Historically, Marxism came to Libya through bourgeois intellectuals who studied abroad and through Marxists from Italy, what explains the Italian name of the party.
The party was established shortly after World War II, but the Libyan authorities began a crackdown on the party shortly after the founding of the Communist Party. In November 1951, seven of its leaders were forced into exile, and the Communist Party was under police surveillance. The party's headquarters was in Benghazi. The influence of the party was limited to a small group in Cyrenaica.
Communist militants took part in student demonstrations. In 1952 the government banned all political parties.