List of countries by life expectancy

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Comparison of male and female life expectancy at birth for countries and territories as defined in the 2013 CIA Factbook, with selected bubbles labelled. The dotted line corresponds to equal female and male life expectancy. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their population.[1][2]

This is a collection of lists of countries by life expectancy at birth.

Methodology[edit]

Life expectancy equals the average number of years a person born in a given country would live if mortality rates at each age were to remain constant in the future. The life expectancy is shown separately for males and females, as well as a combined figure. Several non-sovereign entities are also included in this list.

The figures reflect the quality of healthcare in the countries listed as well as other factors including ongoing wars, obesity, and HIV infections.[citation needed]

Worldwide, the average life expectancy at birth was 71.0 years (68.5 years for males and 73.5 years for females) over the period 2010–2013 according to United Nations World Population Prospects 2012 Revision,[3] or 70.7 years (68.2 years for males and 73.2 years for females) for 2009 according to The World Factbook.[4] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), women on average live longer than men in all countries.

The countries with the lowest overall life expectancies per the WHO are Sierra Leone, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Somalia, Swaziland, Angola, Chad, Mali, Burundi, Cameroon, and Mozambique. Of those countries, only Lesotho, Swaziland, and Mozambique in 2011 were suffering from an HIV prevalence rate of greater than 10 percent in the 15–49 age group.[5]

List by the World Health Organization (2013)[edit]

Data published in 2015.[6]

Overall
rank
Country Overall life
expectancy
Male
rank
Male life
expectancy
Female
rank
Female life
expectancy
1  Japan 84 5 80 1 87
2  Andorra 83 15 79 2 86
2  Australia 83 2 81 4 85
2   Switzerland 83 2 81 4 85
2  Italy 83 5 80 4 85
2  Singapore 83 5 80 4 85
2  San Marino 83 1 82 11 84
8  Monaco 82 15 79 2 86
8  France 82 15 79 4 85
8  Spain 82 15 79 4 85
8  Iceland 82 2 81 11 84
8  Canada 82 5 80 11 84
8  Cyprus 82 5 80 11 84
8  Israel 82 5 80 11 84
8  Luxembourg 82 5 80 11 84
8  New Zealand 82 5 80 11 84
8  Norway 82 5 80 11 84
8  Sweden 82 5 80 11 84
19  Republic of Korea 81 24 78 4 85
19  Finland 81 24 78 11 84
19  Portugal 81 33 77 11 84
19  Ireland 81 15 79 22 83
19  Malta 81 15 79 22 83
19  Netherlands 81 15 79 22 83
19  United Kingdom 81 15 79 22 83
19  Austria 81 24 78 22 83
19  Germany 81 24 78 22 83
19  Greece 81 24 78 22 83
29  Belgium 80 24 78 22 83
29  Chile 80 33 77 22 83
29  Slovenia 80 33 77 22 83
29  Denmark 80 24 78 34 82
29  Lebanon 80 24 78 34 82
34  Colombia 79 37 76 22 83
34  Nauru 79 45 75 22 83
34  Costa Rica 79 33 77 36 81
34  Cuba 79 37 76 36 81
34  United States of America 79 37 76 36 81
34  Qatar 79 15 79 45 80
40  Barbados 78 45 75 36 81
40  Czech Republic 78 45 75 36 81
40  Croatia 78 51 74 36 81
40  Kuwait 78 24 78 53 79
44  Poland 77 58 73 36 81
44  Uruguay 77 58 73 36 81
44  Estonia 77 84 71 36 81
44  Bosnia and Herzegovina 77 45 75 45 80
44  Suriname 77 45 75 45 80
44  Panama 77 51 74 45 80
44  Peru 77 45 75 53 79
44  Bahrain 77 37 76 61 78
44  Brunei Darussalam 77 37 76 61 78
44  Dominican Republic 77 37 76 61 78
44  Maldives 77 37 76 61 78
55  Slovakia 76 69 72 45 80
55  Venezuela 76 69 72 45 80
55  Viet Nam 76 84 71 45 80
55  Argentina 76 58 73 53 79
55  Mexico 76 58 73 53 79
55  United Arab Emirates 76 37 76 61 78
55  Oman 76 51 74 61 78
55  Saudi Arabia 76 51 74 61 78
55  Tunisia 76 51 74 61 78
55  Cook Islands 76 58 73 61 78
55  Montenegro 76 58 73 61 78
55  Macedonia 76 58 73 61 78
67  Hungary 75 84 71 53 79
67  Saint Lucia 75 84 71 53 79
67  Thailand 75 84 71 53 79
67  Ecuador 75 58 73 61 78
67  Bahamas 75 69 72 61 78
67  Belize 75 69 72 61 78
67  Paraguay 75 69 72 61 78
67  Turkey 75 69 72 61 78
67  Sri Lanka 75 84 71 61 78
67  China 75 51 74 87 77
67  Antigua and Barbuda 75 58 73 87 77
67  Libya 75 58 73 87 77
67  Dominica 75 69 72 87 77
67  Serbia 75 69 72 87 77
81  Lithuania 74 111 68 45 80
81  Latvia 74 103 69 53 79
81  Niue 74 69 72 61 78
81  Bulgaria 74 84 71 61 78
81  Cabo Verde 74 84 71 61 78
81  Romania 74 84 71 61 78
81  Saint Kitts and Nevis 74 84 71 61 78
81  Georgia 74 95 70 61 78
81  Mauritius 74 95 70 61 78
81  Seychelles 74 103 69 61 78
81  Honduras 74 69 72 87 77
81  Jamaica 74 69 72 87 77
81  Brazil 74 95 70 87 77
81  Iran 74 69 72 98 76
81  Malaysia 74 69 72 98 76
81  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 74 69 72 98 76
81  Albania 74 58 73 104 75
81  Jordan 74 69 72 104 75
99  Samoa 73 95 70 87 77
99  Grenada 73 103 69 87 77
99  Nicaragua 73 95 70 98 76
99  Palau 73 84 71 104 75
103  Belarus 72 117 67 61 78
103  El Salvador 72 111 68 87 77
103  Cambodia 72 95 70 104 75
103  Azerbaijan 72 103 69 104 75
103  Guatemala 72 111 68 104 75
103  Vanuatu 72 95 70 113 74
103  Algeria 72 95 70 117 73
110  Ukraine 71 125 66 98 76
110  Armenia 71 117 67 104 75
110  Republic of Moldova 71 125 66 104 75
110  Egypt 71 103 69 113 74
110  Indonesia 71 103 69 117 73
110  Morocco 71 103 69 117 73
110  Tonga 71 51 74 133 69
117  Trinidad and Tobago 70 117 67 113 74
117  Iraq 70 125 66 113 74
117  Democratic People's Republic of Korea 70 125 66 117 73
117  Marshall Islands 70 111 68 123 72
117  Bangladesh 70 103 69 128 71
122  Russian Federation 69 142 63 104 75
122  Fiji 69 117 67 117 73
122  Kyrgyzstan 69 125 66 117 73
122  Uzbekistan 69 117 67 123 72
122  Philippines 69 131 65 123 72
122  Micronesia 69 111 68 129 70
122  Solomon Islands 69 117 67 129 70
129  Syrian Arab Republic 68 146 62 98 76
129  Kazakhstan 68 142 63 123 72
129  Tuvalu 68 125 66 129 70
129  Bolivia 68 131 65 129 70
129  Bhutan 68 111 68 133 69
129    Nepal 68 117 67 133 69
129  Tajikistan 68 117 67 133 69
136  Mongolia 67 135 64 123 72
136  Sao Tome and Principe 67 131 65 133 69
136  Namibia 67 135 64 133 69
139  Kiribati 66 135 64 133 69
139  Timor-Leste 66 131 65 140 68
139  India 66 135 64 140 68
139  Myanmar 66 135 64 140 68
139  Lao People's Democratic Republic 66 135 64 143 67
144  Pakistan 65 135 64 146 66
144  Rwanda 65 142 63 146 66
146  Senegal 64 142 63 146 66
146  Ethiopia 64 146 62 150 65
146  Madagascar 64 146 62 150 65
146  Yemen 64 146 62 150 65
150  Guyana 63 157 60 143 67
150  Turkmenistan 63 157 60 143 67
150  Eritrea 63 151 61 146 66
150  Mauritania 63 151 61 150 65
150  Sudan 63 151 61 150 65
150  Gabon 63 146 62 156 64
156  Papua New Guinea 62 157 60 150 65
156  Ghana 62 151 61 156 64
156  Haiti 62 151 61 156 64
156  Botswana 62 151 61 159 63
156  Comoros 62 157 60 159 63
156  Liberia 62 157 60 159 63
162  Djibouti 61 157 60 159 63
162  Gambia 61 163 59 159 63
162  United Republic of Tanzania 61 163 59 159 63
162  Kenya 61 163 59 165 62
166  Afghanistan 60 167 58 167 61
167  South Africa 59 175 56 165 62
167  Malawi 59 167 58 168 60
167  Benin 59 169 57 168 60
167  Congo 59 169 57 168 60
167  Niger 59 163 59 172 59
172  Zimbabwe 58 175 56 168 60
172  Burkina Faso 58 169 57 172 59
172  Guinea 58 169 57 172 59
172  Togo 58 169 57 172 59
176  Uganda 57 175 56 176 58
176  Zambia 57 178 55 176 58
176  Mali 57 169 57 178 57
179  Cameroon 56 178 55 178 57
179  Burundi 56 180 54 178 57
181  Equatorial Guinea 55 180 54 178 57
181  South Sudan 55 180 54 182 56
183  Guinea-Bissau 54 183 53 182 56
183  Nigeria 54 183 53 184 55
183  Swaziland 54 185 52 184 55
186  Somalia 53 188 51 184 55
186  Cote d'Ivoire 53 185 52 187 54
186  Mozambique 53 185 52 187 54
189  Democratic Republic of the Congo 52 189 50 189 53
190  Angola 51 189 50 190 52
190  Central African Republic 51 189 50 190 52
190  Chad 51 189 50 190 52
193  Lesotho 50 193 49 190 52
194  Sierra Leone 46 194 45 194 46

List by the United Nations, for 2009–2012[edit]

On 3 May 2011, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), released World Population Prospects, The 2010 Revision.[3] The following table shows the life expectancy at birth for the period 2009 to 2012.

Male life expectancy, 2009.
Female life expectancy, 2009.
UN World Population Prospects - The 2006 Revision: 2005-2010 Life Expectancy at birth (years).
  over 80
  77.5-80.0
  75.0-77.5
  72.5-75.0
  70.0-72.5
  67.5-70.0
  65.0-67.5
  60-65
  55-60
  50-55
  45-50
  under 45
  not available
Life expectancy at birth (years), UN World Population Prospects 2010
Rank state/territory Overall Male Female
1  Japan 82.73 79.29 86.96
2   Switzerland 81.81 79.31 84.12
3  Hong Kong 81.61 79.04 84.30
4  Australia 81.44 79.12 84
5  Italy 81.37 78.58 83.98
6  Iceland 81.28 79.49 83.05
7  France (metropol.) 81 77.48 84.32
8  Sweden 80.88 78.78 82.93
9  Spain 80.75 77.5 84
10  Israel 80.69 78.36 82.87
11  Singapore 80.60 78.5 83
12  Canada 80.50 78.5 83
13  Norway 80.45 78.12 83
14  Austria 80.24 77.41 82.88
15  Netherlands 80.20 78.5 82.19
16  New Zealand 80.13 78.03 82.16
17  Martinique ( France) 80.07 76.68 83.16
18  Macau ( China) 80.03 77.74 82.57
19  South Korea 80.00 76.48 83.25
20  Germany 79.85 77.20 82.39
21  Belgium 79.77 76.95 82.50
22  Ireland 79.68 77.33 82.02
23  United Kingdom 79.53 77.38 81.68
24  Greece 79.52 77.02 82.01
25 Channel Islands ( UK) 79.51 77.32 81.63
26=  Luxembourg 79.39 76.70 81.98
26=  Guadeloupe ( France) 79.39 75.71 82.88
28  Finland 79.34 75.89 82.75
29=  Cyprus 78.94 76.84 81.07
29=  U.S. Virgin Islands ( US) 78.94 75.89 82.01
31  Costa Rica 78.87 76.51 81.36
32  Malta 78.80 76.34 81.19
33  Puerto Rico ( US) 78.70 74.69 82.67
34  Chile 78.65 75.54 81.68
35=  Portugal 78.59 75.32 81.79
35=  Slovenia 78.59 74.97 81.99
37  Cuba 78.50 76.55 80.52
38  Denmark 78.25 75.99 80.50
39  Taiwan 78.19 75.25 81.51
40  United States 77.97 75.35 80.51
41  Qatar 77.88 78.07 77.29
42  Brunei 77.51 75.29 79.98
43  Réunion ( France) 77.26 73.69 81.08
44  Mayotte 77.14 73.69 81.08
45  Czech Republic 77.01 73.78 80.15
46  Algeria 73.39[4] 70.12[4] 77.72[4]
46  Albania 76.38 73.43 79.72
47  Uruguay 76.36 72.72 79.85
48  Barbados 76.25 73.00 79.50
49  Mexico 76.19 73.73 78.63
50  Netherlands Antilles ( Netherlands) 76.14 72.65 79.36
50  Libya 76.04[4] 74.36[4] 77.82[4]
51  Croatia 76.01 72.45 79.49
52  United Arab Emirates 75.94 75.25 77.04
53  French Guiana ( France) 75.89 72.55 79.89
54  Maldives 75.55 74.64 76.52
55=  Poland 75.51 71.17 79.85
55=  Panama 75.51 72.98 78.21
57=  Brazil 75.50 71.75 79.25
58  Tunisia 75.40[4] 72.2 [4] 78.6 [4]
57=  Guam ( US) 75.50 73.25 77.94
58=  Syrian Arab Republic 75.35 73.91 76.85
58=  Grenada 75.35 73.71 76.79
60  Belize 75.34 73.93 76.80
61  New Caledonia ( France) 75.33 72.31 78.71
62  Argentina 75.30 71.53 79.07
63  Bosnia and Herzegovina 75.12 72.43 77.70
64  Ecuador 75.03 72.14 78.06
65  Bahamas 74.79 71.60 77.83
66  Aruba ( Netherlands) 74.75 72.28 77.09
67  Slovakia 74.72 70.73 78.65
68  Bahrain 74.60 74.03 75.37
69  French Polynesia ( France) 74.49 72.21 77.08
70  Viet Nam 74.35 72.33 76.21
71  Sri Lanka 74.25 71.20 77.40
72  Macedonia 74.22 72.12 76.32
73  Kuwait 74.17 73.47 75.19
75  Montenegro 74.01 71.55 76.47
76  Serbia 74.00 71.70 76.34
77  Saint Lucia 73.92 71.42 76.58
78  Estonia 73.91 68.35 79.17
80  Venezuela 73.73 70.83 76.78
81  Armenia 73.69 70.21 76.74
82  Hungary 73.64 69.54 77.64
83  Thailand 73.56 70.17 77.06
84  Cape Verde 73.54 69.41 77.36
85  Malaysia 73.38 71.24 75.72
86  Peru 73.18 70.57 75.90
87  Romania 73.16 69.57 76.83
88  Saudi Arabia 73.13 72.24 74.41
89  Georgia 73.05 69.36 76.50
90  Nicaragua 72.98 69.91 76.12
91  Turkey 72.96 70.70 75.28
92  Colombia 72.92 69.24 76.66
93  Jordan 72.91 71.65 74.29
94  Mauritius 72.80 69.49 76.19
95=  China 72.71 71.10 74.45
95=  Bulgaria 72.71 69.21 76.35
97  Oman 72.58 70.88 74.83
98  Dominican Republic 72.52 69.85 75.44
99=  Egypt 72.51 71.23 75.82
101  Latvia 72.27 66.88 77.45
102=  Jamaica 72.24 69.57 74.97
104  Palestine 72.17 70.60 73.81
105  Honduras 72.07 69.74 74.51
106  Iran 72.06 70.33 73.91
107  Lebanon 72.00 69.86 74.18
108  Tonga 71.84 69.05 74.70
109  Paraguay 71.73 69.67 73.90
110  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 71.64 69.59 73.80
111  Samoa 71.54 68.62 74.89
112  El Salvador 71.43 66.55 76.08
113  Lithuania 71.31 65.46 77.24
114  Morocco 71.16 68.96 73.44
115  Guatemala 70.27 66.73 73.79
116  Azerbaijan 70.12 67.09 73.14
117  Vanuatu 69.99 68.20 72.06
118  Suriname 69.65 66.42 73.11
119  Belarus 69.44 63.59 75.53
120  Trinidad and Tobago 69.40 65.80 72.90
121  Fiji 68.80 66.09 71.90
122  Guyana 68.70 65.53 71.93
123  North Korea 68.39 64.80 71.75
124  Federated States of Micronesia 68.35 67.56 69.11
125  Moldova 68.23 64.42 72.06
126  World average 67.88 65.71 70.14
127  Indonesia 67.86 66.29 69.43
128  Bangladesh 67.84 67.41 68.29
129  Philippines 67.80 64.54 71.29
130  Russian Federation 67.68 61.56 74.03
131  Ukraine 67.54 61.78 73.54
132  Uzbekistan 67.44 64.33 70.66
133    Nepal 67.42 66.71 68.04
134=  Mongolia 67.32 63.40 71.47
134=  Iraq 67.32 63.37 71.69
136  Kyrgyzstan 66.70 62.66 71.04
137  Tajikistan 66.44 63.29 69.91
138  Solomon Islands 66.39 65.12 67.76
139  Laos 66.06 64.77 67.31
140  Western Sahara 65.95 64.27 68.10
141  Bhutan 65.79 64.08 67.77
142  Kazakhstan 65.78 60.18 71.53
143  Madagascar 65.77 64.27 67.30
144  Bolivia 65.56 63.43 67.70
145  Turkmenistan 64.65 60.62 68.91
146  Pakistan 64.57 63.78 65.42
147  India 64.19 62.80 65.73
148  Yemen 63.94 62.52 65.36
149  São Tomé and Príncipe 63.82 62.46 65.11
150  Myanmar 63.54 62.08 64.98
151  Ghana 62.71 61.84 63.61
152  Cambodia 61.54 60.21 62.61
153  Papua New Guinea 61.50 59.49 63.66
154  Gabon 61.28 60.24 62.35
155  Namibia 61.09 60.35 61.62
156  Haiti 60.99 59.94 62.02
157  Timor-Leste 60.80 59.94 61.68
158  Sudan 60.27 58.59 62.01
159  Eritrea 60.03 57.61 62.23
160  Comoros 59.65 58.33 61.00
161  Senegal 58.17 57.19 59.13
162  Mauritania 57.53 55.89 59.16
163  Gambia 57.34 56.25 58.49
164  Ethiopia 57.21 55.70 58.74
165  Djibouti 56.64 55.24 58.04
166  Congo 56.02 54.88 57.16
167  Togo 55.69 54.24 57.14
168  Tanzania 55.44 54.62 56.19
169  Kenya 54.98 53.96 55.93
170  Benin 54.64 52.72 56.50
171  Liberia 54.42 53.45 55.35
172  Rwanda 53.94 52.70 55.14
173  Burkina Faso 53.87 52.84 54.78
174  Botswana 53.33 53.80 52.54
175  Niger 53.08 52.66 53.55
176  Côte d'Ivoire 53.02 52.14 54.05
177  Guinea 52.44 50.93 54.01
178  Uganda 52.24 51.68 52.73
179  Malawi 51.55 51.51 51.48
180  South Africa 51.20 50.13 52.08
181  Nigeria 50.26 49.50 51.03
182  Somalia 50.24 48.71 51.79
183  Equatorial Guinea 50.10 48.87 51.48
184  Mali 49.99 48.89 50.99
185  Cameroon 49.97 49.02 50.89
186  Angola 49.62 48.21 51.04
187  Burundi 48.81 47.48 50.05
188  Mozambique 48.77 47.56 49.88
189  Chad 48.52 47.15 49.90
190  Democratic Republic of the Congo 47.42 45.93 48.91
191  Swaziland 47.36 47.56 47.04
192  Afghanistan 47.32 47.19 47.47
193  Zambia 46.93 46.49 47.26
194  Guinea-Bissau 46.76 45.33 48.22
195  Zimbabwe 46.59 47.45 45.43
196  Sierra Leone 46.26 45.65 46.88
197  Lesotho 46.02 46.46 45.18
198  Central African Republic 45.91 44.47 47.31

List from the "GBD 2010" study[edit]

The Global Burden of Disease 2010 study published updated figures in 2012,[7] including recalculations of life expectancies[8] which differ substantially in places from the UN estimates for 2010 (reasons for this are discussed in the freely available appendix to the paper, pages 25–27, currently not available). Although no estimate is given for the sexes combined, for the first time life expectancy estimates have included uncertainty intervals.

Life expectancy at birth (years), Global Burden of Disease 2010
state/territory Male 95% range Female 95% range
 World average 67.50 (66.90-68.10) 73.30 (72.80-73.80)
 Afghanistan 58.20 (54.20-62.80) 57.30 (52.20-61.70)
 Albania 72.00 (69.20-74.90) 78.10 (75.90-80.20)
 Algeria 74.30 (73.20-75.40) 76.50 (75.50-77.50)
 Andorra 79.80 (78.80-81.00) 85.20 (84.20-86.20)
 Angola 57.90 (49.50-66.50) 63.90 (56.00-72.00)
 Antigua and Barbuda 74.10 (72.20-75.90) 79.00 (77.30-80.50)
 Argentina 72.50 (72.40-72.60) 79.30 (79.20-79.40)
 Armenia 68.90 (67.20-70.50) 78.50 (77.40-79.60)
 Australia 79.20 (79.10-79.30) 83.80 (83.70-83.90)
 Austria 77.70 (77.50-77.90) 83.30 (83.20-83.50)
 Azerbaijan 68.90 (67.60-70.20) 76.20 (74.90-77.40)
 Bahrain 76.40 (74.80-78.20) 79.10 (77.50-80.70)
 Bangladesh 67.20 (65.60-68.80) 71.00 (69.40-72.80)
 Barbados 74.30 (72.70-76.00) 77.00 (75.60-78.30)
 Belarus 64.10 (63.40-64.90) 76.00 (75.50-76.50)
 Belgium 76.70 (76.40-77.10) 82.30 (81.90-82.60)
 Belize 68.90 (67.30-70.30) 73.60 (72.30-75.00)
 Benin 60.70 (57.60-63.50) 65.90 (63.20-68.50)
 Bhutan 67.60 (60.90-73.30) 71.70 (65.70-77.10)
 Bolivia 69.70 (67.30-72.50) 71.70 (69.50-74.10)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 74.10 (73.90-74.40) 78.80 (78.50-79.00)
 Botswana 68.10 (63.60-73.60) 74.00 (69.20-80.60)
 Brazil 71.50 (71.20-71.80) 79.70 (79.50-79.90)
 Brunei 75.50 (74.30-76.60) 79.10 (78.00-80.30)
 Bulgaria 70.10 (69.90-70.30) 77.00 (76.80-77.20)
 Burkina Faso 52.80 (46.60-58.10) 57.60 (52.70-62.10)
 Burma 60.70 (51.40-69.80) 67.60 (60.10-73.60)
 Burundi 53.00 (42.70-63.00) 55.20 (45.20-64.60)
 Cambodia 64.60 (63.30-66.00) 70.10 (68.80-71.50)
 Cameroon 57.10 (53.50-60.90) 61.10 (57.80-64.30)
 Canada 78.50 (78.20-78.70) 82.70 (82.50-83.00)
 Cape Verde 70.90 (66.30-75.50) 79.10 (75.30-82.50)
 Central African Republic 43.60 (38.40-49.30) 49.30 (44.00-54.60)
 Chad 53.30 (47.20-58.20) 57.80 (53.00-62.30)
 Chile 75.50 (75.20-75.90) 81.50 (81.20-81.80)
 China 72.90 (71.80-74.00) 79.00 (78.00-80.00)
 Colombia 71.70 (70.20-73.00) 78.30 (77.30-79.40)
 Comoros 61.60 (56.50-65.80) 63.90 (59.10-68.20)
 Congo 56.30 (52.30-60.30) 61.60 (57.90-65.10)
 Costa Rica 77.10 (76.90-77.30) 81.90 (81.60-82.10)
 Côte d'Ivoire 52.80 (48.20-57.10) 60.20 (56.20-63.90)
 Croatia 73.40 (73.20-73.60) 79.90 (79.70-80.10)
 Cuba 76.10 (75.90-76.20) 79.80 (79.60-79.90)
 Cyprus 77.60 (77.10-78.10) 82.90 (82.40-83.40)
 Czech Republic 74.30 (74.20-74.50) 80.70 (80.50-80.80)
 Denmark 76.80 (76.60-77.00) 81.00 (80.80-81.30)
 Djibouti 62.20 (54.60-69.60) 64.40 (55.10-73.70)
 Dominica 70.10 (68.60-71.50) 77.90 (76.40-79.30)
 Dominican Republic 71.30 (70.00-72.80) 76.30 (75.10-77.60)
 DR Congo 52.80 (49.60-55.90) 57.70 (54.70-60.50)
 Ecuador 74.40 (73.30-75.40) 79.80 (78.90-80.60)
 Egypt 68.00 (67.00-69.00) 73.40 (72.50-74.20)
 El Salvador 69.90 (69.30-70.50) 78.20 (77.70-78.60)
 Equatorial Guinea 54.70 (43.50-66.20) 61.80 (52.90-73.80)
 Eritrea 59.00 (54.70-62.90) 62.00 (58.20-65.50)
 Estonia 70.60 (70.30-71.00) 80.60 (80.20-81.00)
 Ethiopia 59.50 (57.50-61.30) 62.30 (60.50-64.10)
 Federated States of Micronesia 63.40 (54.60-71.70) 68.30 (60.80-74.70)
 Fiji 65.60 (63.90-67.30) 68.80 (67.10-70.40)
 Finland 76.80 (76.60-77.00) 83.30 (83.10-83.60)
 France 77.50 (77.20-77.80) 84.30 (84.00-84.50)
 Gabon 55.00 (50.00-60.00) 63.30 (59.50-67.40)
 Georgia 67.40 (66.00-68.70) 77.90 (76.90-78.90)
 Germany 77.50 (77.30-77.70) 82.80 (82.60-83.10)
 Ghana 63.20 (60.70-65.70) 66.70 (64.50-68.90)
 Greece 77.10 (76.80-77.40) 82.10 (81.90-82.40)
 Grenada 68.60 (67.40-69.80) 73.50 (72.20-74.70)
 Guatemala 66.90 (66.30-67.50) 74.00 (73.50-74.50)
 Guinea-Bissau 54.80 (46.10-63.40) 58.60 (50.80-66.60)
 Guinea 58.40 (53.70-62.30) 60.50 (56.30-64.00)
 Guyana 63.10 (60.50-65.90) 69.10 (66.90-71.20)
 Haiti 32.50 (19.80-43.10) 43.60 (31.10-51.70)
 Honduras 70.50 (66.30-74.60) 73.20 (69.80-76.50)
 Hungary 70.40 (70.30-70.60) 78.40 (78.20-78.50)
 Iceland 80.00 (79.40-80.60) 84.40 (83.70-85.00)
 India 63.20 (60.60-65.70) 67.50 (65.50-69.90)
 Indonesia 67.70 (66.00-69.20) 71.80 (70.30-73.30)
 Iran 71.60 (68.50-74.60) 77.80 (75.30-80.20)
 Iraq 70.60 (67.20-73.70) 71.40 (68.30-74.40)
 Ireland 77.60 (77.40-77.90) 82.20 (81.90-82.40)
 Israel 79.20 (79.00-79.40) 82.90 (82.70-83.10)
 Italy 78.90 (78.70-79.10) 83.90 (83.70-84.10)
 Jamaica 73.30 (69.90-77.30) 77.30 (74.30-80.30)
 Japan 79.30 (79.30-79.40) 85.90 (85.80-85.90)
 Jordan 75.70 (73.90-77.50) 75.10 (73.20-77.00)
 Kazakhstan 61.30 (59.10-63.30) 72.20 (70.60-73.70)
 Kenya 62.70 (59.90-65.70) 66.90 (64.60-69.00)
 Kiribati 57.80 (51.30-64.00) 65.00 (59.80-69.70)
 Kuwait 76.10 (75.80-76.40) 79.60 (79.20-79.90)
 Kyrgyzstan 62.20 (60.60-63.90) 71.90 (70.40-73.20)
 Laos 62.40 (54.40-69.70) 67.10 (60.20-73.50)
 Latvia 68.90 (68.60-69.20) 78.50 (78.20-78.70)
 Lebanon 76.20 (74.10-77.90) 78.90 (77.50-80.40)
 Lesotho 44.10 (40.90-48.10) 50.70 (47.20-54.80)
 Liberia 56.50 (54.10-58.90) 57.90 (55.20-60.50)
 Libya 72.90 (70.70-75.00) 76.50 (74.60-78.50)
 Lithuania 68.70 (68.50-68.90) 79.30 (79.10-79.60)
 Luxembourg 78.00 (77.50-78.60) 82.20 (81.70-82.80)
 Macedonia 72.80 (72.50-73.00) 77.20 (77.00-77.50)
 Madagascar 62.20 (58.90-65.60) 65.10 (61.80-68.10)
 Malawi 50.90 (48.50-53.60) 54.90 (52.70-57.50)
 Malaysia 71.30 (71.00-71.60) 76.50 (76.20-76.80)
 Maldives 77.50 (76.70-78.30) 80.40 (79.70-81.20)
 Mali 56.90 (52.90-60.70) 57.70 (53.80-61.20)
 Malta 77.10 (76.60-77.60) 83.00 (82.40-83.60)
 Marshall Islands 61.90 (57.50-66.00) 66.00 (61.90-70.00)
 Mauritania 63.30 (59.10-67.20) 65.70 (61.80-68.80)
 Mauritius 69.70 (69.30-70.00) 76.90 (76.50-77.30)
 Mexico 72.50 (72.30-72.80) 78.40 (78.20-78.60)
 Moldova 65.50 (65.00-65.80) 74.60 (74.20-74.90)
 Mongolia 60.30 (58.60-62.20) 69.30 (67.80-70.80)
 Montenegro 73.00 (72.20-73.60) 78.20 (77.50-78.90)
 Morocco 70.90 (68.30-73.30) 74.40 (72.20-76.10)
 Mozambique 50.00 (46.90-53.40) 54.90 (51.80-58.30)
 Namibia 58.40 (55.20-61.60) 64.90 (61.90-67.60)
   Nepal 67.70 (65.50-70.10) 70.60 (68.60-72.80)
 Netherlands 78.50 (78.40-78.60) 82.60 (82.40-82.70)
 New Zealand 78.60 (78.40-78.80) 82.70 (82.50-83.00)
 Nicaragua 71.50 (70.60-72.20) 77.50 (76.70-78.20)
 Niger 56.90 (51.70-61.50) 58.70 (54.10-62.60)
 Nigeria 58.80 (56.50-61.40) 60.40 (58.20-62.90)
 North Korea 68.00 (64.90-70.70) 73.30 (70.60-75.50)
 Norway 78.50 (78.30-78.70) 83.10 (82.90-83.40)
 Oman 73.80 (72.20-75.40) 78.90 (77.50-80.10)
 Pakistan 63.90 (60.70-67.10) 67.80 (64.80-70.90)
 Palestine 70.30 (67.90-72.70) 76.40 (74.30-78.30)
 Panama 73.60 (72.30-74.90) 80.20 (78.90-81.50)
 Papua New Guinea 57.50 (48.10-66.50) 60.30 (51.90-69.00)
 Paraguay 71.00 (69.70-72.40) 75.60 (74.70-76.40)
 Peru 75.20 (73.80-76.70) 77.60 (76.10-79.00)
 Philippines 66.60 (65.50-67.80) 73.80 (72.80-74.80)
 Poland 72.10 (72.00-72.20) 80.50 (80.40-80.60)
 Portugal 76.30 (76.20-76.50) 82.30 (82.20-82.50)
 Qatar 78.90 (77.70-80.00) 82.10 (81.10-83.20)
 Romania 70.10 (70.00-70.20) 77.60 (77.40-77.70)
 Russia 63.10 (62.80-63.30) 74.70 (74.40-74.90)
 Rwanda 62.00 (60.10-63.90) 67.10 (65.50-69.00)
 Saint Lucia 70.90 (68.60-73.40) 76.50 (74.50-78.80)
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 69.70 (68.50-71.00) 74.50 (73.10-75.80)
 Samoa 68.40 (65.40-70.90) 73.40 (70.90-75.80)
 São Tomé and Príncipe 68.20 (64.40-71.80) 72.10 (69.00-75.20)
 Saudi Arabia 75.00 (73.60-76.40) 79.90 (78.80-81.00)
 Senegal 63.50 (61.10-66.10) 67.10 (65.20-69.30)
 Serbia 74.00 (73.70-74.20) 79.50 (79.20-79.80)
 Seychelles 61.30 (60.20-62.40) 71.80 (70.70-72.90)
 Sierra Leone 56.50 (53.60-59.30) 60.90 (58.30-63.10)
 Singapore 78.80 (78.60-79.00) 83.30 (83.00-83.50)
 Slovakia 71.60 (71.40-71.70) 79.10 (78.90-79.30)
 Slovenia 75.90 (75.60-76.20) 82.50 (82.20-82.90)
 Solomon Islands 60.50 (52.20-68.10) 64.00 (55.40-71.40)
 Somalia 54.60 (45.40-62.60) 57.20 (47.70-65.60)
 South Africa 57.40 (54.80-59.60) 62.30 (59.90-64.70)
 South Korea 76.50 (76.30-76.70) 82.70 (82.60-82.90)
 Spain 78.40 (78.20-78.70) 84.20 (84.00-84.40)
 Sri Lanka 71.60 (70.30-72.80) 79.80 (78.70-80.70)
 Sudan 66.90 (64.20-69.00) 70.70 (68.80-72.90)
 Suriname 70.10 (68.20-72.20) 75.20 (73.70-76.80)
 Swaziland 47.40 (43.50-51.30) 51.40 (48.00-55.10)
 Sweden 79.20 (79.00-79.40) 83.50 (83.40-83.70)
  Switzerland 79.70 (79.50-79.80) 84.50 (84.30-84.70)
 Syria 75.10 (73.50-76.60) 80.20 (78.90-81.40)
 Taiwan 75.90 (75.80-76.00) 81.90 (81.80-82.00)
 Tajikistan 65.20 (62.70-67.50) 71.50 (69.40-73.60)
 Tanzania 60.90 (58.10-63.70) 62.60 (60.20-65.20)
 Thailand 70.90 (69.10-72.50) 77.50 (76.30-78.80)
 The Bahamas 71.40 (68.50-74.50) 80.40 (76.90-85.50)
 The Gambia 60.80 (53.40-69.00) 64.00 (55.90-72.40)
 Timor-Leste 67.80 (66.30-69.20) 69.70 (68.10-71.20)
 Togo 58.30 (54.70-61.80) 62.10 (58.40-65.60)
 Tonga 67.30 (64.70-69.90) 73.80 (71.40-76.10)
 Trinidad and Tobago 66.20 (65.00-67.40) 75.30 (74.10-76.40)
 Tunisia 74.10 (70.70-77.60) 78.90 (75.70-81.90)
 Turkey 71.20 (69.50-73.00) 77.70 (75.90-79.30)
 Turkmenistan 65.40 (60.70-69.50) 73.40 (69.50-77.20)
 Uganda 58.30 (55.30-61.40) 62.50 (59.80-65.10)
 UK 77.80 (77.80-77.90) 81.90 (81.80-82.00)
 Ukraine 64.50 (63.50-65.30) 74.90 (74.20-75.40)
 United Arab Emirates 75.30 (73.00-77.60) 78.60 (76.50-80.70)
 Uruguay 72.60 (72.10-73.10) 80.40 (79.90-80.90)
 USA 75.90 (75.80-75.90) 80.50 (80.50-80.60)
 Uzbekistan 65.60 (61.90-68.80) 72.30 (69.50-75.30)
 Vanuatu 62.20 (54.10-69.50) 66.90 (59.80-72.50)
 Venezuela 70.30 (68.90-71.50) 79.20 (78.40-80.00)
 Viet Nam 71.60 (69.30-74.00) 79.60 (78.00-81.10)
 Yemen 65.50 (59.20-71.40) 66.30 (59.30-72.40)
 Zambia 54.30 (51.10-57.70) 57.30 (54.20-60.30)
 Zimbabwe 51.10 (46.60-55.60) 55.10 (51.30-59.30)

List by the CIA (2012)[edit]

2012 life expectancy estimates by the CIA World Factbook.
  > 80
  > 77.5
  > 75
  > 72.5
  > 70
  > 67.5
  > 65
  > 60
  > 55
  > 50
  > 45
  > 40
  < 40

The US CIA published the following life expectancy data in its annual world factbook 2012.[1]

Rank Entity Overall life expectancy at birth Male life expectancy at birth Female life expectancy at birth
1  Monaco 89.57 85.77 93.69
2  Macau 84.48 81.45 87.52
3  Japan 84.46 80.5 85.74
4  Singapore 84.38 80.35 84.64
5  San Marino 83.18 78.96 85.72
6  Hong Kong 82.16 79.5 84.95
7  Andorra 82.14 79.53 84.96
8  Guernsey 82.04 79.32 84.97
9  Australia 81.81 79.4 84.35
10  Italy 81.77 79.16 84.53
11  France (metropolitan) 81.50 78.2 84.80
12  Jersey 81.38 78.96 83.94
13  Canada 81.38 78.81 84.1
14  Spain 81.17 78.16 84.37
15   Switzerland 81.07 78.24 84.05
16  Sweden 81.07 78.78 83.51
17  Israel 80.96 78.79 83.24
18  Iceland 80.9 78.72 83.17
19  Anguilla 80.87 78.32 83.51
20  Cayman Islands 80.68 78.02 83.39
21  Bermuda 80.71 77.49 83.99
22  Isle of Man 80.64 79.09 82.32
23  New Zealand 80.59 78.61 82.67
24  Liechtenstein 80.31 76.86 83.77
25  Norway 80.2 77.53 83.02
26  Ireland 80.19 77.96 82.55
27  Germany 80.07 77.82 82.44
28  United Kingdom 80.05 77.95 82.25
29  Jordan 80.05 78.73 81.45
30  Greece 79.92 77.36 82.65
31  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 79.87 77.61 82.26
32  Taiwan 79.78 76.87 82.84
33  South Korea 79.72 77.25 82.35
34  Austria 79.72 77.45 82.12
35  Faroe Islands 79.68 77.06 82.44
36  Malta 79.61 76.36 83.08
37  Netherlands 79.51 76.35 82.81
38  Luxembourg 79.45 76.47 82.43
39  Belgium 79.35 76.0 82.7
40  Portugal 79.33 76.29 82.55
41  U.S. Virgin Islands 79.27 75.79 82.89
42  Finland 79.11 76.39 81.97
43  Turks and Caicos Islands 79.05 75.84 82.49
44  Wallis and Futuna 78.98 76 82.11
45  Puerto Rico 78.92 75.31 82.71
46  European Union 78.82 75.7 82.13
47  Bosnia and Herzegovina 78.81 75.25 82.63
48  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 78.76 75.83 81.83
49  Gibraltar 78.68 75.84 81.72
50  Denmark 78.63 76.25 81.14
51  United States 78.37 75.92 80.93
52  Bahrain 78.15 76.03 80.33
53  Cyprus 77.82 75.04 80.74
54  Panama 77.79 75.02 80.68
55  Costa Rica 77.72 75.10 80.46
56  Chile 77.70 74.44 81.13
57  Cuba 77.70 75.46 80.08
58  Libya 77.65 75.34 80.08
59  British Virgin Islands 77.63 76.32 78.99
60  Albania 77.41 74.82 80.30
61  Dominican Republic 77.31 75.16 79.55
62  Slovenia 77.30 73.64 81.20
63  Czech Republic 77.19 73.93 80.66
64  Georgia 77.12 73.80 80.82
65  French Polynesia ( France) 77.10 74.62 79.70
66  Kuwait 77.09 75.95 78.3
67  Northern Mariana Islands ( US) 77.08 74.45 79.87
68  Argentina 76.95 73.71 80.36
69  Saint Lucia 76.84 74.15 79.68
70  New Caledonia ( France) 76.75 72.67 81.03
71  Netherlands Antilles ( Netherlands) 76.65 74.33 79.09
72  United Arab Emirates 76.51 73.94 79.22
73  Mexico 76.47 73.65 79.43
74  Uruguay 76.35 73.1 79.72
75  Saudi Arabia 76.3 74.23 78.48
76  Poland 76.28 73.12 79.44
77  People's Republic of China 76.04 74.79 77.3
78  Tunisia 75.78 73.98 77.7
79  Paraguay 75.77 73.19 78.49
80  Brunei 75.74 73.52 78.07
81  Dominica 75.55 72.61 78.64
82  Slovakia 75.4 71.47 79.53
83  Brazil 75.35 71.52 79.38
83  Croatia 75.35 71.72 79.18
84  Qatar 75.35 71.66 77.14
85  Ecuador 75.3 72.37 78.37
86  Aruba ( Netherlands) 75.28 72.25 78.38
87  Sri Lanka 75.14 73.08 77.28
88  Lithuania 74.9 69.98 80.1
89  Hungary 74.79 71.04 78.76
90  Antigua and Barbuda 74.76 72.81
91  Macedonia 74.68 72.18 77.38
92  West Bank 74.54 72.54 76.65
93  Cook Islands 74.22 71.46 77.13
94  Oman 74.16 71.87 76.55
95  Algeria 74.02 72.35 75.77
96  Mauritius 74 70.53 77.65
97  Maldives 73.97 71.78 76.28
98  Barbados 73.94 71.65 76.26
99  Serbia 73.9 71.09 76.89
100  Suriname 73.73 71 76.65
101  American Samoa ( US) 73.72 70.8 76.82
102  Solomon Islands 73.69 71.14 76.37
103  Lebanon 73.66 71.15 76.31
104  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 73.65 71.82 75.54
105  Venezuela 73.61 70.54 76.83
106  Jamaica 73.53 71.83 75.3
107  Gaza Strip 73.42 71.82 75.12
108  Malaysia 73.29 70.56 76.21
109  Saint Kitts and Nevis 73.2 70.33 76.25
110  Thailand 73.1 70.77 75.55
111  Bulgaria 73.09 69.48 76.91
112  Seychelles 73.02 68.33 77.85
113  Estonia 72.82 67.45 78.53
114  Colombia 72.81 68.98 76.76
115  Montserrat 72.76 74.74 70.68
116  Armenia 72.68 69.06 76.81
117  Romania 72.45 68.95 76.16
118  El Salvador 72.33 68.72 76.11
119  Latvia 72.15 66.98 77.59
120  Egypt 72.12 69.56 74.81
122  Turkey 71.96 70.12 73.89
123  Uzbekistan 71.96 68.95 75.15
124  Samoa 71.86 69.03 74.84
125  Morocco 71.8 69.42 74.3
126  Cape Verde 71.61 68.27 75.05
127  Vietnam 71.58 68.78 74.57
128  Nicaragua 71.5 69.35 73.75
129  Palau 71.22 68.08 74.54
130  Marshall Islands 71.19 69.15 73.34
131  Syria 71.19 69.8 72.68
132  Iran 71.14 69.65 72.72
133  Philippines 71.09 68.17 74.15
134  Federated States of Micronesia 70.94 69.06 72.93
135  Trinidad and Tobago 70.86 67.98 73.82
136  Moldova 70.8 67.1 74.71
137  Indonesia 70.76 68.26 73.38
138  Peru 70.74 68.33 73.15
139  Fiji 70.73 68.18 73.41
140  Tonga 70.73 68.18 73.41
141  Belarus 70.63 64.95 76.67
142  Russia 70.3 64.3 76.4
144  Guatemala 70.29 68.49 72.19
144  Greenland ( Denmark) 70.07 67.44 72.85
145  Iraq 69.94 68.6 71.34
146  India 69.89 67.46 72.61
147  Kyrgyzstan 69.43 65.43 73.64
148  Honduras 69.4 67.86 71.02
149  Tuvalu 69.29 66.99 71.7
150  São Tomé and Príncipe 68.32 66.65 70.04
151  Ukraine 68.25 62.37 74.5
152  Belize 68.2 66.44 70.05
153  Kazakhstan 67.87 62.58 73.47
154  Turkmenistan 67.87 64.94 70.95
155  Mongolia 67.65 65.23 70.19
156  East Timor 67.27 64.92 69.75
157  Bolivia 66.89 64.2 69.72
158  Guyana 66.68 64.09 69.4
159  Azerbaijan 66.66 62.53 71.34
-  World average 66.57 64.52 68.76
160  Papua New Guinea 66.34 64.08 68.72
161  Bhutan 66.13 65.33 66.97
162  Grenada 65.95 64.06 67.85
163  The Bahamas 65.78 62.63 68.98
164    Nepal 65.46 64.3 66.67
165  Tajikistan 65.33 62.29 68.52
166  Pakistan 64.49 63.4 65.64
167  Nauru 64.2 60.58 68.01
168  Vanuatu 63.98 62.37 65.66
169  North Korea 63.81 61.23 66.53
170  Comoros 63.47 61.07 65.94
171  Burma 63.39 61.17 65.74
172  Yemen 63.27 61.3 65.33
173  Kiribati 63.22 60.14 66.45
174  Mayotte ( France) 62.91 60.65 65.24
175  Madagascar 62.89 60.93 64.91
176  Cambodia 62.1 60.03 64.27
177  Botswana 61.85 61.72 61.99
178  Eritrea 61.78 59.71 63.9
179  Equatorial Guinea 61.61 60.71 62.54
180  Haiti 60.78 59.13 62.48
181  Mauritania 60.37 58.22 62.59
182  Bangladesh 60.25 57.57 63.03
183  Ghana 59.85 58.98 60.75
184  Benin 59 57.83 60.23
185  Senegal 59 57.12 60.93
186  Togo 58.69 56.56 60.88
187  Kenya 57.86 57.49 58.24
188  Guinea 57.09 55.63 58.6
189  Laos 56.68 54.56 58.9
190  Côte d'Ivoire 55.45 54.64 56.28
191  Ethiopia 55.41 52.92 57.97
192  The Gambia 55.35 53.43 57.34
193  Democratic Republic of the Congo 54.36 52.58 56.2
194  Western Sahara 54.32 52 56.73
195  Republic of the Congo 54.15 52.9 55.43
196  Cameroon 53.69 52.89 54.52
197  Gabon 53.11 52.19 54.05
198  Burkina Faso 52.95 51.04 54.91
199  Uganda 52.72 51.66 53.81
200  Niger 52.6 51.39 53.85
201  Burundi 52.09 51.2 53.01
202  Tanzania 52.01 50.56 53.51
203  Sudan 62.57 60.58 64.67
204  Namibia 51.24 51.61 50.86
205  Rwanda 50.52 49.25 51.83
206  Mali 50.35 48.38 52.38
207  Afghanistan 50.11 48.81 51.47
208  Somalia 49.63 47.78 51.53
209  South Africa 48.98 49.81 48.13
210  Guinea-Bissau 47.9 46.07 49.79
211  Chad 47.7 46.67 48.77
212  Nigeria 46.94 46.16 47.76
213  Zimbabwe 45.77 46.36 45.16
214  Central African Republic 44.47 44.4 44.54
215  Malawi 43.82 44.07 43.57
216  Djibouti 43.37 41.89 44.89
217  Liberia 41.84 40.71 43
218  Sierra Leone 41.24 38.92 43.64
219  Mozambique 41.18 41.83 41.53
220  Lesotho 40.38 41.18 39.54
221  Zambia 38.63 38.53 38.73
222  Angola 38.2 37.24 39.22

See also[edit]

· List of U.S. states by life expectancy

References[edit]

Figures are from the CIA World Factbook 2009[1] and from the 2010 revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects report, for 2005–2010,[3] (data viewable at http://esa.un.org/wpp/Sorting-Tables/tab-sorting_mortality.htm, with equivalent spreadsheets here, here, and here).

Only countries/territories with a population of 100,000 or more in 2010 are included in the United Nations list. WHO database 2013 http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/EN_WHS2013_Full.pdf

  1. ^ a b c "CIA - The World Factbook Life Expectancy". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  2. ^ "Central Intelligence Agency Factbook Population". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  3. ^ a b c United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (3 May 2011). "United Nations World Population Prospects: 2012 revision" (PDF). UN. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The World Fact-book Life Expectancy". Cia.gov. 2012. 
  5. ^ "Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15–49)". 
  6. ^ "Life expectancy Data by country". World Health Organization. 2015. 
  7. ^ Das, Pamela; Samarasekera, Udani (2012). "The story of GBD 2010: a "super-human" effort". The Lancet 380 (9859): 2067–2070. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62174-6. 
  8. ^ Wang, Haidong; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Lofgren, Katherine T; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Marcus, Jacob R; Levin-Rector, Alison; Levitz, Carly E; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL (2012). "Age-specific and sex-specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". The Lancet 380 (9859): 2071–2094. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61719-X. 

External links[edit]