Lieutenant general (Australia)

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Australian lieutenant general rank insignia
See lieutenant general for other countries which use this rank

Lieutenant general (abbreviated 'LTGEN' and pronounced 'Lef-tenant General') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general. It is also considered a three-star rank.

The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Capability Development.

Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force.

The insignia for a lieutenant general is the crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.[1]

Current Australian lieutenant generals[edit]

There are currently three lieutenant generals in the Australian Defence Force:[2]

Deputy Chief of Army Angus Campbell was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and appointed Commander of Operation Sovereign Borders by the Abbott Government on 19 August 2013.

Australian Army lieutenant generals[edit]

Although not an Australian, Field Marshal William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, was a popular general with the Australians. He commanded the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, and when he was promoted to the rank of field marshal in the British Army in 1925, he was awarded the honorary rank of field marshal in the Australian Army.

The first Australian lieutenant general was Sir Harry Chauvel in 1917.

CGS/CA – Chief of the General Staff and Chief of Army

From 1 January 1909 to 18 Feb 1997, the most senior Australian Army position was named Chief of the General Staff. The first Australian to occupy this position was Colonel William Throsby Bridges. The first Australian lieutenant general to occupy this position was Brudenell White, from 1 June 1920. From August 1940, this position, and its successor (Chief of Army), have been held by Australian lieutenant generals.

Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–1965)

In March 1958, the role of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee was created, but with no command authority. This was initially occupied by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells (March 1958 – March 1959), and was rotated through the three services, hence (briefly) providing a three-star position available to army officers. In 1965 this became a four-star position. It was replaced in February 1976 by a new position, Chief of Defence Force Staff (CDFS), with command authority over the ADF, and in October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) to more clearly reflect the role and its authority.

Vice Chief of the Defence Force (since 1986)

In June 1986, the three-star position Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) was created. As with CDF, this position rotates between the forces. Lieutenant General (later General) John Baker was the first army officer to occupy the position (October 1992 – April 1995).

Chief of Capability Development Group (since 2003)

A third three-star position, Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), which also rotates between the forces, was created in 2003.

Chief of Joint Operations (since 2007)

In September 2007, a fourth three-star position, Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS), was created.

Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (since 2013)

In September 2013, a fifth three-star position, Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (COSB), was created.

Equivalents

There are two other three-star positions in the Australian Defence Force, Chief of Navy (CN) and Chief of Air Force (CAF). There are also a number of other three-star-equivalent positions in the Australian Defence Organisation, but these are all held by civilians.

List[edit]

The following people have held the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army:

Name MAJGEN
[3]
LTGEN
[4]
CGS/CA
[5][6]
CCOSC/
VCDF/
CCDG/
CJOPS/
etc.
[2][7][8][9]
GEN
[7][10][11][12]
FM
[13]
Birdwood, WilliamWilliam Birdwood 1916 1917 1925
Chauvel, HarryHarry Chauvel 1915 1917 1923–1930 1929
Monash, JohnJohn Monash 1916 1918 1929
White, BrudenellBrudenell White 1917 1918 1920–1923
1940
1940
Hobbs, TalbotTalbot Hobbs 1917 1918
Legge, James GordonJames Gordon Legge 1915 1924 1914–1915
1917–1920
McCay, James WhitesideJames Whiteside McCay 1915 1920
Blamey, ThomasThomas Blamey 1931 1939 1941 1951
Lavarack, JohnJohn Lavarack[14] 1935 1939 1935–1939
Squires, ErnestErnest Squires[15][16] 1938 1939–1940
Sturdee, VernonVernon Sturdee[14] 1939 1940 1940–1942
1945–1950
Whitham, JohnJohn Whitham[17] 1937 1940
Smart, EdwardEdward Smart[14] 1939 1940
Mackay, IvenIven Mackay[14] 1937 1941
Morshead, LeslieLeslie Morshead[14] 1940 1942
Bennett, GordonGordon Bennett 1930 1942
Herring, EdmundEdmund Herring 1941 1942
Jess, CarlCarl Jess 1935 1942
Northcott, JohnJohn Northcott[14] 1939 1942 1940
1942–1945
Rowell, SydneySydney Rowell[14] 1941 1942 1950–1954
Wynter, HenryHenry Wynter[18] 1939 1940
Berryman, FrankFrank Berryman[14] 1942 1944
Savige, StanleyStanley Savige[14] 1942 1944
Robertson, HoraceHorace Robertson[14] 1942 1946
Boase, AllanAllan Boase[19] 1942 1949
Clowes, CyrilCyril Clowes[20] 1942 1949
Bridgeford, WilliamWilliam Bridgeford[21] 1942 1951
Wells, HenryHenry Wells[22] 1946 1951 1954–1958 1958–1959[7]
Secombe, VictorVictor Secombe 1949 1951
Bierwirth, RudolphRudolph Bierwirth 1952 1953
Woodward, EricEric Woodward 1951 1953
Nimmo, Robert HaroldRobert Harold Nimmo 1946 1954
Garrett, RagnarRagnar Garrett[23] 1951 1954 1958–1960
Pollard, RegReg Pollard 1954 1959 1960–1963
Edgar, HectorHector Edgar[24] 195? 19??
Wilton, JohnJohn Wilton 1957 1963 1963–1966 1966[7]
Daly, Thomas JosephThomas Joseph Daly 1959 1966 1966–1971
Brogan, MervynMervyn Brogan 19xx 1971 1971–1973
Hassett, FrankFrank Hassett 1963 1973 1973–1975 1975[7][11]
MacDonald, ArthurArthur MacDonald 19xx 1975 1975–1977 1977[11]
Dunstan, DonaldDonald Dunstan 19xx 1977 1977–1982
Bennett, PhillipPhillip Bennett 19xx 1982 1982–1984 1984[11][12]
Gration, PeterPeter Gration 19xx 1984 1984–1987 1987[12]
O'Donnell, LawrenceLawrence O'Donnell 19xx 1987 1987–1990
Coates, JohnJohn Coates 19xx 1990 1990–1992
Grey, JohnJohn Grey 19xx 1992 1992–1995
Baker, JohnJohn Baker 1987 1992 1992–1995[8] 1995[12]
Sanderson, JohnJohn Sanderson 1989 1995 1995–1997[5]
1997–1998[6]
Hickling, FrankFrank Hickling 19xx 1998 1998–2000
Cosgrove, PeterPeter Cosgrove 1999 2000 2000–2002 2002[12]
Mueller, DesmondDesmond Mueller 1994 2000 2000–2002[8]
Leahy, PeterPeter Leahy 19xx 2002 2002–2008
Hurley, DavidDavid Hurley 2001 2003 2003–2007[2]
2007–2008[9]
2008–2011[8]
Gillespie, KenKen Gillespie 2004 2005 2008–2011 2005–2008[8]
Evans, MarkMark Evans 2002 2008 2008–2011[9]
Campbell, AngusAngus Campbell 2010 2013

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Australian Army officer rank insignia are identical to British Army officer rank insignia, with the difference that Australian insignia have the word "Australia" below them.
  2. ^ a b c The third and fourth three-star positions possibly available to an Australian lieutenant general are the Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), currently held by Vice Admiral Matt Tripovich, and the Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF), currently held by Air Marshal Mark Binskin.
  3. ^ MAJGEN – Major General (Australia)
  4. ^ LTGEN – Lieutenant General (Australia)
  5. ^ a b CGS – Chief of the General Staff (1909–1997) – refer Chief of Army (Australia)
  6. ^ a b CA – Chief of Army (Australia) (1997-now)
  7. ^ a b c d e CCOSC – Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee – refer Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
  8. ^ a b c d e VCDF – Vice Chief of the Defence Force
  9. ^ a b c CJOPS – Chief of Joint Operations
  10. ^ Officer subsequently promoted to general
  11. ^ a b c d CDFS – Chief of Defence Force Staff – refer Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
  12. ^ a b c d e CDF – Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
  13. ^ Blamey was promoted to field marshal in 1951.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Army List of Officers of the Australian Military Forces (Melbourne: Australian Army). 1950. OCLC 220688670. 
  15. ^ A. B. Lodge, Squires, Ernest Ker (1882–1940), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 12, Melbourne University Press, 1990, pp 41–42.
  16. ^ Although an "Australian" LTGEN, and Chief of the General Staff, Squires himself was not Australian.
  17. ^ Peter Burness, Whitham, John Lawrence (1881–1952), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 12, Melbourne University Press, 1990, pp 476–477.
  18. ^ Warren Perry, Wynter, Henry Douglas (1886–1945), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 16, Melbourne University Press, 2002, pp 599–600.
  19. ^ George Dicker, Boase, Allan Joseph (1894–1964), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 208–209.
  20. ^ David Denholm, 'Clowes, Cyril Albert (1892–1968)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 446–447.
  21. ^ Jeffrey Grey, Bridgeford, Sir William (1894–1971), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 255–257.
  22. ^ E. M. Andrews, Wells, Sir Henry (1898–1973), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 16, Melbourne University Press, 2002, p. 521.
  23. ^ Jeffrey Grey, Garrett, Sir Alwyn Ragnar (1900–1977), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 14, Melbourne University Press, 1996, p. 252.
  24. ^ "Edgar, Hector Geoffrey". World War II Nominal Roll. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 26 August 2009.