violated, the land earns rental value. Some would argue that "as good" is unlikely to be achieved in an urban setting because location is paramount, and that therefore Locke's proviso in an urban setting requires the collection and equal distribution of ground rent.
The Steiner–Vallentyne school
Contemporary left-libertarian scholars such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Van Parijs, Michael Otsuka, and David Ellerman root an economic egalitarianism in the classical liberal concepts of self-ownership and land appropriation, combined with geoist or physiocratic views regarding the ownership of land and natural resources (e.g. those of John Locke and Henry George).[note 10][verification needed] They hold that it is illegitimate for anyone to claim private ownership of natural resources to the detriment of others.[note 11][verification needed][note 12][note 13] Instead, unappropriated natural resources are either unowned or owned in common, and private appropriation is only legitimate if everyone can appropriate an equal amount or if private appropriation is taxed to compensate those who are excluded from natural resources. Most left-libertarians support some form of income redistribution on the grounds of a claim by each individual to be entitled to an equal share of natural resources. A number of left-libertarians of this school argue for the desirability of some state social welfare programs.
Age of Enlightenment
Elements of libertarianism can be traced as far back as the ancient Chinese philosopher Lao-Tzu and the higher-law concepts of the Greeks and the Israelites. In 17th-century England, libertarian ideas began to take modern form in the writings of the Levellers and John Locke. In the middle of that century, opponents of royal power began to be called Whigs, or sometimes simply "opposition" or "country" (as opposed to Court) writers.
John Locke greatly influenced both libertarianism and the modern world in his writings published before and after the English Revolution of 1688, especially A Letter Concerning Toleration (1667), Two Treatises of Government (1689) and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). In the latter he established the basis of liberal political theory: that people's rights existed before government; that the purpose of government is to protect personal and property rights; that people may dissolve governments that do not do so; and that representative government is the best form to protect rights. The United States Declaration of Independence was inspired by Locke in its statement: "to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it..." Nevertheless scholar Ellen Meiksins Wood says that "there are doctrines of individualism that are opposed to Lockean individualism... and non-Lockean individualism may encompass socialism".
According to Murray Rothbard, the libertarian creed emerged from the classical liberal challenges to an "absolute central State and a king ruling by divine right on top of an older, restrictive web of feudal land monopolies and urban guild controls and restrictions", the mercantilism of a bureaucratic warfaring state allied with privileged merchants. The object of classical liberals was individual liberty in the economy, in personal freedoms and civil liberty, separation of state and religion, and peace as an alternative to imperial aggrandizement. He cites Locke's contemporaries, the Levellers, who held similar views. Also influential were the English "Cato's Letters" during the early 1700s, reprinted eagerly by American colonists who already were free of European aristocracy and feudal land monopolies.
In January of 1776, only two years after coming to America from England, Thomas Paine published his pamphlet "Common Sense" calling for independence for the colonies. Paine promoted classical liberal ideas in clear, concise language that allowed the general public to understand the debates among the political elites. Common Sense was immensely popular in disseminating these ideas, selling hundreds of thousands of copies. Paine later would write the Rights of Man and The Age of Reason and participate in the French Revolution. Paine's theory of property showed a "libertarian concern" with the redistribution of resources.
In 1793, William Godwin wrote a libertarian philosophical treatise, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Morals and Happiness, which criticized ideas of human rights and of society by contract based on vague promises. He took classical liberalism to its logical anarchic conclusion by rejecting all political institutions, law, government, and apparatus of coercion, as well as all political protest and insurrection. Instead of institutionalized justice he proposed that people influence one and other to moral goodness through informal reasoned persuasion, including in the associations they joined, and that this would facilitate human happiness.
Rise of anarchism
Modern anarchism sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.
As part of the political turmoil of the 1790s in the wake of the French Revolution, William Godwin developed the first expression of modern anarchist thought. Godwin was, according to Peter Kropotkin, "the first to formulate the political and economical conceptions of anarchism, even though he did not give that name to the ideas developed in his work", while Godwin attached his anarchist ideas to an early Edmund Burke.
Godwin is generally regarded as the founder of the school of thought known as 'philosophical anarchism'. He argued in Political Justice (1793) that government has an inherently malevolent influence on society, and that it perpetuates dependency and ignorance. He thought that the spread of the use of reason to the masses would eventually cause government to wither away as an unnecessary force. Although he did not accord the state with moral legitimacy, he was against the use of revolutionary tactics for removing the government from power. Rather, he advocated for its replacement through a process of peaceful evolution.
His aversion to the imposition of a rules-based society led him to denounce, as a manifestation of the people's "mental enslavement", the foundations of law, property rights and even the institution of marriage. He considered the basic foundations of society as constraining the natural development of individuals to use their powers of reasoning to arrive at a mutually beneficial method of social organization. In each case, government and its institutions are shown to constrain the development of our capacity to live wholly in accordance with the full and free exercise of private judgment.
In France, various anarchist currents were present during the Revolutionary period, with some revolutionaries using the term anarchiste in a positive light as early as September 1793. The enragés opposed revolutionary government as a contradiction in terms. Denouncing the Jacobin dictatorship, Jean Varlet wrote in 1794 that "government and revolution are incompatible, unless the people wishes to set its constituted authorities in permanent insurrection against itself." In his "Manifesto of the Equals," Sylvain Maréchal looked forward to the disappearance, once and for all, of "the revolting distinction between rich and poor, of great and small, of masters and valets, of governors and governed."
Libertarian socialism, libertarian communism and libertarian Marxism are all phrases which activists with a variety of perspectives have applied to their views. Anarchist communist philosopher Joseph Déjacque was the first person to describe himself as "libertarian". Unlike mutualist anarchist philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he argued that, "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature." According to anarchist historian Max Nettlau, the first use of the term "libertarian communism" was in November 1880, when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines. The French anarchist journalist Sébastien Faure started the weekly paper Le Libertaire (The Libertarian) in 1895.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems. An influential form of individualist anarchism, called "egoism," or egoist anarchism, was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner. Stirner's The Ego and Its Own, published in 1844, is a founding text of the philosophy. According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is their power to obtain what they desire, without regard for God, state, or morality. Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will, which Stirner proposed as a form of organisation in place of the state. Egoist anarchists argue that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals. "Egoism" has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy. It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and LGBT activist John Henry Mackay. Josiah Warren is widely regarded as the first American anarchist, and the four-page weekly paper he edited during 1833, The Peaceful Revolutionist, was the first anarchist periodical published. For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, "It is apparent... that Proudhonian Anarchism was to be found in the United States at least as early as 1848 and that it was not conscious of its affinity to the Individualist Anarchism of Josiah Warren and Stephen Pearl Andrews... William B. Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form.". Later Benjamin Tucker fused Stirner's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication Liberty. From these early influences individualist anarchism in different countries attracted a small but diverse following of bohemian artists and intellectuals, free love and birth control advocates (see Anarchism and issues related to love and sex), individualist naturists nudists (see anarcho-naturism), free thought and anti-clerical activists as well as young anarchist outlaws in what became known as illegalism and individual reclamation (see European individualist anarchism and individualist anarchism in France). These authors and activists included Emile Armand, Han Ryner, Henri Zisly, Renzo Novatore, Miguel Gimenez Igualada, Adolf Brand and Lev Chernyi among others.
In 1873 the follower and translator of Proudhon, the catalan Francesc Pi i Margall, became President of Spain with a program which wanted "to establish a decentralized, or “cantonalist,” political system on Proudhonian lines" who, according to Rudolf Rocker, had "political ideas...much in common with those of Richard Price, Joseph Priestly, Thomas Paine, Jefferson, and other representatives of the Anglo-American liberalism of the first period. He wanted to limit the power of the state to a minimum and gradually replace it by a Socialist economic order.". The revolutionary wave of 1917–23 saw the active participation of anarchists in Russia and Europe. Russian anarchists participated alongside the Bolsheviks in both the February and October 1917 revolutions. However, Bolsheviks in central Russia quickly began to imprison or drive underground the libertarian anarchists. Many fled to the Ukraine. There, in the Ukrainian Free Territory, they fought in the Russian Civil War against the White movement, monarchists and other opponents of revolution, and then against Bolsheviks as part of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno, who established an anarchist society in the region for a number of months. Expelled American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman protested Bolshevik policy before they left Russia.
The victory of the Bolsheviks damaged anarchist movements internationally as workers and activists joined Communist parties. In France and the United States, for example, members of the major syndicalist movements of the CGT and IWW joined the Communist International. In Paris, the Dielo Truda group of Russian anarchist exiles, which included Nestor Makhno, issued a 1926 manifesto, the Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft), calling for new anarchist organizing structures.
The "Bavarian Soviet Republic" of 1918-1919 had libertarian socialist characteristics. In Italy from 1918-1921 the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Unione Sindacale Italiana grew to 800,000 members
In the 1920s and 1930s, with the rise of fascism in Europe, anarchists began to fight fascists in Italy in France during the February 1934 riots, and in Spain where the CNT (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo) boycott of elections led to a right-wing victory and its later participation in voting in 1936 helped bring the popular front back to power. This led to a ruling class attempted coup and the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze held that the during early twentieth century, the terms libertarian communism and anarchist communism became synonymous within the international anarchist movement as a result of the close connection they had in Spain (see Anarchism in Spain) (with libertarian communism becoming the prevalent term).
Murray Bookchin wrote that the Spanish libertarian movement of the mid-1930s was unique because its workers' control and collectives—which came out of a three generation "massive libertarian movement"—divided the "republican" camp and challenged the Marxists. Urban anarchists’ created libertarian communist forms of organization which evolved into the CNT, a syndicalist union providing the infrastructure for a libertarian society. Also formed were local bodies to administer of social and economic life on a decentralized libertarian basis. Much of the infrastructure was destroyed during the 1930s Spanish Civil War against authoritarian and fascist forces. The Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL, Spanish: Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias), sometimes abbreviated as Libertarian Youth (Juventudes Libertarias), was a libertarian socialist organisation created in 1932 in Madrid. In February 1937 the FIJL organised a plenum of regional organisations (second congress of FIJL). In October 1938, from the 16th through the 30th in Barcelona, the FIJL participated in a national plenum of the libertarian movement, also attended by members of the CNT and the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI). The FIJL exists until today.
The Manifesto of Libertarian Communism was written in 1953 by Georges Fontenis for the Federation Communiste Libertaire of France. It is one of the key texts of the anarchist-communist current known as platformism. In 1968 in Carrara, Italy, the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference to advance libertarian solidarity.It wanted to form "a strong and organised workers movement, agreeing with the libertarian ideas". In the United States the Libertarian League was founded in New York City in 1954 as a left-libertarian political organisation building on the Libertarian Book Club. Members included Sam Dolgoff, Russell Blackwell, Dave Van Ronk, Enrico Arrigoni and Murray Bookchin.
In Australia the Sydney Push was a predominantly left-wing intellectual subculture in Sydney from the late 1940s to the early 1970s which became associated with the label "Sydney libertarianism". Well known associates of the Push include Jim Baker, John Flaus, Harry Hooton, Margaret Fink, Sasha Soldatow, Lex Banning, Eva Cox, Richard Appleton, Paddy McGuinness, David Makinson, Germaine Greer, Clive James, Robert Hughes, Frank Moorhouse and Lillian Roxon. Amongst the key intellectual figures in Push debates were philosophers David J. Ivison, George Molnar, Roelof Smilde, Darcy Waters and Jim Baker, as recorded in Baker's memoir Sydney Libertarians and the Push, published in the libertarian Broadsheet in 1975. An understanding of libertarian values and social theory can be obtained from their publications, a few of which are available online.
In 1969, French platformist anarcho-communist Daniel Guérin published an essay in 1969 called "Libertarian Marxism?" in which he dealt with the debate between Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin at the First International and afterwards suggested that "Libertarian marxism rejects determinism and fatalism, giving the greater place to individual will, intuition, imagination, reflex speeds, and to the deep instincts of the masses, which are more far-seeing in hours of crisis than the reasonings of the 'elites'; libertarian marxism thinks of the effects of surprise, provocation and boldness, refuses to be cluttered and paralysed by a heavy 'scientific' apparatus, doesn't equivocate or bluff, and guards itself from adventurism as much as from fear of the unknown." Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Engels' later works, specifically the Grundrisse and The Civil War in France. They emphasize the Marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state. Libertarian Marxism includes such currents as council communism, left communism, Socialisme ou Barbarie Lettrism/Situationism and operaismo/autonomism, and New Left.[unreliable source?] In the US from 1970 to 1981 there existed the publication Root & Branch which had as a subtitle "A Libertarian Marxist Journal". In 1974 the Libertarian Communism journal was started in the United Kingdom by a group inside the Socialist Party of Great Britain. In 1986 the anarcho-syndicalist Sam Dolgoff started and led the publication Libertarian Labor Review in the United States which decided to rename itself as Anarcho-Syndicalist Review in order to avoid confusion with right-libertarian views.
Resurgence of economic liberalism
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The "normative core" of classical liberalism is the idea that in an environment of laissez-faire, a spontaneous order of cooperation in exchanging goods and services emerges that satisfies human wants.
Murray Rothbard was influenced by the work of the 19th-century American individualist anarchists, themselves influenced by classical liberalism. However, he thought they had a faulty understanding of economics. The 19th-century individualists had a labor theory of value, as influenced by the classical economists, but Rothbard was a student of neoclassical economics which does not agree with the labor theory of value. Rothbard sought to meld 19th-century American individualists' advocacy of free markets and private defense with the principles of Austrian economics: "There is, in the body of thought known as 'Austrian economics,' a scientific explanation of the workings of the free market (and of the consequences of government intervention in that market) which individualist anarchists could easily incorporate into their political and social Weltanschauung".
A 1971 New York Times article noted that 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza was a forerunner of modern libertarianism, writing "He who tries to determine everything by law will foment crime rather than lessen it." Its authors stated that modern libertarianism, in part a continuation of 18th-century and 19th-century liberalism, is on a "much more solid intellectual footing than old-style liberalism" because rather than taking their views from religious mysticism, they based it on "a scientific appraisal of the nature of man and his needs." 
Libertarianism in the United States developed in the 1950s as many with "Old Right" or classical liberal beliefs in the United States began to describe themselves as libertarians. Arizona United States Senator Barry Goldwater's challenge to authority also influenced the U.S. libertarian movement. In the 1950s, Russian-American novelist Ayn Rand developed a philosophical system called Objectivism, expressed in her novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, as well as other works, which influenced many libertarians. However, she rejected the label "libertarian" and harshly denounced this libertarian movement as the "hippies of the right." Philosopher John Hospers, a one-time member of Rand's inner circle, proposed a non-initiation of force principle to unite both groups; this statement later became a required "pledge" for candidates of the Libertarian Party, and Hospers himself became its first presidential candidate in 1972.
During the 1960s, the Vietnam War divided American libertarians, anarchists, and conservatives. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements and began founding their own publications, like Rothbard's The Libertarian Forum and Reason magazine. The 1960s also saw the formation of organizations like the Radical Libertarian Alliance and the Society for Individual Liberty. In 1971, a small group of Americans led by David Nolan formed the U.S. Libertarian Party. The party has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972. Over the years, dozens of capitalism-supporting libertarian political parties have been formed worldwide. Educational organizations like the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute were formed in the 1970s, and others have been created since then.
Modern libertarianism gained significant recognition in academia with the publication of Harvard University professor Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974, a response to John Rawls' A Theory of Justice. The book proposed a minimal state on the grounds that it was an inevitable phenomenon which could arise without violating individual rights. Anarchy, State, and Utopia won a National Book Award in 1975.
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In the United States, polls (circa 2006) find that the views and voting habits of between 10 and 20 percent (and increasing) of voting age Americans may be classified as "fiscally conservative and socially liberal, or libertarian." This is based on pollsters and researchers defining libertarian views as fiscally conservative and socially liberal (based on the common US meanings of the terms) and against government intervention in economic affairs, and for expansion of personal freedoms. Through 20 polls on this topic spanning 13 years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 17–23% of the US electorate.
2009 saw the rise of the Tea Party movement, an American political movement known for advocating a reduction in the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit by reducing U.S. government spending and taxes, which had a significant libertarian component: a 2011 Reason-Rupe poll found that among those who self-identified as Tea Party supporters, 41 percent leaned libertarian and 59 percent, socially conservative. The movement, named after the Boston Tea Party, also contains conservative and populist elements, and has sponsored multiple protests and supported various political candidates since 2009. Tea Party activities have declined since 2010 with the number of chapters across the country slipping from about 1,000 to 600. Mostly, Tea Party organizations are said to have shifted away from national demonstrations to local issues. Following the selection of Paul Ryan as Mitt Romney's 2012 vice-presidential running mate, the New York Times declared that Tea Party lawmakers are no longer a fringe of the conservative coalition, but now "indisputably at the core of the modern Republican Party."
In 2012, anti-war presidential candidates (Libertarian Republican Ron Paul and Libertarian Party candidate Gary Johnson) raised millions of dollars and garnered millions of votes despite opposition to their obtaining ballot access by Democrats and Republicans. The 2012 Libertarian National Convention, which saw Gary Johnson and James P. Gray nominated as the 2012 presidential ticket for the Libertarian Party, resulted in the most successful result for a third-party presidential candidacy since 2000, and the best in the Libertarian Party's history by vote number. Johnson received 1% of the popular vote, amounting to more than 1.2 million votes. Johnson has expressed a desire to win at least 5 percent of the vote so that the Libertarian Party candidates could get equal ballot access and federal funding, thus subsequently ending the two-party system.
In 2013, philosopher Michael Huemer defended anarcho-capitalism in his book The Problem of Political Authority from an ethical intuitionist perspective, deviating from the traditional natural rights or deontological approach of previous philosophers like Robert Nozick.
The Occupy movement is an international protest movement against social and economic inequality with the primary goal of making the economic and political relations in all societies less vertically hierarchical and more flatly distributed. It is partly inspired by the Arab Spring, and the Portuguese and Spanish Indignants movement in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as the Tea Party movement. According to The Washington Post, the movement, which has been described as a "democratic awakening" by Cornel West, is difficult to distill to a few demands. Local groups often have different foci, but one of the movement's prime concerns is how large corporations and the global financial system control the world in a way that disproportionately benefits a minority, undermines democracy, and is unstable. The movement commonly uses the slogan We are the 99%, the #Occupy hashtag format, and organizes through websites such as Occupy Together.
David Graeber has argued that the Occupy movement, in its anti-hierarchical and anti-authoritarian consensus-based politics, its refusal to accept the legitimacy of the existing legal and political order, and its embrace of prefigurative politics, has roots in an anarchist political tradition. Sociologist Dana Williams has likewise argued that "the most immediate inspiration for Occupy is anarchism," and the LA Times has identified the "controversial, anarchist-inspired organizational style" as one of the hallmarks of Occupy Wall Street (OWS).
The first Occupy protest to receive widespread attention was Occupy Wall Street in New York City's Zuccotti Park, which began on 17 September 2011. By 9 October, Occupy protests had taken place or were ongoing in over 951 cities across 82 countries, and over 600 communities in the United States. For its first two months, authorities largely adopted a tolerant approach toward the movement, but this began to change in mid-November 2011 when they began forcibly removing protest camps. By the end of 2011 authorities had cleared most of the major camps, with the last remaining high profile sites, Washington DC and London, evicted by February 2012. On 12 October 2011, Los Angeles City Council became one of the first governmental bodies in the United States to adopt a resolution stating its informal support of the Occupy movement. In October 2012, the Executive Director of Financial Stability at the Bank of England stated the protesters were right to criticise and had persuaded bankers and politicians "to behave in a more moral way".
Contemporary libertarian organizations
Since the 1950s, many American libertarian organizations have adopted a free market stance, as well as supporting civil liberties and non-interventionist foreign policies. These include the Ludwig von Mises Institute, the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE), Center for Libertarian Studies, the Cato Institute, and the International Society for Individual Liberty (ISIL). The activist Free State Project, formed in 2001, works to bring 20,000 libertarians to New Hampshire to influence state policy. Active student organizations include Students for Liberty and Young Americans for Liberty.
A number of countries have libertarian parties that run candidates for political office. In the United States, the Libertarian Party of the United States was formed in 1972. The Libertarian Party is the third largest American political party, with over 370,000 registered voters in the 35 states that allow registration as a Libertarian and has hundreds of party candidates elected or appointed to public office.
Current international anarchist federations which sometimes identify themselves as libertarian include the International of Anarchist Federations, the International Workers' Association, and International Libertarian Solidarity. The largest organised anarchist movement today is in Spain, in the form of the Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT) and the CNT. CGT membership was estimated to be around 100,000 for 2003. Other active syndicalist movements include, in Sweden, the Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden and the Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation; the CNT-AIT in France;[not in citation given] the Union Sindicale Italiana in Italy; in the US, Workers Solidarity Alliance; and in the UK, Solidarity Federation. The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World, claiming 2,000 paying members, and the International Workers Association, an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First International, also remain active. In the United States there exists the Common Struggle – Libertarian Communist Federation or Lucha Común – Federación Comunista Libertaria (formerly the North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists (NEFAC) or the Fédération des Communistes Libertaires du Nord-Est)[not in citation given] an is a platformist anarchist communist organization based in the northeast region of the United States.[not in citation given]
- Émile Armand – early 20th century individualist anarchist
- Mikhail Bakunin – theorist of collectivist anarchism and influence on the development of left-libertarianism
- Walter Block – Austrian economist, theorist and author of Defending the Undefendable and Yes to Ron Paul and Liberty
- Murray Bookchin – the founder of libertarian municipalism and theorist of the social ecology movement
- Noam Chomsky – doctor of linguistics, MIT professor, author of political science books, and proponent of libertarian socialism
- Joseph Déjacque – the first recorded person to call himself a libertarian and the founder of the first publication with the name "Libertarian" in its title
- Richard Epstein – legal scholar, specializing in the field of law and economics
- David D. Friedman – anarcho-capitalist theorist, author of The Machinery of Freedom, and son of Milton Friedman
- Milton Friedman – Nobel Prize-winning monetarist economist associated with the Chicago School of Economics, advocated economic deregulation and privatization
- William Godwin – the first modern proponent of anarchism, whose political views are outlined in his book Political Justice
- Emma Goldman – proponent of anarcha-feminism
- Friedrich Hayek – Nobel Prize-winning Austrian School economist, notable for his political work The Road to Serfdom
- Hans-Hermann Hoppe – developed argumentation ethics
- Michael Huemer – philosopher, ethical intuitionist and author of The Problem of Political Authority
- Peter Kropotkin – theorist of libertarian communism
- Rose Wilder Lane - silent editor of her mother's Little House books and author of The Discovery of Freedom
- Ludwig von Mises – figure in the Austrian School of economic thought who established praxeology
- Jan Narveson – political philosopher and professor emeritus, member of the Order of Canada
- Robert Nozick – philosopher and author of Anarchy, State, and Utopia
- Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – the first self-described anarchist and founder of mutualism
- Ayn Rand – founder of Objectivism
- Murray Rothbard – the founder of anarcho-capitalism and an Austrian school economist
- Max Stirner – founder of egoist anarchism
- Henry David Thoreau – one of the early philosophers of American Transcendentalism and anarcho-pacifism
- Benjamin Tucker – theorist of individualist anarchism in the 19th century
- Josiah Warren – the first known American anarchist and author of the first anarchist periodical The Peaceful Revolutionist
- Christian libertarianism
- Criticism of libertarianism
- Civil libertarianism
- Debates within libertarianism
- Green libertarianism
- Libertarianism in South Africa
- Libertarianism in the United Kingdom
- Libertarianism in the United States
- Libertarian feminism
- List of basic libertarianism topics
- List of libertarian organizations
- Miller (1987). p. 290. "A student and disciple of the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, Rothbard combined the laissez-faire economics of his teacher with the absolutist views of human rights and rejection of the state he had absorbed from studying the individualist American anarchists of the 19th century such as Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker."
- Berkman (1929). "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people."
- Guérin (1970). "Some contemporary anarchists have tried to clear up the misunderstanding by adopting a more explicit term: they align themselves with libertarian socialism or communism."
- Chomsky (2004). p. 739. "The term 'libertarian' as used in the U.S. means something quite different from what it meant historically and still means in the rest of the world. Historically, the libertarian movement has been the anti-statist wing of the socialist movement. Socialist anarchism was libertarian socialism. In the U.S., which is a society much more dominated by business, the term has a different meaning. It means eliminating or reducing state controls, mainly controls over private tyrannies. Libertarians in the U.S. don't say, Let's get rid of corporations. It is a sort of ultra-rightism."
- Mendes, Silva (1896). Socialismo Libertário ou Anarchismo. 1: "Society should be free through mankind's spontaneous federative affiliation to life, based on the community of land and tools of the trade; meaning: Anarchy will be equality by abolition of private property (while retaining respect for personal property) and liberty by abolition of authority".
- McLaughlin, Paul (2007). p. 1. "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the 'sociology of power') and the correlative duty to obey (as explored in the 'philosophy of practical reason'). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those 'authoritative' powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."
- Goldman. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays. "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations."
- Tucker. Individual Liberty. "[Modern Socialists] found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism. ... Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx."
- Scholars representing this school of left-libertarianism often understand their position in contrast to other libertarians who maintain that there are no fair share constraints on use or appropriation that individuals have the power to appropriate unowned things by claiming them (usually by mixing their labor with them), and deny any other conditions or considerations are relevant, and that there is no justification for the state to redistribute resources to the needy or to overcome market failures. Left-libertarians of the Carson–Long school (called left-wing market anarchists), referenced below, typically endorse the labor-based property rights Steiner–Vallentyne left-libertarians reject, but hold that implementing such rights would have radical rather than conservative consequences.
- Vallentyne, Peter (20 July 2010). "Libertarianism." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University.
- Vallentyne, Peter (2007). "Libertarianism and the State." Liberalism: Old and New. In Paul, Ellen Frankel; Miller, Jr., Fred; and Paul, Jeffrey. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. p. 199.
- Vallentyne, Peter. "Libertarianism." "combin[ing] the libertarian assumption that each person possesses a natural right of self-ownership over his person with the egalitarian premise that natural resources should be shared equally."
- Kymlicka, Will (2005). "Libertarianism, Left-." Oxford Companion to Philosophy. In Honderich, Ted. New York:Oxford University Press. "[left-libertarians maintain that] the world's natural resources were initially unowned, or belonged equally to all, and it is illegitimate for anyone to claim exclusive private ownership of these resources to the detriment of others. Such private appropriation is legitimate only if everyone can appropriate an equal amount, or if those who appropriate more are taxed to compensate those who are thereby excluded from what was once common property."
- Some left-libertarians of the Steiner–Vallentyne type support some form of income redistribution on the grounds of a claim by each individual to be entitled to an equal share of natural resources:
- (2000). Left-Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate. In Steiner, Hillel and Vallentyne, Peter. London:Macmillan p. 1.
- (2004). Handbook of Political Theory. In Gaus, Gerald F. and Kukathas, Chandran. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage. p. 128.
- Woodcock, George (2004). Anarchism: A History Of Libertarian Ideas And Movements. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. p. 16. ISBN 9781551116297. "for the very nature of the libertarian attitude -- its rejection of dogma, its deliberate avoidance of rigidly systematic theory, and, above all, its stress on extreme freedom of choice and on the primacy of the individual judgment"
- "Libertarianism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 May 2014. "libertarianism, political philosophy that takes individual liberty to be the primary political value"
- Hussain, Syed B. (2004). Encyclopedia of Capitalism. Vol. II : H-R.. New York: Facts on File Inc. p. 492. ISBN 0816052247. "In the modern world, political ideologies are largely defined by their attitude towards capitalism. Marxists want to overthrow it, liberals to curtail it extensively, conservatives to curtail it moderately. Those who maintain that capitalism is a excellent economic system, unfairly maligned, with little or no need for corrective government policy, are generally known as libertarians."
- Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: Sage Publications. p. 1007. ISBN 1412988764. "There exist three major camps in libertarian thought: right-libertarianism, socialist libertarianism, and left-libertarianism"
- Vallentyne, Peter (March 2009). "Libertarianism". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved March 5, 2010. "Libertarianism is committed to full self-ownership. A distinction can be made, however, between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism, depending on the stance taken on how natural resources can be owned"
- Caplan, Bryan (2008). "Anarchism". In Hamowy, Ronald, ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. pp. 10–13. "Libertarianism puts severe limits on morally permissible government action. If one takes its strictures seriously, does libertarianism require the abolition of government, logically reducing the position to anarchism? Robert Nozick effectively captures this dilemma: 'Individuals have rights, and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights). So strong and far-reaching are these rights that they raise the question of what, if anything, the state and its official may do.' Libertarian political philosophers have extensively debated this question, and many conclude that the answer is 'Nothing'."
- Friedman, David D. (2008). "libertarianism". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd Edition. "Libertarians differ among themselves in the degree to which they rely on rights-based or consequentialist arguments and on how far they take their conclusions, ranging from classical liberals, who wish only to drastically reduce government, to anarcho-capitalists who would replace all useful government functions with private alternatives."
- Walia, Shelley (Dec 11, 2005). "The triumph of anarchism". The Hindu. "Chomsky, argues McGilvray, "sees anarchosyndicalism as a modification of the basic Enlightenment conception of the person as a free and responsible agent, a modification required to meet the challenge of private power. Empowering individuals by putting control back into their hands is the best way to meet this challenge and provide a meaningful form of freedom.""
- Edgley, Alison. "Libertarian Socialism". Canterbury Chirst Church University College. "The classic liberal tradition with its roots in the Enlightenment and its emphasis on freedom is central for Chomsky in any definition of libertarian socialism."
- Vallentyne, Peter. "Libertarianism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- David Boaz (1998). Libertarianism A Primer. London: The Free Press. pp. 22–25. ISBN 0-684-84768-X.
- "Libertarianism". Oxford English Dictionary (3 ed.). 2010. libertarian A.1.(subscription required)
- William Belsham (1789). Essays. C. Dilly. p. 11Original from the University of Michigan, digitized May 21, 2007
- OED November 2010 edition
- The British Critic. p. 432. "The author's Latin verses, which are rather more intelligible than his English, mark him for a furious Libertarian (if we may coin such a term) and a zealous admirer of France, and her liberty, under Bonaparte; such liberty!"
- Seeley, John Robert (1878). Life and Times of Stein: Or Germany and Prussia in the Napoleonic Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3: 355.
- Maitland, Frederick William (July 1901). "William Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford". English Historical Review. 16[.3]: 419.
- Marshall (2009). p. 641. "The word 'libertarian' has long been associated with anarchism, and has been used repeatedly throughout this work. The term originally denoted a person who upheld the doctrine of the freedom of the will; in this sense, Godwin was not a 'libertarian', but a 'necessitarian'. It came however to be applied to anyone who approved of liberty in general. In anarchist circles, it was first used by Joseph Déjacque as the title of his anarchist journal Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social published in New York in 1858. At the end of the last century, the anarchist Sebastien Faure took up the word, to stress the difference between anarchists and authoritarian socialists."
- Robert Graham, ed. (2005). Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300 CE–1939). Montreal: Black Rose Books. §17.
- Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism (in English, translated). London: Freedom Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9. OCLC 37529250.
- Colin Ward (2004), Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers..."
- Chomsky, Noam (February 23, 2002). "The Week Online Interviews Chomsky". Z Magazine. Z Communications. Retrieved 21 November 2011. "The term libertarian as used in the US means something quite different from what it meant historically and still means in the rest of the world. Historically, the libertarian movement has been the anti-statist wing of the socialist movement. Socialist anarchism was libertarian socialism."
- Fernandez, Frank (2001). Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement. Sharp Press. p. 9. "Thus, in the United States, the once exceedingly useful term 'libertarian' has been hijacked by egotists who are in fact enemies of liberty in the full sense of the word."
- Rothbard, Murray N. (2009). The Betrayal of the American Right. Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 1610165012. "One gratifying aspect of our rise to some prominence is that, for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy... 'Libertarians'... had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over..."
- Boaz, David; Kirby, David (18 October 2006). The Libertarian Vote. Cato Institute.
- Carpenter, Ted Galen; Innocent, Malou (2008). "Foreign Policy". In Hamowy, Ronald, ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. pp. 177–180.
- Edward A. Olsen, US National Defense for the Twenty-First Century: The Grand Exit Strategy, Taylor & Francis, 2002, p. 182, ISBN 0714681407, ISBN 9780714681405.
- Steven Teles and Daniel A. Kenney, chapter "Spreading the Word: The diffusion of American Conservatism in Europe and beyond," (pp. 136–169) in Growing apart?: America and Europe in the twenty-first century by Sven Steinmo, Cambridge University Press, 2008, The chapter discusses how libertarian ideas have been more successful at spreading worldwide than social conservative ideas.
- Anthony Gregory, Real World Politics and Radical Libertarianism, LewRockwell.com, April 24, 2007.
- Carlson (2012). p. 1007. "In contrast to the United States, where a right-libertarian sensibility dominates, western European nations with strong leftist political parties tend to see the emergence of left-libertarian parties, as detailed by Kent Redding and Jocelyn S. Viterna. According to them, these parties are united by their 'critique of the statist and bureaucratic tendencies of modern welfare states... inequality and environmental degradation produced by capitalist market economies.'"
- Carlson (2012). p. 1007.
- Boaz, David (1998). Libertarianism: A Primer. "A Note on Labels: Why 'Libertarian'?". Free Press. pp. 22-26.
- Conway, David (2008). "Liberalism, Classical". In Hamowy, Ronald, ed. p. 296. "Depending on the context, libertarianism can be seen as either the contemporary name for classical liberalism, adopted to avoid confusion in those countries where liberalism is widely understood to denote advocacy of expansive government powers, or as a more radical version of classical liberalism."
- Marshall (2009). p. 42.
- Goodman, Paul (1972). 'Little Prayers and Finite Experience.
- Marshall (2009). pp. 42-43.
- Marshall (2009). pp. 8-10.
- Phred Barnet. "The Non-Aggression Principle (Americanly Yours, April 14, 2011)". Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- US Libertarian Party. ""I certify that I oppose the initiation of force to achieve political or social goals" (US Libertarian Party Membership Form)". Retrieved 2011-11-24.
- Stephan Kinsella. "The relation between the non-aggression principle and property rights (Mises Economics Blog, October 4, 2011)". Retrieved 2011-11-25.
- Stephan Kinsella. "What Libertarianism Is (Mises Daily, Friday, August 21, 2009 )". Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Walter Block. "The Non-Aggression Axiom of Libertarianism (LewRockwell.com, February 17, 2003)". Retrieved 2011-11-12.
- "The Free Love Movement and Radical Individualism By Wendy McElroy". Ncc-1776.org. 1996-12-01. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- "Nicolas Walter. "Anarchism and Religion"". Theanarchistlibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
- "The Free Love Movement and Radical Individualism By Wendy McElroy". Ncc-1776.org. 1996-12-01. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
- Emma Goldman: Making Speech Free, 1902–1909. p.551. "Free Society was the principal English-language forum for anarchist ideas in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century."
- ""An Anarchist Defense of Pornography" by Boston Anarchist Drinking Brigade". Theanarchistlibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
- "Interview with an anarchist dominatrix" by Organise
- "Freethinker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
- "Free thought | Define Free thought at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
- McElroy, Wendy (). "The Culture of Individualist Anarchism in Late Nineteenth-Century America".
- Geoffrey C. Fidler (Spring–Summer 1985). "The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia"". History of Education Quarterly (History of Education Society) 25 (1/2): 103–132. doi:10.2307/368893. JSTOR 368893.
- "Francisco Ferrer's Modern School". Flag.blackened.net. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- Sex-Pol stood for the German Society of Proletarian Sexual Politics. Danto writes that Reich offered a mixture of "psychoanalytic counseling, Marxist advice and contraceptives," and argued for a sexual permissiveness, including for young people and the unmarried, that unsettled other psychoanalysts and the political left. The clinics were immediately overcrowded by people seeking help.Danto, Elizabeth Ann (2007). Freud's Free Clinics: Psychoanalysis & Social Justice, 1918–1938, Columbia University Press, first published 2005., pp. 118–120, 137, 198, 208.
- The Sexual Revolution, 1945 (Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf, translated by Theodore P. Wolfe)
- Chartier, Gary. Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Minor Compositions. p. 1. ISBN 978-1570272424
- Shermer, Michael (May 22, 2009). "Michael Shermer - Science, Skepticism and Libertarianism". Point of Inquiry. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Gregory, Anthory.The Minarchist's Dilemma. Strike The Root. 10 May 2004.
- Holcombe, Randall G. http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_08_3_holcombe.pdf. Government: Unnecessary but Inevitable.
- Long, Roderick, Market Anarchism as Constitutionalism, Molinari Institute.
- Plauché, Geoffrey Allan (2006). On the Social Contract and the Persistence of Anarchy, American Political Science Association, (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University).
- Linda & Morris Tannehill. The Market for Liberty, p. 81.
- Becker, Lawrence C.; Becker, Charlotte B. (2001). Encyclopedia of Ethics. 3. New York: Routledge. p. 1562.
- Kymlicka, Will (2005). "libertarianism, left-". In Honderich, Ted. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy: New Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 516. ISBN 978-0199264797. "Right-wing libertarians argue that the right of self-ownership entails the right to appropriate unequal parts of the external world, such as unequal amounts of land."
- von Mises, Ludwig (2007). Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. ISBN 978-0865976313.
- Carlson (2012). p. 1007. "[Left-libertarians] disagree with right-libertarians with respect to property rights, arguing instead that individuals have no inherent right to natural resources. Namely, these resources must be treated as collective property that is made available on an egalitarian basis."
- Narveson, Jan; Trenchard, David (2008). "Left Libertarianism". In Hamowy, Ronald, ed. p. 288. "[Left libertarians] regard each of us as full self-owners. However, they differ from what we generally understand by the term libertarian in denying the right to private property. We own ourselves, but we do not own nature, at least not as individuals. Left libertarians embrace the view that all natural resources, land, oil, gold, trees, and so on should be held collectively. To the extent that individuals make use of these commonly owned goods, they must do so only with the permission of society, a permission granted only under the proviso that a certain payment for their use be made to society at large."
- Vallentyne, Peter (20 July 2010). "Libertarianism". In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- Guérin (1970).
- Sacco, Nicola; Vanzetti, Bartolomeo (1929). Frankfurter, Marion Denman; Jackson, Gardner, eds. The Letters of Sacco and Vanzetti. New York: Vanguard Press.
- Ward (2004). pp. 1-2. "[Individualist anarchists] differed from free-market liberals in their absolute mistrust of American capitalism, and in their emphasis on mutualism."
- Thompson 1966, p. 599
- Thompson 1966, p. 912
- Ostergaard 1997, p. 133.
- Lazonick 1990, p. 37.
- Hallgrimsdottir & Benoit 2007; Roediger 2007a.
The term is not without its critics, as Roediger 2007b, p. 247, notes: "[T]he challenge to loose connections of wage (or white) slavery to chattel slavery was led by Frederick Douglass and other Black, often fugitive, abolitionists. Their challenge was mercilessly concrete. Douglass, who tried out speeches in work places before giving them in halls, was far from unable to speak to or hear white workers, but he and William Wells Brown did challenge metaphors regarding white slavery sharply. They noted, for example, that their escapes from slavery had left job openings and wondered if any white workers wanted to take the jobs."
- Fitzhugh 1857, p. xvi.
- Carsel 1940.
- Chomsky 1993, p. 19.
- Marx 1990, p. 1006: "[L]abour-power, a commodity sold by the worker himself."
- Another one, of course, being the capitalists' theft from workers via surplus-value.
- Nelson, John O. (1995). "That a Worker's Labour Cannot Be a Commodity". Philosophy 70 (272): 158. doi:10.1017/s0031819100065359. JSTOR 3751199.. This Marxist objection is what motivated Nelson's essay, which argues that labour is not, in fact, a commodity.
- Marx 1990, p. 1005. Emphasis in the original.
See also p. 716: "[T]he capitalist produces [and reproduces] the worker as a wage-labourer. This incessant reproduction, this perpetuation of the worker, is the absolutely necessary condition for capitalist production."
- Hamowy (2008). p. xxix
- Hudelson, Richard (1999). Modern Political Philosophy. pp. 37–38
- Dickerson, M.O. et al. (2009). An Introduction to Government and Politics: A Conceptual Approach. p. 129
- Bronfenbrenner, Martin (1955). "Two Concepts of Economic Freedom". Ethics 65 (3): 157–170. doi:10.1086/290998. JSTOR 2378928.
- Appleby, Joyce (1992). Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination. p. 58
- Gaus, Gerald F. and Chandran Kukathas (2004). Handbook of Political Theory. p. 422
- Hunt (2003). p. 54
- Quinton, A. (1995): "Conservativism". In: Goodin, R. E. and Pettit, P. eds.: A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 246.
- Hunt (2003). pp. 46-47
- Richardson (2001). p. 43
- is an example of an article that defines classical liberalism as all liberalism before the 20th Century.
- Stringham (2007). p. 504
- Long, Roderick T. and Tibor R. Machan (2008). Anarchism/minarchism: is a government part of a free country?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Preface. ISBN 978-0-7546-6066-8
- Stringham (2007).
- Hamowy (2008). p. 10-12, p. 195
- Stringham (2007). p 51
- Tannehill, Linda and Morris (1993). The Market for Liberty. San Francisco: Fox & Wilkes. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-930073-08-4. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- "Review of Kosanke's Instead of Politics - Don Stacy" Libertarian Papers VOL. 3,ART.NO. 3 (2011)
- Miller, David (1987). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-17944-3
- Rothbard, Murray (1973). For A New Liberty. "The Public Sector, III: Police, Law, and the Courts."
- "Ayn Rand's Q & A on Libertarianism", Ayn Rand Institute
- Peikoff, Leonard (1993). Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand. Meridian.
- Schwartz, Peter, "Libetarianism: the Perversion of Liberty," in The Voice of Reason, L. Peikoff, editor (1988) New American Library, pp. 311–333.
- Kelley, David (2000). The Contested Legacy of Ayn Rand: Truth and Toleration in Objectivism. Transaction Publishers. pp. 96-97.
- Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Blackwell Publishing, 1991. p. 21.
- Chomsky, Noam (2004). Language and Politics. In Otero, Carlos Peregrín. AK Press. p. 739
- Bookchin, Murray and Janet Biehl. The Murray Bookchin Reader. Cassell, 1997. p. 170 ISBN 0-304-33873-7
- Hicks, Steven V. and Daniel E. Shannon. The American journal of economics and sociolology. Blackwell Pub, 2003. p. 612
- Berkman, Alexander (1929). What Is Communist Anarchism? Vanguard Press.
- Chomsky, Noam (2003). Radical Priorities. AK Press. p. 26
- Zarembka, Paul (2007). Transitions in Latin America and in Poland and Syria. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 25.
- Ross, Dr. Jeffery Ian. Controlling State Crime, Transaction Publishers (2000) p. 400 ISBN 0-7658-0695-9
- Ward, Colin (1966). "Anarchism as a Theory of Organization". Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- Brown, L. Susan (2002). "Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism". The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. p. 106.
- Ackelsberg, Martha A. (2005). Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women. AK Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-902593-96-8.
- Rocker, Rudolf (2004). Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. AK Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-902593-92-0.
- "Foldvary, Fred E. Geoism and Libertarianism. The Progress Report". Progress.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Karen DeCoster, Henry George and the Tariff Question, LewRockwell.com, April 19, 2006.
- Foldvary, Fred E. (1981). "Geo-libertarianism." Land and Liberty. pp. 53-55.
- Foldvary, Fred E. (2001-07-15). "Geoanarchism". anti-state.com. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
- Steiner, Hillel (1994). An Essay on Rights. Oxford:Blackwell.
- (2000). Left Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate. In Vallentyne, Peter; and Steiner, Hillel. London:Palgrave.
- Van Parijs, Philippe (2009). Marxism Recycled. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
- Otsuka, Michael (2005). Libertarianism without Inequality. New York:Oxford University Press.
- Ellerman, David (1992). Property and Contract in Economics: The Case for Economic Democracy. Cambridge MA:Blackwell.
- Ellerman, David (1990). The Democratic Worker-Owned Firm. London:Unwin Hyman.
- Gaus, Gerald F. and Kukathas, Chandran (2004). Handbook of Political Theory. Sage Publications Inc. p. 128.
- Van Parijs, Phillippe (1998). Real Freedom for All: What (If Anything) Can Justify Capitalism? Oxford:Clarendon-Oxford University Press.
- Daskal, Steve (1 January 2010). "Libertarianism Left and Right, the Lockean Proviso, and the Reformed Welfare State." Social Theory and Practice. p. 1.
- Kropotkin, Peter. "Anarchism" from the Encyclopædia Britannica. "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions"
- David Boaz, Preface for the Japanese Edition of Libertarianism: A Primer, reprinted at Cato.org, November 21, 1998.
- Libertarianism.org. "A Note on Labels: Why 'Libertarian'?", Cato Institute, accessed July 4, 2013.
- Adrina Michelle Garbooshian, The Concept of Human Dignity in the French and American Enlightenments: Religion, Virtue, Liberty, ProQuest, 2006, p. 472, ISBN 0542851601, ISBN 9780542851605; quote: "Influenced by Locke and Smith, certain segments of society affirmed classical liberalism, with a libertarian bent."
- Paul A. Cantor, The Invisible Hand in Popular Culture: Liberty Vs. Authority in American Film and TV, University Press of Kentucky, 2012, p. xiii, ISBN 081314082X, ISBN 9780813140827 ; Quote: "[T]he roots of libertarianism lie in...the classical liberal tradition."
- Carlos Peregrin Otero, editor, Noam Chomsky: critical assessments, Volumes 2–3, Taylor & Francis US, 1994, p. 617, ISBN 0-415-10694-X, ISBN 9780415106948.
- David Boaz, The Libertarian Reader: Classic and Contemporary Writings from Lao Tzu to Milton Friedman, Simon and Schuster, 2010, p. 123, ISBN 1439118337, ISBN 9781439118337
- Murray Rothbard, The Libertarian Heritage: The American Revolution and Classical Liberalism, excerpted from Rothbard's For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, 1973; published at LewRockwell.com, 2006.
- Ellen Meiksins Wood. Mind and Politics: An Approach to the Meaning of Liberal and Socialist Individualism. University of California Press. 1972. ISBN 0-520-02029-4 . pg. 7
- Charles T.Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, 1913; republished 1995 by Ludwig von Mises Institute, p. 74, ISBN 1610161076, ISBN 9781610161077
- David C. Hoffman, "Paine and Prejudice: Rhetorical Leadership through Perceptual Framing in Common Sense," Rhetoric and Public Affairs, Fall 2006, Vol. 9 Issue 3, pp 373–410
- Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York: Knopf, 1997), 90–91.
- Hitchens, Christopher (2006). Thomas Paine's Rights of Man. Grove Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-8021-4383-0.
- Robert Lamb, "Liberty, Equality, and the Boundaries of Ownership: Thomas Paine's Theory of Property Rights," Review of Politics (2010) 72#3 pp. 483–511.
- Ian Ousby, The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English, Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 305, ISBN 0521440866, ISBN 9780521440868
- Godwin, William (1793). Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Modern Morals and Happiness. G.G. and J. Robinson. OCLC 2340417.
- "Anarchism", Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006 (UK version).
- Everhart, Robert B. The Public School Monopoly: A Critical Analysis of Education and the State in American Society. Pacific Institute for Public Policy Research, 1982. p. 115.
- William Godwin entry by Mark Philip in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006-05-20
- Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Encyclopædia Britannica 1910.
- Godwin himself attributed the first anarchist writing to Edmund Burke's A Vindication of Natural Society. "Most of the above arguments may be found much more at large in Burke's Vindication of Natural Society; a treatise in which the evils of the existing political institutions are displayed with incomparable force of reasoning and lustre of eloquence ..." – footnote, Ch. 2 Political Justice by William Godwin.
- Adams, Ian. Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press, 2001. p. 116.
- Godwin, William (1796) . Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Modern Morals and Manners. G.G. and J. Robinson. OCLC 2340417.
- Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. pg. 85
- Graham, Robert (2005). "Preface". Anarchism: a Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas: from Anarchy to Anarchism. Montréal: Black Rose Books. pp. xi–xiv. ISBN 1-55164-250-6. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "What is Communist Anarchism?" Alexander Berkman, in Now and After
- Joseph Déjacque, De l'être-humain mâle et femelle – Lettre à P.J. Proudhon par Joseph Déjacque (in French)
- Robert Graham, Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas – Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300 CE to 1939), Black Rose Books, 2005
- "l'Echange", article in Le Libertaire no 6, September 21, 1858, New York. 
- Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-900384-89-1.
- Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-900384-89-1.
- "What do I mean by individualism? I mean by individualism the moral doctrine which, relying on no dogma, no tradition, no external determination, appeals only to the individual conscience."Mini-Manual of Individualism by Han Ryner
- "I do not admit anything except the existence of the individual, as a condition of his sovereignty. To say that the sovereignty of the individual is conditioned by Liberty is simply another way of saying that it is conditioned by itself.""Anarchism and the State" in Individual Liberty
- Goodway, David. Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow. Liverpool University Press, 2006, p. 99.
- Max Stirner entry by David Leopold in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006-08-04
- The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopedia Corporation. p. 176.
- Miller, David. "Anarchism." 1987. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 11.
- Nyberg, Svein Olav. "The union of egoists". Non Serviam (Oslo, Norway: Svein Olav Nyberg) 1: 13–14. OCLC 47758413. Retrieved 1 September 2012
- Thomas, Paul (1985). Karl Marx and the Anarchists. London: Routledge/Kegan Paul. p. 142. ISBN 0-7102-0685-2.
- Carlson, Andrew (1972). "Philosophical Egoism: German Antecedents". Anarchism in Germany. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-0484-0. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
- Palmer, Brian (29 December 2010) What do anarchists want from us?, Slate.com
- William Bailie,  Josiah Warren: The First American Anarchist – A Sociological Study, Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1906, p. 20
- "2. Individualist Anarchism and Reaction" in Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism – An Unbridgeable Chasm on libcom.org
- "La insumisión voluntaria: El anarquismo individualista español durante la Dictadura y la Segunda República (1923–1938)" by Xavier Díez
- "Los anarco-individualistas, G.I.A ... Una escisión de la FAI producida en el IX Congreso (Carrara, 1965) se produjo cuando un sector de anarquistas de tendencia humanista rechazan la interpretación que ellos juzgan disciplinaria del pacto asociativo clásico, y crean los GIA (Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica) . Esta pequeña federación de grupos, hoy nutrida sobre todo de veteranos anarco-individualistas de orientación pacifista, naturista, etcétera defiende la autonomía personal y rechaza a rajatabla toda forma de intervención en los procesos del sistema, como sería por ejemplo el sindicalismo. Su portavoz es L'Internazionale con sede en Ancona. La escisión de los GIA prefiguraba, en sentido contrario, el gran debate que pronto había de comenzar en el seno del movimiento""El movimiento libertario en Italia" by Bicicleta. REVISTA DE COMUNICACIONES LIBERTARIAS Year 1 No. Noviembre, 1 1977
- "Proliferarán así diversos grupos que practicarán el excursionismo, el naturismo, el nudismo, la emancipación sexual o el esperantismo, alrededor de asociaciones informales vinculadas de una manera o de otra al anarquismo. Precisamente las limitaciones a las asociaciones obreras impuestas desde la legislación especial de la Dictadura potenciarán indirectamente esta especie de asociacionismo informal en que confluirá el movimiento anarquista con esta heterogeneidad de prácticas y tendencias. Uno de los grupos más destacados, que será el impulsor de la revista individualista Ética será el Ateneo Naturista Ecléctico, con sede en Barcelona, con sus diferentes secciones la más destacada de las cuales será el grupo excursionista Sol y Vida.""La insumisión voluntaria: El anarquismo individualista español durante la Dictadura y la Segunda República (1923–1938)" by Xavier Díez
- "Les anarchistes individualistes du début du siècle l'avaient bien compris, et intégraient le naturisme dans leurs préoccupations. Il est vraiment dommage que ce discours se soit peu à peu effacé, d'antan plus que nous assistons, en ce moment, à un retour en force du puritanisme (conservateur par essence).""Anarchisme et naturisme, aujourd'hui." by Cathy Ytak
- individualista.pdf Xavier Diez. El anarquismo individualista en España (1923–1939) Virus Editorial. 2007. p. 143
- The "Illegalists", by Doug Imrie (published by Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed)
- Parry, Richard. The Bonnot Gang. Rebel Press, 1987. p. 15
- "Anarchism" at the Encyclopedia Britannica online.
- "Anarchosyndicalism" by Rudolf Rocker
- Avrich, Paul (2006). The Russian Anarchists. Stirling: AK Press. pp. 195, 204. ISBN 1-904859-48-8.
- "There Is No Communism in Russia" by Emma Goldman. Quote: "Soviet Russia, it must now be obvious, is an absolute despotism politically and the crassest form of state capitalism economically."
- Nomad, Max (1966). "The Anarchist Tradition". In Drachkovitch, Milorad M. Revolutionary Internationals 1864 1943. Stanford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8047-0293-4.[verification needed]
- Dielo Trouda (2006) . Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft). Italy: FdCA. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
- "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists" by Delo Truda
- Hakim Bey. "T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism"
- "Die bayerische Revolution 1918/19. Die erste Räterepublik der Literaten"[dead link]
- "1918–1921: The Italian factory occupations – Biennio Rosso" on Libcom.org
- Holbrow, Marnie, "Daring but Divided" (Socialist Review November 2002).
- Berry, David. "Fascism or Revolution." Le Libertaire. August 1936.
- Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006, p. 46, ISBN 978-0-297-84832-5
- "Anarchist Communism & Libertarian Communism" by Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze. from "L'informatore di parte", No. 4, October 1979, quarterly journal of the Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze, on Libcom.org
- Murray Bookchin, To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936, AK Press, 1994, pp. 2–39, ISBN 1873176872, ISBN 9781873176870
- The FIJL is referred to as the "Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth" in, inter alia:
- George Richard Esenwein, The Spanish Civil War: a Modern Tragedy, 2005, p 269.
- Alexandre Skirda, Facing the Enemy: a History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968, 2002, p 158.
- Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism, 2010, p 466.
- Graham Kelsey, Anarchosyndicalism, Libertarian Communism, and the State: the CNT in Zaragoza and Aragon, 1930-1937, 1991, p 250.
- José Peirats & Chris Ealham, The CNT in the Spanish Revolution, Volume 2, 2001, p. 76. "The anarchist youth movement had been founded soon after the birth of the Second Republic.... Later, they spread throughout the whole of Spain until they came to represent the third branch of the great libertarian family.... The FIJL had agreed upon the following statement of principles: '...This Association shall strive to invest young people with a libertarian conviction, as to equip them individually to struggle against authority in all its forms, whether in trade union matters or in ideological ones, so as to attain a libertarian social arrangement'"
- Esenwein, George Richard. The Spanish Civil War: A Modern Tragedy, Routledge, 2005., p.269
- Gómez Casas, p.237
- "Manifesto of Libertarian Communism" by Georges Fontenis, on Libcom.org
- London Federation of Anarchists involvement in Carrara conference, 1968 International Institute of Social History. Retrieved 19 January 2010
- [ Short history of the IAF-IFA] A-infos news project. Retrieved 19 January 2010
- "The Left-Libertarians – the last of an ancient breed" by BILL WEINBERG
- Anarchist Voices: An Oral History Of Anarchism In America by Paul Avrich. AK Press. 2005. pp. 471–472
- Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, AK Press, p. 419
- Anarchist Voices: An Oral History Of Anarchism In America by Paul Avrich. AK Press. 2005
- A 1970s associate, subject of David Marr's A spirit gone to another place The Sydney Morning Herald obituary, 9 September 2006
- See Baker A J "Sydney Libertarianism and the Push" or at "Sydney Libertarians and the Push" on Prof. W L Morison memorial site
- Articles and Essays of and by Sydney Libertarians
- Sydney Libertarianism at the Marxists Internet Archive
- Libertarian Marxism? by Daniel Guérin
- Ernesto Screpanti, Libertarian communism: Marx Engels and the Political Economy of Freedom, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2007.
- Draper, Hal. "The Principle of Self-Emancipation in Marx and Engels" "The Socialist Register." Vol 4.
- "A libertarian Marxist tendency map". Libcom.org. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- Root & Branch at libcom.org
- Root & Branch # 7 at libcom.org
- "papers relating to Libertarian Communism (a splinter group of the SPGB) including journals and miscellaneous correspondence, 1970-1980 (1 box)""Socialist Party of Great Britain" at Archives Hub at the Great Research Centre
- "LIBERTARIAN LABOR REVIEW: Anarchosyndicalist Ideas and Discussion. #9 Summer, 1990. Paperback – January 1, 1989 by Jon, Sam Dolgoff, MiMi Rivera and Jeff Stein (editorial collective)" at Amazon.com
- "Libertarian Labor Review INDEX #1-24" at syndicalists.us
- Razeen, Sally. Classical Liberalism and International Economic Order: Studies in Theory and Intellectual History, Routledge (UK) ISBN 978-0-415-16493-1, 1998, p. 17
- DeLeon, David (1978). The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 127. "only a few individuals like Murray Rothbard, in Power and Market, and some article writers were influenced by [past anarchists like Spooner and Tucker]. Most had not evolved consciously from this tradition; they had been a rather automatic product of the American environment."
- Stan Lehr and Louis Rossetto Jr., PAY WALL ARTICLE The New Right Credo – Libertarianism, The New York Times Magazine, January 10, 1971. Quotes: "Baruch Spinoza, the 17th-century philosopher, was a forerunner of modern libertarians.; "Modern libertarianism is thus in some respects a continuation of 18th-century and 19th-century liberalism. On the other hand, modern libertarianism is on a much more solid intellectual footing than old-style liberalism ever was. While many early liberals tried to argue that 'all men are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights,' this was merely reversal of the old divine-right theory of kings, albeit with happier results. Both theories were based on equally spurious premises. In contrast, modern libertarianism argues not from unprovable mysticism, but rather from a scientific appraisal of the nature of man and his needs."
- Henry J. Silverman, ed. (1970). American radical thought: the libertarian tradition. Lexington, MA: Heath and Company. p. 279. LCC JA84.U5 S55
- Rubin, Harriet (September 15, 2007). "Ayn Rand's Literature of Capitalism". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
- "What was Ayn Rand's view of the libertarian movement?". Ayn Rand Institute. "More specifically, I disapprove of, disagree with and have no connection with, the latest aberration of some conservatives, the so-called "hippies of the right," who attempt to snare the younger or more careless ones of my readers by claiming simultaneously to be followers of my philosophy and advocates of anarchism. [...] libertarians are a monstrous, disgusting bunch of people: they plagiarize my ideas when that fits their purpose, and denounce me in a more vicious manner than any communist publication when that fits their purpose"
- Ronald Lora, William Henry Longton, (1999) Conservative press in 20th-century America, pp. 367–374, Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group
- Marc Jason Gilbert, The Vietnam War on campus: other voices, more distant drums, p. 35, 2001, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-96909-6
- Rebecca E. Klatch, A Generation Divided: The New Left, the New Right, and the 1960s, University of California Press, 1999 pp. 215–237.
- National Book Award: 1975 – Philosophy and Religion
- David Lewis Schaefer, Robert Nozick and the Coast of Utopia, The New York Sun, April 30, 2008.
- The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior, 1948–2004 American National Election Studies
- Gallup Poll news release, September 7–10, 2006.
- Kirby, David; Ekins, Emily McClintock (Aug 6, 2012). Libertarian Roots of the Tea Party. Cato.
- Emily Ekins, Is Half the Tea Party Libertarian?, Reason, September 26, 2011
- Pauline Arrillaga (04/14/12). "Tea Party 2012: A Look At The Conservative Movement's Last Three Years". Huffington Post.
Michelle Boorstein (5 October 2010). "Tea party, religious right often overlap, poll shows". The Washington Post.
Peter Wallsten, Danny Yadron (29 September 2010). "Tea-Party Movement Gathers Strength". The Wall Street Journal.
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Barstow, David (February 16, 2010). "Tea Party Lights Fuse for Rebellion on Right". New York Times.
Fineman, Howard (April 6, 2010). "Party Time". Newsweek.
- Tea Party 2012: A Look At The Conservative Movement's Last Three Years
- Tea Party ‘Is Dead’: How the Movement Fizzled in 2012’s GOP Primaries; The Daily Beast; February 2, 2012
- Ryan Brings the Tea Party to the Ticket; The New York Times; August 12, 2012; Retrieved August 13, 2012
- Justin Raimondo, Election 2012: Ron Paul's Revenge!, Antiwar.com, November 7, 2012.
- Tuccile, J.D. (November 7, 2012). "Gary Johnson Pulls One Million Votes, One Percent". Reason. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- "Libertarian Party buoyant; Greens hopeful". United Press International. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
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- Lucas Eaves (November 1, 2012). "Why 5% matters to Gary Johnson". Independent Voter Network. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Texas Politics Today, 2013-2014 Edition - Page 121, William Maxwell, Ernest Crain, Adolfo Santos - 2013
- "Where now for the Occupy protesters?". Channel 4 News. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Shenker, Jack; Gabbatt, Adam (25 October 2011). "Tahrir Square protesters send message of solidarity to Occupy Wall Street". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- "Movimento dos Indignados marca manifestação para quinta-feira". Retrieved 2013-06-04.
- ""Geração à rasca" é referência para Espanha". Retrieved 2013-06-04.
- Saba, Michael (17 September 2011). "Twitter #occupywallstreet movement aims to mimic Iran". CNN tech. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Occupy Wall Street | September 17th". Adbusters.org. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- Joanna Walters (8 October 2011). "Occupy America: protests against Wall Street and inequality hit 70 cities". The Guardinan (London). Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- "Cornel West on Occupy Wall Street: It's the Makings of a U.S. Autumn Responding to the Arab Spring". Democracy Now!. 29 September 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Matchar, Emily (24 February 2011). "Will Occupy Wall Street's spark reshape our politics?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- The 99% declaration.
- Unite the 99%.
- Wall Street protesters: We're in for the long haul Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- Lessig, Lawrence (5 October 2011). "#OccupyWallSt, Then #OccupyKSt, Then #OccupyMainSt". Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- Ben Berkowitz (19 October 2011). "From a single hashtag, a protest circled the world". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Occupy Wall Street's anarchist roots". Aljazeera. Retrieved 2012-02-23. "It was only on August 2, when a small group of anarchists and other anti-authoritarians showed up at a meeting called by one such group and effectively wooed everyone away from the planned march and rally to create a genuine democratic assembly, on basically anarchist principles, that the stage was set for a movement that Americans from Portland to Tuscaloosa were willing to embrace."
- Williams, Dana (2012). "The anarchist DNA of Occupy". Contexts 11 (2): 19. doi:10.1177/1536504212446455.
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- Derek Thompson (15 October 2011). "Occupy the World: The '99 Percent' Movement Goes Global". The Atlantic. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- James Miller (25 October 2011). "Will Extremists Hijack Occupy Wall Street?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
- Karla Adam (15 October 2011). "Occupy Wall Street protests go global". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- Karla Adam (16 October 2011). "Occupy Wall Street protests continue worldwide". The Washington Post.
- Joanna Walters in Seattle (8 October 2011). "Occupy America: protests against Wall Street and inequality hit 70 cities | World news". The Observer (UK). Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Shannon Bond (15 November 2011). "Authorities move against Occupy protest" ((registration required)). Financial Times. Retrieved 2011-11-15.
- Lizzy Davies (15 November 2011). "Occupy movement: city-by-city police crackdowns so far". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2011-11-16.
- Tom Burgis (28 February 2012). "Authorities clear St Paul’s Occupy camp" ((registration required)). Financial Times. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
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- James Kirkup (29 October 2012). "Occupy protesters were right, says Bank of England official". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- Belluck, Pam (October 27, 2003). "Libertarians Pursue New Political Goal: State of Their Own". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Elizabeth Hovde (2009-05-11). "Americans mixed on Obama's big government gamble". The Oregonian.
- Gairdner, William D. (2007) . The Trouble with Canada: A Citizen Speaks Out. Toronto: BPS Books. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-9784402-2-0. "The first, we would call "libertarianism" today. Libertarians wanted to get all government out of people's lives. This movement is still very much alive today. In fact, in the United States, it is the third largest political party, and ran 125 candidates during the U.S. election of 1988."
- Richard Winger (March 1, 2008). "Early 2008 Registration Totals". Ballot Access News (San Francisco, CA: Richard Winger) 23 (11). Retrieved 2010-07-19.[self-published source?]
- "Our History". Our Party. Washington, DC: Libertarian National Committee. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
- Carley, Mark "Trade union membership 1993–2003" (International: SPIRE Associates 2004).
- http://www.cnt-ait-fr.org/CNT-AIT/ACCUEIL.html Website of the Confédération Nationale du Travail – Association Internationale des Travailleurs
- Attas, Daniel (2010). "Libertarianism". In Bevir, Mark. Encyclopedia of Political Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 810–818. ISBN 978-1-4129-5865-3.
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- Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. PublicAffairs.
- Graham, Robert (2005). Anarchism: a Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas: from Anarchy to Anarchism. Montréal: Black Rose Books. ISBN 1-55164-250-6.
- Guérin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. New York: Monthly Review Press. ISBN 978-0853451754.
- Hamowy, Ronald, ed. (2008). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4.
- Hospers, John (1971). Libertarianism. Santa Barbara, CA: Reason Press.
- Hunt, E. K. (2003). Property and Prophets: the Evolution of Economic Institutions and Ideologies. New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 0-7656-0608-9.
- Kinna, Ruth (2010). "Anarchism". In Bevir, Mark. Encyclopedia of Political Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 34–37. ISBN 978-1-4129-5865-3.
- Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. Oakland, CA: PM Press. ISBN 978-1-60486-064-1.
- McLaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism. AshGate.
- Miller, David; Coleman, Janet; Connolly, William; Ryan, Alan (1991). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631179443.
- Richardson, James L. (2001). Contending Liberalisms in World Politics: Ideology and Power. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-55587-939-X.
- Ward, Colin (2004). Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-192804-77-8.
- Woodcock, George (2004). Anarchism. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-551116-29-7.
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- Foundation for Economic Education (Foundation for Economic Education) – an American libertarian organization founded in 1946
- Libertarianism.org (Libertarianism.org) – sponsored by the Cato Institute, it discusses the history, theory, and practice of libertarianism
- Libertarianism entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy