- See glossary for terms used
Variable in the extent and breadth of the orange-yellow markings and in the mottling and ground-colour of the underside. Typically males and females have the groundcolour on the upperside dark brown, with the following orange-yellow markings :— Fore wing: a streak from base along the median vein extending narrowly on each side of it and continued beyond as a comparatively large oval spot in base of interspace 2; two preapical double spots placed obliquely to the costa. Hind wing uniform, with a slightly oblique narrow medial band extending from vein 1 to vein 5. Underside fore wing : ground-colour brown; orange-yellow markings as on the upperside, but broader, more diffuse; apex and dorsal margin broadly shaded with pale grey irrorated with minute dark spots and transverse short striae. Hind wing greyish brown irrorated with minute dark spots and short transverse striae, and shaded in the cell, on the middle of the costal margin, and on the middle of the termen with diffuse brown. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen dark brown ; beneath, palpi, thorax and abdomen greyish brown.
The larger varieties, with very broad orange markings on both fore and hind wings, have been separated as race sanguinalis. This is chiefly a Himalayan and Eastern form. Variety rama Moore is the smaller Southern and Ceylon form, with the orange markings much narrower and restricted and the preapical double spots entirely white, or white slightly suffused with yellow. Every gradation between the two forms, however, can be found. Many specimens are identical with typical forms from Java.
Wing expanse of 46–58 mm. Found along the Himalayas, from Kulu to Sikkim; the Western Ghats and southern India; Sri Lanka; Assam; Myanmar; Tenasserim ; the Malayan Peninsula ; China.
"Colour dark green, sometimes with a brownish tinge, with a thin dorsal light yellow line from segments 4 to 12 and a narrow yellow supra-spiracular band from the head to the anal end." (Lionel de Nicéville)
"The front of the pupa seen from above is absolutely square, the head ending in a broad straight edge; .... thorax somewhat convex and highly carinated along the dorsal line . ...; wings slightly thickened at and behind the shoulder; .... colour light green with the tops oil all the carinations yellow, with a black speck on the abdominal peak; the surface of the pupa smooth, somewhat shiny." (de Nicéville)
- Bingham, C. T. 1905. Fauna of British India. Butterflies. Volume 1
- Mathew, G.; Binoy, C.F. (2002). "Migration of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve". Zoos' Print Journal 17 (8): 844–847.
- Evans, W.H. (1932) The Identification of Indian Butterflies. (2nd Ed), Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India
- Gaonkar, Harish (1996) Butterflies of the Western Ghats, India (including Sri Lanka) - A Biodiversity Assessment of a threatened mountain system. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.
- Gay,Thomas; Kehimkar,Isaac & Punetha,J.C.(1992) Common Butterflies of India. WWF-India and Oxford University Press, Mumbai, India.
- Haribal, Meena (1994) Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and their Natural History.
- Kunte,Krushnamegh (2005) Butterflies of Peninsular India. Universities Press.
- Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957) Butterflies of the Indian Region, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.