Lidar

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For the quantum physicist, see Daniel Lidar.
Animation of a satellite collecting digital elevation map data over the Ganges and Brahmaputra River basin using lidar.
A FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range for lidar and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D2a line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.
This lidar may be used to scan buildings, rock formations, etc., to produce a 3D model. The lidar can aim its laser beam in a wide range: its head rotates horizontally; a mirror tilts vertically. The laser beam is used to measure the distance to the first object on its path.

Lidar (also written LIDAR or LiDAR) is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light. Although thought by some to be an acronym of LIght Detection And Ranging,[1] the term lidar was actually created as a portmanteau of "light" and "radar."[2][3]

Lidar is popularly used as a technology to make high-resolution maps, with applications in geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, remote sensing, atmospheric physics,[4] airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), laser altimetry, and contour mapping.

History and etymology[edit]

Lidar was developed in the early 1960s, shortly after the invention of the laser, and combined the laser focused imaging with the radar ability to calculate distances by measuring the time for the signal to return. Its first applications were in meteorology, where it was used to measure clouds by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.[5] The general public became aware of the accuracy and usefulness of lidar systems in 1971 during the Apollo 15 mission, when astronauts used a laser altimeter to map the surface of the moon.

Although thought by some to be an acronym,[1] the term lidar is a portmanteau of "light" and "radar." The first published mention of lidar makes this clear: "Eventually the laser may provide an extremely sensitive detector of particular wavelengths from distant objects. Meanwhile, it is being used to study the moon by 'lidar' (light radar)..."[3] The Oxford English Dictionary supports this etymology.[2]

The assumption that lidar was an acronym (LIDAR) came later, beginning in 1970,[6] and was based on the assumption that since the base term "radar" originally started as an acronym for "RAdio Detection And Ranging", that LIDAR must stand for "LIght Detection And Ranging",[7] or "Laser Imaging, Detection and Ranging".[8] Although "radar" is no longer treated as an acronym and is universally uncapitalized, the word "lidar" became capitalized as LIDAR in some publications beginning in the 1980s.[9] Today there is no consensus in capitalization, reflecting uncertainty about whether or not it is an acronym, and if it is an acronym, if it should be lowercase, like "radar". Lidar is also sometimes spelled "LIDAR", "LiDAR", "LIDaR", or "Lidar", depending on the publication, the USGS uses both LIDAR and lidar, sometimes in the same document,[10] and the New York Times uses both "lidar" and "Lidar".[11]

General description[edit]

Lidar uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects. It can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules.[4] A narrow laser-beam can map physical features with very high resolution.

Lidar has been used extensively for atmospheric research and meteorology. Downward-looking lidar instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites carry out surveying and mapping – a recent example being the U.S. Geological Survey Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar.[12] NASA has identified lidar as a key technology for enabling autonomous precision safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar-landing vehicles.[13]

Wavelengths vary to suit the target: from about 10 micrometers to the UV (approximately 250 nm). Typically light is reflected via backscattering. Different types of scattering are used for different lidar applications: most commonly Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, Raman scattering, and fluorescence. Based on different kinds of backscattering, the lidar can be accordingly called Rayleigh Lidar, Mie Lidar, Raman Lidar, Na/Fe/K Fluorescence Lidar, and so on.[4] Suitable combinations of wavelengths can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by identifying wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal.

Design[edit]

A basic lidar system involves a laser range finder reflected by a rotating mirror (top). The laser is scanned around the scene being digitised, in one or two dimensions (middle), gathering distance measurements at specified angle intervals (bottom).

In general there are two kinds of lidar detection schemes: "incoherent" or direct energy detection (which is principally an amplitude measurement) and coherent detection (which is best for doppler, or phase sensitive measurements). Coherent systems generally use Optical heterodyne detection, which, being more sensitive than direct detection, allows them to operate a much lower power but at the expense of more complex transceiver requirements.

In both coherent and incoherent lidar, there are two types of pulse models: micropulse lidar systems and high energy systems. Micropulse systems have developed as a result of the ever increasing amount of computer power available combined with advances in laser technology. They use considerably less energy in the laser, typically on the order of one microjoule, and are often "eye-safe," meaning they can be used without safety precautions. High-power systems are common in atmospheric research, where they are widely used for measuring many atmospheric parameters: the height, layering and densities of clouds, cloud particle properties (extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, depolarization), temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, trace gas concentration (ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, etc.).[4]

There are several major components to a lidar system:

  1. Laser — 600–1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. They are inexpensive, but since they can be focused and easily absorbed by the eye, the maximum power is limited by the need to make them eye-safe. Eye-safety is often a requirement for most applications. A common alternative, 1550 nm lasers, are eye-safe at much higher power levels since this wavelength is not focused by the eye, but the detector technology is less advanced and so these wavelengths are generally used at longer ranges and lower accuracies. They are also used for military applications as 1550 nm is not visible in night vision goggles, unlike the shorter 1000 nm infrared laser. Airborne topographic mapping lidars generally use 1064 nm diode pumped YAG lasers, while bathymetric systems generally use 532 nm frequency doubled diode pumped YAG lasers because 532 nm penetrates water with much less attenuation than does 1064 nm. Laser settings include the laser repetition rate (which controls the data collection speed). Pulse length is generally an attribute of the laser cavity length, the number of passes required through the gain material (YAG, YLF, etc.), and Q-switch speed. Better target resolution is achieved with shorter pulses, provided the lidar receiver detectors and electronics have sufficient bandwidth.[4]
  2. Scanner and optics — How fast images can be developed is also affected by the speed at which they are scanned. There are several options to scan the azimuth and elevation, including dual oscillating plane mirrors, a combination with a polygon mirror, a dual axis scanner (see Laser scanning). Optic choices affect the angular resolution and range that can be detected. A hole mirror or a beam splitter are options to collect a return signal.
  3. Photodetector and receiver electronics — Two main photodetector technologies are used in lidars: solid state photodetectors, such as silicon avalanche photodiodes, or photomultipliers. The sensitivity of the receiver is another parameter that has to be balanced in a lidar design.
  4. Position and navigation systems — Lidar sensors that are mounted on mobile platforms such as airplanes or satellites require instrumentation to determine the absolute position and orientation of the sensor. Such devices generally include a Global Positioning System receiver and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU).

3D imaging can be achieved using both scanning and non-scanning systems. "3D gated viewing laser radar" is a non-scanning laser ranging system that applies a pulsed laser and a fast gated camera.

Imaging lidar can also be performed using arrays of high speed detectors and modulation sensitive detector arrays typically built on single chips using CMOS and hybrid CMOS/CCD fabrication techniques. In these devices each pixel performs some local processing such as demodulation or gating at high speed, downconverting the signals to video rate so that the array may be read like a camera. Using this technique many thousands of pixels / channels may be acquired simultaneously.[14] High resolution 3D lidar cameras use homodyne detection with an electronic CCD or CMOS shutter.[15]

A coherent Imaging lidar uses Synthetic array heterodyne detection to enable a staring single element receiver to act as though it were an imaging array.[16]

In 2014 Lincoln Laboratory announced a new imaging chip with more than 16,384 pixels, each able to image a single photon, enabling them to capture a wide area in a single image. An earlier generation of the technology with one-quarter as many pixels was dispatched by the U.S. military after the January 2010 Haiti earthquake; a single pass by a business jet at 10,000 feet over Port-au-Prince was able to capture instantaneous snapshots of 600-meter squares of the city at 30 centimetres (12 in), displaying the precise height of rubble strewn in city streets. The new system is another 10x faster. The chip uses indium gallium arsenide (IGA), which operates in the infrared spectrum at a relatively long wavelength that allows for higher power and longer ranges. In many applications, such as self-driving cars, the new system will lower costs by not requiring a mechanical component to aim the chip. IGA uses less hazardous wavelengths than conventional silicon detectors, which operate at visual wavelengths.[17]

Applications[edit]

This lidar-equipped mobile robot uses its lidar to construct a map and avoid obstacles.

There are a wide variety of applications of lidar, in addition to the applications listed above, as it is often mentioned in National lidar dataset programs.

Agriculture[edit]

Graphic of a lidar return, featuring different crop yield rates.
Agricultural Research Service scientists have developed a way to incorporate lidar with yield rates on agricultural fields. This technology will help farmers improve their yields by directing their resources toward the high-yield sections of their land.

Lidar also can be used to help farmers determine which areas of their fields to apply costly fertilizer. Lidar can create a topographical map of the fields and reveals the slopes and sun exposure of the farm land. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service blended this topographical information with the farmland yield results from previous years. From this information, researchers categorized the farm land into high-, medium-, or low-yield zones.[18] This technology is valuable to farmers because it indicates which areas to apply the expensive fertilizers to achieve the highest crop yield.

Archaeology[edit]

Lidar has many applications in the field of archaeology including aiding in the planning of field campaigns, mapping features beneath forest canopy, and providing an overview of broad, continuous features that may be indistinguishable on the ground.[19] Lidar can also provide archaeologists with the ability to create high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of archaeological sites that can reveal micro-topography that are otherwise hidden by vegetation. Lidar-derived products can be easily integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) for analysis and interpretation. For example at Fort Beauséjour - Fort Cumberland National Historic Site, Canada, previously undiscovered archaeological features below forest canopy have been mapped that are related to the siege of the Fort in 1755. Features that could not be distinguished on the ground or through aerial photography were identified by overlaying hillshades of the DEM created with artificial illumination from various angles. With lidar the ability to produce high-resolution datasets quickly and relatively cheaply can be an advantage. Beyond efficiency, its ability to penetrate forest canopy has led to the discovery of features that were not distinguishable through traditional geo-spatial methods and are difficult to reach through field surveys, as in work at Caracol by Arlen Chase and his wife Diane Zaino Chase.[20] The intensity of the returned signal can be used to detect features buried under flat vegetated surfaces such as fields, especially when mapping using the infrared spectrum. The presence of these features affects plant growth and thus the amount of infrared light reflected back.[21] In 2012, Lidar was used by a team attempting to find the legendary city of La Ciudad Blanca in the Honduran jungle. During a seven−day mapping period, they found evidence of extensive man-made structures that had eluded ground searches for hundreds of years.[22] In June 2013 the rediscovery of the city of Mahendraparvata was announced.[23] In another study, LiDAR was used to investigate the landscape in southern New England, USA.[24][25][26]

Autonomous vehicles[edit]

3D SICK Lidar

Autonomous vehicles use lidar for obstacle detection and avoidance to navigate safely through environments.[27]

Biology and conservation[edit]

Lidar has also found many applications in forestry. Canopy heights, biomass measurements, and leaf area can all be studied using airborne lidar systems. Similarly, lidar is also used by many industries, including Energy and Railroad, and the Department of Transportation as a faster way of surveying. Topographic maps can also be generated readily from lidar, including for recreational use such as in the production of orienteering maps.[2]

In addition, the Save-the-Redwoods League is undertaking a project to map the tall redwoods on the Northern California coast. Lidar allows research scientists to not only measure the height of previously unmapped trees but to determine the biodiversity of the redwood forest. Stephen Sillett who is working with the League on the North Coast Lidar project claims this technology will be useful in directing future efforts to preserve and protect ancient redwood trees.[28][full citation needed]

Geology and soil science[edit]

High-resolution digital elevation maps generated by airborne and stationary lidar have led to significant advances in geomorphology (the branch of geoscience concerned with the origin and evolution of the Earth surface topography). The lidar abilities to detect subtle topographic features such as river terraces and river channel banks, to measure the land-surface elevation beneath the vegetation canopy, to better resolve spatial derivatives of elevation, and to detect elevation changes between repeat surveys have enabled many novel studies of the physical and chemical processes that shape landscapes.[citation needed]

In geophysics and tectonics, a combination of aircraft-based lidar and GPS has evolved into an important tool for detecting faults and for measuring uplift. The output of the two technologies can produce extremely accurate elevation models for terrain - models that can even measure ground elevation through trees. This combination was used most famously to find the location of the Seattle Fault in Washington, USA.[29] This combination also measures uplift at Mt. St. Helens by using data from before and after the 2004 uplift.[30] Airborne lidar systems monitor glaciers and have the ability to detect subtle amounts of growth or decline. A satellite-based system, the NASA ICESat, includes a lidar sub-system for this purpose. The NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper[31] is also used extensively to monitor glaciers and perform coastal change analysis. The combination is also used by soil scientists while creating a soil survey. The detailed terrain modeling allows soil scientists to see slope changes and landform breaks which indicate patterns in soil spatial relationships.

Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Meteorology[edit]

Initially based on ruby lasers, lidar for meteorological applications was constructed shortly after the invention of the laser and represent one of the first applications of laser technology. Lidar technology has since expanded vastly in capability and lidar systems are used to perform a range of measurements that include profiling clouds, measuring winds, studying aerosols and quantifying various atmospheric components. Atmospheric components can in turn provide useful information including surface pressure (by measuring the absorption of oxygen or nitrogen), greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide and methane), photosynthesis (carbon dioxide), fires (carbon monoxide) and humidity (water vapor). Atmospheric lidars can be either ground-based, airborne or satellite depending on the type of measurement.

Atmospheric lidar remote sensing works in two ways -

  1. by measuring backscatter from the atmosphere, and
  2. by measuring the scattered reflection off the ground (when the lidar is airborne) or other hard surface.

Backscatter from the atmosphere directly gives a measure of clouds and aerosols. Other derived measurements from backscatter such as winds or cirrus ice crystals require careful selecting of the wavelength and/or polarization detected. Doppler Lidar and Rayleigh Doppler Lidar are used to measure temperature and/or wind speed along the beam by measuring the frequency of the backscattered light. The Doppler broadening of gases in motion allows the determination of properties via the resulting frequency shift.[32][33] Scanning lidars, such as the NASA HARLIE LIDAR, have been used to measure atmospheric wind velocity in a large three-dimensional cone.[34] The ESA wind mission ADM-Aeolus will be equipped with a Doppler lidar system in order to provide global measurements of vertical wind profiles.[35] A doppler lidar system was used in the 2008 Summer Olympics to measure wind fields during the yacht competition.[36]

Doppler lidar systems are also now beginning to be successfully applied in the renewable energy sector to acquire wind speed, turbulence, wind veer and wind shear data. Both pulsed and continuous wave systems are being used. Pulsed systems use signal timing to obtain vertical distance resolution, whereas continuous wave systems rely on detector focusing.

The term eolics has been proposed to describe the collaborative and interdisciplinary study of wind using computational fluid mechanics simulations and Doppler lidar measurements.[37]

The ground reflection of an airborne lidar gives a measure of surface reflectivity (assuming the atmospheric transmittance is well known) at the lidar wavelength. However, the ground reflection is typically used for making absorption measurements of the atmosphere. "Differential absorption lidar" (DIAL) measurements utilize two or more closely spaced (<1 nm) wavelengths to factor out surface reflectivity as well as other transmission losses, since these factors are relatively insensitive to wavelength. When tuned to the appropriate absorption lines of a particular gas, DIAL measurements can be used to determine the concentration (mixing ratio) of that particular gas in the atmosphere. This is referred to as an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) approach, since it is a measure of the integrated absorption along the entire lidar path. IPDA lidars can be either pulsed [38] or CW[39] and typically use two or more wavelengths.[40]

Synthetic Array Lidar allows imaging lidar without the need for an array detector. It can be used for imaging Doppler velocimetry, ultra-fast frame rate (MHz) imaging, as well as for speckle reduction in coherent lidar.[16] An extensive lidar bibliography for atmospheric and hydrospheric applications is given by Grant.[41]

Law enforcement[edit]

See also: Lidar speed gun

Lidar speed guns are used by the police to measure the speed of vehicles for speed limit enforcement purposes.[42]

Military[edit]

Few military applications are known to be in place and are classified, but a considerable amount of research is underway in their use for imaging. Higher resolution systems collect enough detail to identify targets, such as tanks. Examples of military applications of lidar include the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) for counter-mine warfare by Areté Associates.[43]

A NATO report (RTO-TR-SET-098) evaluated the potential technologies to do stand-off detection for the discrimination of biological warfare agents. The potential technologies evaluated were Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR), Differential Scatterring (DISC), and Ultraviolet Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF). The report concluded that : Based upon the results of the lidar systems tested and discussed above, the Task Group recommends that the best option for the near-term (2008–2010) application of stand-off detection systems is UV LIF .[44] However, in the long-term, other techniques such as stand-off Raman spectroscopy may prove to be useful for identification of biological warfare agents.

Short-range compact spectrometric lidar based on Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) would address the presence of bio-threats in aerosol form over critical indoor, semi-enclosed and outdoor venues like stadiums, subways, and airports. This near real-time capability would enable rapid detection of a bioaerosol release and allow for timely implementation of measures to protect occupants and minimize the extent of contamination.[45]

The Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System (LR-BSDS) was developed for the US Army to provide the earliest possible standoff warning of a biological attack. It is an airborne system carried by a helicopter to detect man-made aerosol clouds containing biological and chemical agents at long range. The LR-BSDS, with a detection range of 30 km or more, was fielded in June 1997.[46] Five lidar units produced by the German company Sick AG were used for short range detection on Stanley, the autonomous car that won the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge.

A robotic Boeing AH-6 performed a fully autonomous flight in June 2010, including avoiding obstacles using lidar.[47][48]

Mining[edit]

Lidar is used in the mining industry for various tasks. The calculation of ore volumes is accomplished by periodic (monthly) scanning in areas of ore removal, then comparing surface data to the previous scan.[49]

Physics and astronomy[edit]

A worldwide network of observatories uses lidars to measure the distance to reflectors placed on the moon, allowing the position of the moon to be measured with mm precision and tests of general relativity to be done. MOLA, the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, used a lidar instrument in a Mars-orbiting satellite (the NASA Mars Global Surveyor) to produce a spectacularly precise global topographic survey of the red planet.

In September, 2008, the NASA Phoenix Lander used lidar to detect snow in the atmosphere of Mars.[50]

In atmospheric physics, lidar is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium, sodium, or molecular nitrogen and oxygen. These measurements can be used to calculate temperatures. lidar can also be used to measure wind speed and to provide information about vertical distribution of the aerosol particles.[citation needed]

At the JET nuclear fusion research facility, in the UK near Abingdon, Oxfordshire, lidar Thomson Scattering is used to determine Electron Density and Temperature profiles of the plasma.[51]

Robotics[edit]

Lidar technology is being used in robotics for the perception of the environment as well as object classification.[52] The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision.[53] Refer to the Military section above for further examples.

Spaceflight[edit]

Lidar is increasingly being utilized for rangefinding and orbital element calculation of relative velocity in proximity operations and stationkeeping of spacecraft. Lidar has also been used for atmospheric studies from space. Using short pulses of laser light beamed from a spacecraft, some of that "light reflects off of tiny particles in the atmosphere and back to a telescope aligned with the laser. By precisely timing the lidar 'echo,' and by measuring how much laser light is received by the telescope, scientists can accurately determine the location, distribution and nature of the particles. The result is a revolutionary new tool for studying constituents in the atmosphere, from cloud droplets to industrial pollutants, that are difficult to detect by other means."[54][55]

Surveying[edit]

This TomTom mapping van is fitted with five lidars on its roof rack.

Airborne lidar sensors are used by companies in the remote sensing field. It can be used to create DTM (digital terrain models) and DEM (digital elevation models); this is quite a common practice for larger areas as a plane can acquire 3-4 km wide swaths in a single flyover. Greater vertical accuracy of below 50 mm can be achieved with a lower flyover, even in forests, where it is able to give you the height of the canopy as well as the ground elevation. Typically, a GNSS receiver configured over a georeferenced control point is needed to link the data in with the WGS (World Geodetic System)[citation needed] In fact, it works a lot like ordinary radar, except that these systems send out narrow pulses or beams of light rather than broad radio waves.

Transport[edit]

Lidar has been used in adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems for automobiles. Systems such as those by Siemens and Hella use a lidar device mounted on the front of the vehicle, such as the bumper, to monitor the distance between the vehicle and any vehicle in front of it.[56] In the event the vehicle in front slows down or is too close, the ACC applies the brakes to slow the vehicle. When the road ahead is clear, the ACC allows the vehicle to accelerate to a speed preset by the driver. Refer to the Military section above for further examples.

Wind farm optimization[edit]

Lidar can be used to increase the energy output from wind farms by accurately measuring wind speeds and wind turbulence.[57][58] Experimental lidar systems [59][60] can be mounted on the nacelle [61] of a wind turbine or integrated into the rotating spinner [62] to measure oncoming horizontal winds,[63] winds in the wake of the wind turbine,[64] and proactively adjust blades to protect components and increase power. Lidars are also used to characterise the incident wind resource for comparison with wind turbine power production to verify the performance of the wind turbine[65] by measuring the wind turbine's power curve.[66] Wind farm optimization can be considered a topic in applied eolics.

Solar photovoltaic deployment optimization[edit]

Lidar can also be used to assist planners and developers optimize solar photovoltaic systems at the city level by determining appropriate roof tops[67][68] and for determining shading losses.[69] Recent works focus on buildings' facades solar potential estimation,[70] or by incorporating more detailed shading losses by considering the influence from vegetation and larger surrounding terrain.[71]

Other uses[edit]

The video for the song "House of Cards" by Radiohead was believed to be the first use of real-time 3D laser scanning to record a music video. The range data in the video is not completely from a lidar, as structured light scanning is also used.[72][73]

Alternative technologies[edit]

Recent development of Structure From Motion (SFM) technologies allows delivering 3D images and maps based on data extracted from visual and IR photography. The elevation or 3D data is extracted using multiple parallel passes over mapped area, yielding both visual light image and 3D structure from the same sensor, which is often a specially chosen and calibrated digital camera.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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