Lieutenant general (Australia)
- See lieutenant general for other countries which use this rank
Lieutenant general (abbreviated 'LTGEN' and pronounced 'Lef-tenant General') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general. It is also considered a three-star rank.
The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Capability Development.
Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force.
The insignia for a lieutenant general is the crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.
Current Australian lieutenant generals
There are currently three lieutenant generals in the Australian Defence Force:
Australian Army lieutenant generals
Although not an Australian, Field Marshal William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, was a popular general with the Australians. He commanded the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, and when he was promoted to the rank of field marshal in the British Army in 1925, he was awarded the honorary rank of field marshal in the Australian Army.
The first Australian lieutenant general was Sir Harry Chauvel in 1917.
- CGS/CA – Chief of the General Staff and Chief of Army
From 1 January 1909 to 18 Feb 1997, the most senior Australian Army position was named Chief of the General Staff. The first Australian to occupy this position was Colonel William Throsby Bridges. The first Australian lieutenant general to occupy this position was Brudenell White, from 1 June 1920. From August 1940, this position, and its successor (Chief of Army), have been held by Australian lieutenant generals.
- Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–1965)
In March 1958, the role of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee was created, but with no command authority. This was initially occupied by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells (March 1958 – March 1959), and was rotated through the three services, hence (briefly) providing a three-star position available to army officers. In 1965 this became a four-star position. It was replaced in February 1976 by a new position, Chief of Defence Force Staff (CDFS), with command authority over the ADF, and in October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) to more clearly reflect the role and its authority.
- Vice Chief of the Defence Force (since 1986)
In June 1986, the three-star position Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) was created. As with CDF, this position rotates between the forces. Lieutenant General (later General) John Baker was the first army officer to occupy the position (October 1992 – April 1995).
- Chief of Capability Development Group (since 2003)
A third three-star position, Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), which also rotates between the forces, was created in 2003.
- Chief of Joint Operations (since 2007)
In September 2007, a fourth three-star position, Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS), was created.
- Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (since 2013)
In September 2013, a fifth three-star position, Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (COSB), was created.
There are two other three-star positions in the Australian Defence Force, Chief of Navy (CN) and Chief of Air Force (CAF). There are also a number of other three-star-equivalent positions in the Australian Defence Organisation, but these are all held by civilians.
The following people have held the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army:
|Birdwood, WilliamWilliam Birdwood||1916||1917||1925|
|Chauvel, HarryHarry Chauvel||1915||1917||1923–1930||1929|
|Monash, JohnJohn Monash||1916||1918||1929|
|White, BrudenellBrudenell White||1917||1918||1920–1923
|Hobbs, TalbotTalbot Hobbs||1917||1918|
|Legge, James GordonJames Gordon Legge||1915||1924||1914–1915
|McCay, James WhitesideJames Whiteside McCay||1915||1920|
|Blamey, ThomasThomas Blamey||1931||1939||1941||1951|
|Lavarack, JohnJohn Lavarack||1935||1939||1935–1939|
|Squires, ErnestErnest Squires||1938||1939–1940|
|Sturdee, VernonVernon Sturdee||1939||1940||1940–1942
|Whitham, JohnJohn Whitham||1937||1940|
|Smart, EdwardEdward Smart||1939||1940|
|Mackay, IvenIven Mackay||1937||1941|
|Morshead, LeslieLeslie Morshead||1940||1942|
|Bennett, GordonGordon Bennett||1930||1942|
|Herring, EdmundEdmund Herring||1941||1942|
|Jess, CarlCarl Jess||1935||1942|
|Northcott, JohnJohn Northcott||1939||1942||1940
|Rowell, SydneySydney Rowell||1941||1942||1950–1954|
|Wynter, HenryHenry Wynter||1939||1940|
|Berryman, FrankFrank Berryman||1942||1944|
|Savige, StanleyStanley Savige||1942||1944|
|Robertson, HoraceHorace Robertson||1942||1946|
|Boase, AllanAllan Boase||1942||1949|
|Clowes, CyrilCyril Clowes||1942||1949|
|Bridgeford, WilliamWilliam Bridgeford||1942||1951|
|Wells, HenryHenry Wells||1946||1951||1954–1958||1958–1959|
|Secombe, VictorVictor Secombe||1949||1951|
|Bierwirth, RudolphRudolph Bierwirth||1952||1953|
|Woodward, EricEric Woodward||1951||1953|
|Nimmo, Robert HaroldRobert Harold Nimmo||1946||1954|
|Garrett, RagnarRagnar Garrett||1951||1954||1958–1960|
|Pollard, RegReg Pollard||1954||1959||1960–1963|
|Edgar, HectorHector Edgar||195?||19??|
|Wilton, JohnJohn Wilton||1957||1963||1963–1966||1966|
|Daly, Thomas JosephThomas Joseph Daly||1959||1966||1966–1971|
|Brogan, MervynMervyn Brogan||19xx||1971||1971–1973|
|Hassett, FrankFrank Hassett||1963||1973||1973–1975||1975|
|MacDonald, ArthurArthur MacDonald||19xx||1975||1975–1977||1977|
|Dunstan, DonaldDonald Dunstan||19xx||1977||1977–1982|
|Bennett, PhillipPhillip Bennett||19xx||1982||1982–1984||1984|
|Gration, PeterPeter Gration||19xx||1984||1984–1987||1987|
|O'Donnell, LawrenceLawrence O'Donnell||19xx||1987||1987–1990|
|Coates, JohnJohn Coates||19xx||1990||1990–1992|
|Grey, JohnJohn Grey||19xx||1992||1992–1995|
|Baker, JohnJohn Baker||1987||1992||1992–1995||1995|
|Sanderson, JohnJohn Sanderson||1989||1995||1995–1997
|Hickling, FrankFrank Hickling||19xx||1998||1998–2000|
|Cosgrove, PeterPeter Cosgrove||1999||2000||2000–2002||2002|
|Mueller, DesmondDesmond Mueller||1994||2000||2000–2002|
|Leahy, PeterPeter Leahy||19xx||2002||2002–2008|
|Hurley, DavidDavid Hurley||2001||2003||2003–2007
|Gillespie, KenKen Gillespie||2004||2005||2008–2011||2005–2008|
|Evans, MarkMark Evans||2002||2008||2008–2011|
|Campbell, AngusAngus Campbell||2010||2013|
- Australian Defence Force ranks and insignia
- Australian Army officer rank insignia
- List of Australian generals and brigadiers
References and notes
- Australian Army officer rank insignia are identical to British Army officer rank insignia, with the difference that Australian insignia have the word "Australia" below them.
- The third and fourth three-star positions possibly available to an Australian lieutenant general are the Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), currently held by Vice Admiral Matt Tripovich, and the Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF), currently held by Air Marshal Mark Binskin.
- MAJGEN – Major General (Australia)
- LTGEN – Lieutenant General (Australia)
- CGS – Chief of the General Staff (1909–1997) – refer Chief of Army (Australia)
- CA – Chief of Army (Australia) (1997-now)
- CCOSC – Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee – refer Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
- VCDF – Vice Chief of the Defence Force
- CJOPS – Chief of Joint Operations
- Officer subsequently promoted to general
- CDFS – Chief of Defence Force Staff – refer Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
- CDF – Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
- Blamey was promoted to field marshal in 1951.
- The Army List of Officers of the Australian Military Forces (Melbourne: Australian Army). 1950. OCLC 220688670.
- A. B. Lodge, Squires, Ernest Ker (1882–1940), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 12, Melbourne University Press, 1990, pp 41–42.
- Although an "Australian" LTGEN, and Chief of the General Staff, Squires himself was not Australian.
- Peter Burness, Whitham, John Lawrence (1881–1952), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 12, Melbourne University Press, 1990, pp 476–477.
- Warren Perry, Wynter, Henry Douglas (1886–1945), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 16, Melbourne University Press, 2002, pp 599–600.
- George Dicker, Boase, Allan Joseph (1894–1964), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 208–209.
- David Denholm, 'Clowes, Cyril Albert (1892–1968)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 446–447.
- Jeffrey Grey, Bridgeford, Sir William (1894–1971), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 255–257.
- E. M. Andrews, Wells, Sir Henry (1898–1973), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 16, Melbourne University Press, 2002, p. 521.
- Jeffrey Grey, Garrett, Sir Alwyn Ragnar (1900–1977), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 14, Melbourne University Press, 1996, p. 252.
- "Edgar, Hector Geoffrey". World War II Nominal Roll. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 26 August 2009.