Life on Mars
For centuries people have speculated about the possibility of life on Mars due to the planet's proximity and similarity to Earth. Although there has been much speculation, to date there has never been any proof of life ever existing on Mars.
Serious searches for evidence of life began in the 19th century, and they continue today via telescopic investigations and landed missions. While early work focused on phenomenology and bordered on fantasy, modern scientific inquiry has emphasized the search for water, chemical biosignatures in the soil and rocks at the planet's surface, and biomarker gases in the atmosphere.
Mars is of particular interest for the study of the origins of life because of its similarity to the early Earth. This is especially so since Mars has a cold climate and lacks plate tectonics or continental drift, so it has remained almost unchanged since the end of the Hesperian period. At least two thirds of Mars's surface is more than 3.5 billion years old, and Mars may thus hold the best record of the prebiotic conditions leading to abiogenesis, even if life does not or has never existed there. It remains an open question whether life currently exists on Mars or has existed there in the past, and fictional Martians have been a recurring feature of popular entertainment of the 20th and 21st centuries.
On January 24, 2014, NASA reported that current studies on the planet Mars by the Curiosity and Opportunity rovers will now be searching for evidence of ancient life, including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic, and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water, including fluvio-lacustrine environments (plains related to ancient rivers or lakes) that may have been habitable. The search for evidence of habitability, taphonomy (related to fossils), and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective.
- 1 Early speculation
- 2 Habitability
- 3 Liquid water
- 4 Possible biosignatures
- 5 Geysers on Mars
- 6 Forward contamination
- 7 Life under simulated Martian conditions
- 8 Missions
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Mars' polar ice caps were observed as early as the mid-17th century, and they were first proven to grow and shrink alternately, in the summer and winter of each hemisphere, by William Herschel in the latter part of the 18th century. By the mid-19th century, astronomers knew that Mars had certain other similarities to Earth, for example that the length of a day on Mars was almost the same as a day on Earth. They also knew that its axial tilt was similar to Earth's, which meant it experienced seasons just as Earth does — but of nearly double the length owing to its much longer year. These observations led to the increase in speculation that the darker albedo features were water, and brighter ones were land. It was therefore natural to suppose that Mars may be inhabited by some form of life.
In 1854, William Whewell, a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who popularized the word scientist, theorized that Mars had seas, land and possibly life forms. Speculation about life on Mars exploded in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent Martian canals — which were later found to be optical illusions. Despite this, in 1895, American astronomer Percival Lowell published his book Mars, followed by Mars and its Canals in 1906, proposing that the canals were the work of a long-gone civilization. This idea led British writer H. G. Wells to write The War of the Worlds in 1897, telling of an invasion by aliens from Mars who were fleeing the planet’s desiccation.
Spectroscopic analysis of Mars' atmosphere began in earnest in 1894, when U.S. astronomer William Wallace Campbell showed that neither water nor oxygen were present in the Martian atmosphere. By 1909 better telescopes and the best perihelic opposition of Mars since 1877 conclusively put an end to the canal hypothesis.
Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape the environments on Mars. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. The two current ecological approaches for predicting the potential habitability of the Martian surface use 19 or 20 environmental factors, with emphasis on water availability, temperature, presence of nutrients, an energy source, and protection from Solar ultraviolet and galactic cosmic radiation.
Scientists do not know the minimum number of parameters for determination of habitability potential, but they are certain it is greater than one or two of the factors in the table below. Similarly, for each group of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined. Laboratory simulations show that whenever multiple lethal factors are combined, the survival rates plummet quickly. There are no full-Mars simulations published yet that include all of the biocidal factors combined.
|Water|| · liquid water activity (aw)
· Past/future liquid (ice) inventories
· Salinity, pH, and Eh of available water
· C, H, N, O, P, S, essential metals, essential micronutrients
· Fixed nitrogen
Toxin abundances and lethality:
· Heavy metals (e.g., Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, As, Cd, etc., some essential, but toxic at high levels)
· Globally distributed oxidizing soils
|Energy for metabolism||Solar (surface and near-surface only)
· Redox gradients
| · Temperature
· Extreme diurnal temperature fluctuations
· Low pressure (Is there a low-pressure threshold for terrestrial anaerobes?)
· Strong ultraviolet germicidal irradiation
· Galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events (long-term accumulated effects)
· Solar UV-induced volatile oxidants, e.g., O 2–, O–, H2O2, O3
· Climate/variability (geography, seasons, diurnal, and eventually, obliquity variations)
· Substrate (soil processes, rock microenvironments, dust composition, shielding)
· High CO2 concentrations in the global atmosphere
· Transport (aeolian, ground water flow, surface water, glacial)
Recent models have shown that, even with a dense CO2 atmosphere, early Mars was, in fact, colder than Earth has ever been. However, transiently warm conditions related to impacts or volcanism could have produced conditions favoring the formation of the late Noachian valley networks, even though the mid–late Noachian global conditions were probably icy. Local warming of the environment by volcanism and impacts would have been sporadic, but there should have been many events of water flowing at the surface of Mars. Both the mineralogical and the morphological evidence indicates a degradation of habitability from the mid Hesperian onward. The exact causes are not well understood but may be related to a combination of processes including loss of early atmosphere, or impact erosion, or both.
The loss of the Martian magnetic field strongly affected surface environments through atmospheric loss and increased radiation; this change significantly degraded surface habitability. When there was a magnetic field, the atmosphere would have been protected from erosion by solar wind, which would ensure the maintenance of a dense atmosphere, necessary for liquid water to exist on the surface of Mars. The loss of the atmosphere was accompanied by decreasing temperatures. A part of the liquid water inventory sublimed and was transported to the poles, while the rest became trapped in a subsurface ice layer.
Observations on Earth and numerical modeling have shown that a crater-forming impact can result in the creation of a long lasting hydrothermal system when ice is present in the crust. For example, a 130 km large crater could sustain an active hydrothermal system for up to 2 million years, that is, long enough for microscopic life to emerge.
Soil and rock samples studied in 2013 by NASA's Curiosity rover's onboard instruments brought about additional information on several habitability factors. The rover team identified some of the key chemical ingredients for life in this soil, including sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and possibly carbon, as well as clay minerals, suggesting a long-ago aqueous environment — perhaps a lake or an ancient streambed — that was neutral and not too salty. On December 9, 2013, NASA reported that, based on evidence from Curiosity studying Aeolis Palus, Gale Crater contained an ancient freshwater lake which could have been a hospitable environment for microbial life. The confirmation that liquid water once flowed on Mars, the existence of nutrients, and the previous discovery of a past magnetic field that protected the planet from cosmic and Solar radiation, together strongly suggest that Mars could have had the environmental factors to support life. However, the assessment of past habitability is not in itself evidence that Martian life has ever actually existed. If it did, it was probably microbial, existing communally in fluids or on sediments, either free-living or as biofilms, respectively.
No definitive evidence for biosignatures or organics of Martian origin has been identified, and assessment will continue not only through the Martian seasons, but also back in time as the Curiosity rover studies what is recorded in the depositional history of the rocks in Gale Crater. While scientists have not identified the minimum number of parameters for determination of habitability potential, some teams have proposed hypotheses based on simulations.
Although Mars soils are likely not to be overtly toxic to terrestrial microorganisms, life on the surface of Mars is extremely unlikely because it is bathed in radiation and it is completely frozen. The radiation environment on the surface, as recently determined by Curiosity rover "is so high that any biological organisms would not survive without protection." Therefore, the best potential locations for discovering life on Mars may be at subsurface environments that have not been studied yet. The extensive volcanism in the past possibly created subsurface cracks and caves within different strata where liquid water could have been stored, forming large aquifers with deposits of saline liquid water, minerals, organic molecules, and geothermal heat – potentially providing a habitable environment away from the harsh surface conditions.
Although liquid water does not appear at the surface of Mars, several modeling studies suggest that potential locations on Mars could include regions where thin films of salty liquid brine or perchlorate may form near the surface that may provide a potential location for terrestrial salt and cold-loving microorganisms (halophile psychrophilic). Various salts present in the Martian soil may act as an antifreeze and could keep water liquid well below its normal freezing point, if water was present at certain favorable locations. Astrobiologists are keen to find out more, as not much is known about these brines at the moment. The briny water may or may not be habitable to microbes from Earth or Mars. Another researcher argues that although chemically important, thin films of transient liquid water are not likely to provide suitable sites for life. In addition, an astrobiology team asserted that the activity of water on salty films, the temperature, or both are less than the biological thresholds across the entire Martian surface and shallow subsurface.
The damaging effect of ionizing radiation on cellular structure is one of the prime limiting factors on the survival of life in potential astrobiological habitats. Even at a depth of 2 meters beneath the surface, any microbes would probably be dormant, cryopreserved by the current freezing conditions, and so metabolically inactive and unable to repair cellular degradation as it occurs. Also, solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation proved particularly devastating for the survival of cold-resistant microbes under simulated surface conditions on Mars, as UV radiation was readily and easily able to penetrate the salt-organic matrix that the bacterial cells were embedded in. In addition, NASA's Mars Exploration Program states that life on the surface of Mars is unlikely, given the presence of superoxides that break down organic (carbon-based) molecules on which life is based.
In 1965, the Mariner 4 probe discovered that Mars had no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic radiation and solar radiation; observations made in the late 1990s by the Mars Global Surveyor confirmed this discovery. Scientists speculate that the lack of magnetic shielding helped the solar wind blow away much of Mars's atmosphere over the course of several billion years. As a result, the planet has been vulnerable to radiation from space for about 4 billion years. Currently, ionizing radiation on Mars is typically two orders of magnitude (or 100 times) higher than on Earth. Even the hardiest cells known could not possibly survive the cosmic radiation near the surface of Mars for that long. After mapping cosmic radiation levels at various depths on Mars, researchers have concluded that any life within the first several meters of the planet's surface would be killed by lethal doses of cosmic radiation. The team calculated that the cumulative damage to DNA and RNA by cosmic radiation would limit retrieving viable dormant cells on Mars to depths greater than 7.5 metres below the planet's surface.
Even the most radiation-tolerant Earthly bacteria would survive in dormant spore state only 18,000 years at the surface; at 2 meters —the greatest depth at which the ExoMars rover will be capable of reaching— survival time would be 90,000 to half million years, depending on the type of rock.
The Radiation assessment detector (RAD) on board the Curiosity rover is currently quantifying the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and will help determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux, when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms.
Research published in January 2014 of data collected by the RAD instrument, revealed that the actual absorbed dose measured is 76 mGy/year at the surface, and that "ionizing radiation strongly influences chemical compositions and structures, especially for water, salts, and redox-sensitive components such as organic matter." Regardless of the source of Martian organic matter (meteoritic, geological, or biological), its carbon bonds are susceptible to breaking and reconfigurating with surrounding elements by ionizing charged particle radiation. These improved subsurface radiation estimates give insight into the potential for the preservation of possible organic biosignatures as a function of depth as well as survival times of possible microbial or bacterial life forms left dormant beneath the surface. The report concludes that the in situ "surface measurements —and subsurface estimates— constrain the preservation window for Martian organic matter following exhumation and exposure to ionizing radiation in the top few meters of the Martian surface."
After carbon, nitrogen is arguably the most important element needed for life. Thus, measurements of nitrate over the range of 0.1% to 5% are required to address the question of its occurrence and distribution. There is nitrogen (as N2) in the atmosphere at low levels, but this is not adequate to support nitrogen fixation for biological incorporation. Nitrogen in the form of nitrate, if present, could be a resource for human exploration both as a nutrient for plant growth and for use in chemical processes. On Earth, nitrates correlate with perchlorates in desert environments, and this may also be true on Mars. Nitrate is expected to be stable on Mars and to have formed in shock and electrical processes. Currently there is no data on its availability.
Further complicating estimates of the habitability of the Martian surface is the fact that very little is known on the growth of microorganisms at pressures close to the conditions found on the surface of Mars. Some teams determined that some bacteria may be capable of cellular replication down to 25 mbar, but that is still above the atmospheric pressures found on Mars (range 1–14 mbar). In another study, twenty-six strains of bacteria were chosen based on their recovery from spacecraft assembly facilities, and only Serratia liquefaciens strain ATCC 27592 exhibited growth at 7 mbar, 0 °C, and CO2-enriched anoxic atmospheres.
Liquid water, necessary for life as we know it, cannot exist on the surface of Mars except at the lowest elevations for minutes or hours. Liquid water does not appear at the surface itself, but it could form in minuscule amounts around dust particles in snow heated by the Sun. Also, the ancient equatorial ice sheets beneath the ground may slowly sublimate or melt, accessible from the surface via caves.
Water on Mars exists almost exclusively as water ice, located in the Martian polar ice caps and under the shallow Martian surface even at more temperate latitudes. A small amount of water vapor is present in the atmosphere. There are no bodies of liquid water on the Martian surface because its atmospheric pressure at the surface averages 600 pascals (0.087 psi)—about 0.6% of Earth's mean sea level pressure—and because the temperature is far too low, (210 K (−63 °C)) leading to immediate freezing. Despite this, about 3.8 billion years ago, there was a denser atmosphere, higher temperature, and vast amounts of liquid water flowed on the surface, including large oceans. It has been estimated that the primordial oceans on Mars would have covered between 36% and 75% of the planet.
Analysis of Martian sandstones, using data obtained from orbital spectrometry, suggests that the waters that previously existed on the surface of Mars would have had too high a salinity to support most Earth-like life. Tosca et al. found that the Martian water in the locations they studied all had water activity, aw ≤ 0.78 to 0.86—a level fatal to most Terrestrial life. Haloarchaea, however, are able to live in hypersaline solutions, up to the saturation point.
In June 2000, possible evidence for current liquid water flowing at the surface of Mars was discovered in the form of flood-like gullies. Additional similar images were published in 2006, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor, that suggested that water occasionally flows on the surface of Mars. The images did not actually show flowing water. Rather, they showed changes in steep crater walls and sediment deposits, providing the strongest evidence yet that water coursed through them as recently as several years ago.
There is disagreement in the scientific community as to whether or not the recent gully streaks were formed by liquid water. Some suggest the flows were merely dry sand flows. Others suggest it may be liquid brine near the surface, but the exact source of the water and the mechanism behind its motion are not understood.
In May 2007, the Spirit rover disturbed a patch of ground with its inoperative wheel, uncovering an area extremely rich in silica (90%). The feature is reminiscent of the effect of hot spring water or steam coming into contact with volcanic rocks. Scientists consider this as evidence of a past environment that may have been favorable for microbial life, and theorize that one possible origin for the silica may have been produced by the interaction of soil with acid vapors produced by volcanic activity in the presence of water.
Based on Earth analogs, hydrothermal systems on Mars would be highly attractive for their potential for preserving organic and inorganic biosignatures. For this reason, hydrothermal deposits are regarded as important targets in the exploration for fossil evidence of ancient Martian life.
Trace amounts of methane in the atmosphere of Mars were discovered in 2003 and verified in 2004. As methane is an unstable gas, its presence indicates that there must be an active source on the planet in order to keep such levels in the atmosphere. It is estimated that Mars must produce 270 ton/year of methane, but asteroid impacts account for only 0.8% of the total methane production. Although geologic sources of methane such as serpentinization are possible, the lack of current volcanism, hydrothermal activity or hotspots are not favorable for geologic methane. It has been suggested that the methane was produced by chemical reactions in meteorites, driven by the intense heat during entry through the atmosphere. Although research published in December 2009 ruled out this possibility, research published in 2012 suggest that a source may be organic compounds on meteorites that are converted to methane by ultraviolet radiation.
The existence of life in the form of microorganisms such as methanogens is among possible, but as yet unproven sources. If microscopic Martian life is producing the methane, it probably resides far below the surface, where it is still warm enough for liquid water to exist.
Since the 2003 discovery of methane in the atmosphere, some scientists have been designing models and in vitro experiments testing growth of methanogenic bacteria on simulated Martian soil, where all four methanogen strains tested produced substantial levels of methane, even in the presence of 1.0wt% perchlorate salt. The results reported indicate that the perchlorates discovered by the Phoenix Lander would not rule out the possible presence of methanogens on Mars.
In June 2012, scientists reported that measuring the ratio of hydrogen and methane levels on Mars may help determine the likelihood of life on Mars. According to the scientists, "...low H2/CH4 ratios (less than approximately 40) indicate that life is likely present and active." Other scientists have recently reported methods of detecting hydrogen and methane in extraterrestrial atmospheres.
In contrast to the findings described above, studies by Kevin Zahnle, a planetary scientist at NASA's Ames Research Center, and two colleagues, conclude that "there is as yet no compelling evidence for methane on Mars". They argue that the strongest reported observations of the gas to date have been taken at frequencies where interference from methane in Earth's atmosphere is particularly difficult to remove, and are thus unreliable. Additionally, they claim that the published observations most favorable to interpretation as indicative of Martian methane are also consistent with no methane being present on Mars.
The Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars in August 2012, is able to make measurements that distinguish between different isotopologues of methane; but even if the mission is to determine that microscopic Martian life is the seasonal source of the methane, the life forms probably reside far below the surface, outside the rover's reach. The first measurements with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) in the Curiosity rover indicated that there is less than 5 ppb of methane at the landing site at the point of the measurement. On July 19, 2013, NASA scientists published the results of a new analysis of the atmosphere of Mars, reporting a lack of methane around the landing site of the Curiosity rover. On September 19, 2013, NASA again reported no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18±0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence limit) and, as a result, conclude that the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars is reduced.
India's Mars Orbiter Mission, launched on November 5, 2013, will search for methane in the atmosphere of Mars using its Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM). The orbiter is scheduled to arrive at Mars on September 24, 2014. The Mars Trace Gas Mission orbiter planned to launch in 2016 would further study the methane, if present, as well as its decomposition products such as formaldehyde and methanol.
In February 2005, it was announced that the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter had detected traces of formaldehyde in the atmosphere of Mars. Vittorio Formisano, the director of the PFS, has speculated that the formaldehyde could be the byproduct of the oxidation of methane and, according to him, would provide evidence that Mars is either extremely geologically active or harbouring colonies of microbial life. NASA scientists consider the preliminary findings well worth a follow-up, but have also rejected the claims of life.
Viking lander biological experiments
The 1970s Viking program placed two identical landers on the surface of Mars and tasked to look for biosignatures of microbial life on the surface. Of the four experiment performed by each Viking lander, only the 'Labeled Release' (LR) experiment gave a positive result for metabolism, while the other three did not detect organic compounds. The LR was a specific experiment designed to test only a narrowly defined critical aspect of the theory concerning the possibility of life on Mars, therefore the overall results were declared, officially, inconclusive. Further, no Mars lander mission has found traces of biomolecules or biosignatures. The claim of extant microbial life on Mars, is based on old data collected by the Viking landers, currently reinterpreted as sufficient evidence of life, mainly by Gilbert Levin, Joseph D. Miller, Navarro, Giorgio Bianciardi and Patricia Ann Straat, that the Viking LR experiments did, indeed, detect extant microbial life on Mars.
Relatively recent assessments published in December 2010 by Rafael Navarro–Gonzáles, indicate that organic compounds "could have been present" in the soil analyzed by both Viking 1 and 2. The study determined that perchlorate —discovered in 2008 by Phoenix lander— can destroy organic compounds when heated, and produce chloromethane and dichloromethane as byproduct, the identical chlorine compounds discovered by both Viking landers when they performed the same tests on Mars. Because perchlorate would have broken down any Martian organics, the question of whether or not Viking found organic compounds is still wide open.
The Labeled Release evidence was not generally accepted initially, and, to this day, while gaining credence, lacks the consensus of the scientific community.
In 2006, Mario Crocco, a neurobiologist at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital Borda in Buenos Aires, Argentina, proposed the creation of a new nomenclatural rank that classified the Viking landers' results as 'metabolic' and therefore belonging to a form of life. Crocco proposed to create new biological ranking categories (taxa), in the new kingdom system of life, in order to be able to accommodate the genus of Martian microorganisms. Crocco proposed the following taxonomical entry:
- Organic life system: Solaria
- Biosphere: Marciana
- Kingdom: Jakobia (named after neurobiologist Christfried Jakob)
- Genus and species: Gillevinia straata
As a result, the hypothetical Gillevinia straata would not be a bacterium (which rather is a terrestrial taxon), but a member of the kingdom 'Jakobia' in the biosphere 'Marciana' of the 'Solaria' system. However, some consider Crocco's taxonomy a single nomen nudum.
NASA maintains a catalog of 34 Mars meteorites. These assets are highly valuable since they are the only physical samples available of Mars. Studies conducted by NASA's Johnson Space Center show that at least three of the meteorites contain potential evidence of past life on Mars, in the form of microscopic structures resembling fossilized bacteria (so-called biomorphs). Although the scientific evidence collected is reliable, its interpretation varies. To date, none of the original lines of scientific evidence for the hypothesis that the biomorphs are of exobiological origin (the so-called biogenic hypothesis) have been either discredited or positively ascribed to non-biological explanations.
Over the past few decades, seven criteria have been established for the recognition of past life within terrestrial geologic samples. Those criteria are:
- Is the geologic context of the sample compatible with past life?
- Is the age of the sample and its stratigraphic location compatible with possible life?
- Does the sample contain evidence of cellular morphology and colonies?
- Is there any evidence of biominerals showing chemical or mineral disequilibria?
- Is there any evidence of stable isotope patterns unique to biology?
- Are there any organic biomarkers present?
- Are the features indigenous to the sample?
For general acceptance of past life in a geologic sample, essentially most or all of these criteria must be met. All seven criteria have not yet been met for any of the Martian samples, but continued investigations are in progress.
As of 2010, reexaminations of the biomorphs found in the three Martian meteorites are underway with more advanced analytical instruments than previously available.
The ALH84001 meteorite was found in December 1984 in Antarctica, by members of the ANSMET project; the meteorite weighs 1.93 kilograms (4.3 lb). The sample was ejected from Mars about 17 million years ago and spent 11,000 years in or on the Antarctic ice sheets. Composition analysis by NASA revealed a kind of magnetite that on Earth, is only found in association with certain microorganisms. Then, in August 2002, another NASA team led by Thomas-Keptra published a study indicating that 25% of the magnetite in ALH 84001 occurs as small, uniform-sized crystals that, on Earth, is associated only with biologic activity, and that the remainder of the material appears to be normal inorganic magnetite. The extraction technique did not permit determination as to whether the possibly biological magnetite was organized into chains as would be expected. The meteorite displays indication of relatively low temperature secondary mineralization by water and shows evidence of preterrestrial aqueous alteration.[clarification needed] Evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been identified with the levels increasing away from the surface.
Some structures resembling the mineralized casts of terrestrial bacteria and their appendages (fibrils) or by-products (extracellular polymeric substances) occur in the rims of carbonate globules and preterrestrial aqueous alteration regions. The size and shape of the objects is consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria, but the existence of nanobacteria itself is controversial.
In 1998, a team from NASA's Johnson Space Center obtained a small sample for analysis. Researchers found preterrestrial aqueous alteration phases and objects of the size and shape consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria. Analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studied its high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2000, and NASA scientists concluded that as much as 75% of the organic matter in Nakhla "may not be recent terrestrial contamination".
This caused additional interest in this meteorite, so in 2006, NASA managed to obtain an additional and larger sample from the London Natural History Museum. On this second sample, a large dendritic carbon content was observed. When the results and evidence were published on 2006, some independent researchers claimed that the carbon deposits are of biologic origin. However, it was remarked that since carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the Universe, finding it in curious patterns is not indicative or suggestive of biological origin.
The Shergotty meteorite, a 4 kg Martian meteorite, fell on Earth on Shergotty, India on August 25, 1865 and was retrieved by witnesses almost immediately. This meteorite is relatively young, calculated to have been formed on Mars only 165 million years ago from volcanic origin. It is composed mostly of pyroxene and thought to have undergone preterrestrial aqueous alteration for several centuries. Certain features in its interior suggest remnants of a biofilm and its associated microbial communities. Work is in progress on searching for magnetites within alteration phases.
Yamato 000593 is the second largest meteorite from Mars found on Earth. Studies suggest the Martian meteorite was formed about 1.3 billion years ago from a lava flow on Mars. An impact occurred on Mars about 12 million years ago and ejected the meteorite from the Martian surface into space. The meteorite landed on Earth in Antarctica about 50,000 years ago. The mass of the meteorite is 13.7 kg (30 lb) and has been found to contain evidence of past water movement. At a microscopic level, spheres are found in the meteorite that are rich in carbon compared to surrounding areas that lack such spheres. The carbon-rich spheres may have been formed by biotic activity according to NASA scientists.
Geysers on Mars
The seasonal frosting and defrosting of the southern ice cap results in the formation of spider-like radial channels carved on 1 meter thick ice by sunlight. Then, sublimed CO2 – and probably water –increase pressure in their interior producing geyser-like eruptions of cold fluids often mixed with dark basaltic sand or mud. This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a growth rate rather unusual in geology – especially for Mars.
A team of Hungarian scientists proposes that the geysers' most visible features, dark dune spots and spider channels, may be colonies of photosynthetic Martian microorganisms, which over-winter beneath the ice cap, and as the sunlight returns to the pole during early spring, light penetrates the ice, the microorganisms photosynthesize and heat their immediate surroundings. A pocket of liquid water, which would normally evaporate instantly in the thin Martian atmosphere, is trapped around them by the overlying ice. As this ice layer thins, the microorganisms show through grey. When the layer has completely melted, the microorganisms rapidly desiccate and turn black, surrounded by a grey aureole. The Hungarian scientists believe that even a complex sublimation process is insufficient to explain the formation and evolution of the dark dune spots in space and time. Since their discovery, fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke promoted these formations as deserving of study from an astrobiological perspective.
A multinational European team suggests that if liquid water is present in the spiders' channels during their annual defrost cycle, they might provide a niche where certain microscopic life forms could have retreated and adapted while sheltered from solar radiation. A British team also considers the possibility that organic matter, microbes, or even simple plants might co-exist with these inorganic formations, especially if the mechanism includes liquid water and a geothermal energy source. However, they also remark that the majority of geological structures may be accounted for without invoking any organic "life on Mars" hypothesis. It has been proposed to develop the Mars Geyser Hopper lander to study the geysers up close.
Planetary protection of Mars aims to prevent biological contamination of the planet. A major goal is to preserve the planetary record of natural processes by preventing human-caused microbial introductions, also called forward contamination. There is abundant evidence as to what can happen when organisms from regions on Earth that have been isolated from one another for significant periods of time are introduced into each other's environment. Species that are constrained in one environment can thrive – often out of control – in another environment much to the detriment of the original species that were present. In some ways this problem could be compounded if life forms from one planet were introduced into the totally alien ecology of another world.
The prime concern of hardware contaminating Mars, derives from incomplete spacecraft sterilization of some hardy terrestrial bacteria (extremophiles) despite best efforts. Hardware includes landers, crashed probes, end of mission disposal of hardware, and hard landing of entry, descent, and landing systems. This has prompted research on radiation-resistant microorganisms including Brevundimonas, Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas genera and Deinococcus radiodurans survival rates under simulated Martian conditions. Results from one of these experimental irradiation experiments, combined with previous radiation modeling, indicate that Brevundimonas sp. MV.7 emplaced only 30 cm deep in Martian dust could survive the cosmic radiation for up to 100,000 years before suffering 10⁶ population reduction. Surprisingly, the diurnal Mars-like cycles in temperature and relative humidity affected the viability of Deinococcus radiodurans cells quite severely. In other simulations, Deinococcus radiodurans also failed to grow under low atmospheric pressure, under 0 °C, or in the absence of oxygen.
Life under simulated Martian conditions
On 26 April 2012, scientists reported that an extremophile lichen survived and showed remarkable results on the adaptation capacity of photosynthetic activity within the simulation time of 34 days under Martian conditions in the Mars Simulation Laboratory (MSL) maintained by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). However, the ability to survive in an environment is not the same as the ability to thrive, reproduce, and evolve in that same environment, necessitating further study.
Mars-1 was the first spacecraft launched to Mars in 1962, but communication was lost while en route to Mars. With Mars-2 and Mars-3 in 1971-1972, information was obtained on the nature of the surface rocks and altitude profiles of the surface density of the soil, its thermal conductivity, and thermal anomalies detected on the surface of Mars. The Program found that its northern polar cap has a temperature below -110 °C and that the water vapor content in the atmosphere of Mars is five thousand times less than on Earth. No signs of life were found.
Mariner 4 probe performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface in 1965. The photographs showed an arid Mars without rivers, oceans, or any signs of life. Further, it revealed that the surface (at least the parts that it photographed) was covered in craters, indicating a lack of plate tectonics and weathering of any kind for the last 4 billion years. The probe also found that Mars has no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic rays. The probe was able to calculate the atmospheric pressure on the planet to be about 0.6 kPa (compared to Earth's 101.3 kPa), meaning that liquid water could not exist on the planet's surface. After Mariner 4, the search for life on Mars changed to a search for bacteria-like living organisms rather than for multicellular organisms, as the environment was clearly too harsh for these.
Liquid water is necessary for known life and metabolism, so if water was present on Mars, the chances of it having supported life may have been determinant. The Viking orbiters found evidence of possible river valleys in many areas, erosion and, in the southern hemisphere, branched streams.
The primary mission of the Viking probes of the mid-1970s was to carry out experiments designed to detect microorganisms in Martian soil because the favorable conditions for the evolution of multicellular organisms ceased some four billion years ago on Mars. The tests were formulated to look for microbial life similar to that found on Earth. Of the four experiments, only the Labeled Release (LR) experiment returned a positive result,[dubious ] showing increased 14CO2 production on first exposure of soil to water and nutrients. All scientists agree on two points from the Viking missions: that radiolabeled 14CO2 was evolved in the Labeled Release experiment, and that the GCMS detected no organic molecules. However, there are vastly different interpretations of what those results imply.
A 2011 astrobiology textbook notes that the GCMS was the decisive factor due to which "For most of the Viking scientists, the final conclusion was that the Viking missions failed to detect life in the Martian soil."
One of the designers of the Labeled Release experiment, Gilbert Levin, believes his results are a definitive diagnostic for life on Mars. Levin's interpretation is disputed by many scientists. A 2006 astrobiology textbook noted that "With unsterilized Terrestrial samples, though, the addition of more nutrients after the initial incubation would then produce still more radioactive gas as the dormant bacteria sprang into action to consume the new dose of food. This was not true of the Martian soil; on Mars, the second and third nutrient injections did not produce any further release of labeled gas." Other scientists argue that superoxides in the soil could have produced this effect without life being present. An almost general consensus discarded the Labeled Release data as evidence of life, because the gas chromatograph & mass spectrometer, designed to identify natural organic matter, did not detect organic molecules. The results of the Viking mission concerning life are considered by the general expert community, at best, as inconclusive.
In 2007, during a Seminar of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution (Washington, D.C., USA), Gilbert Levin's investigation was assessed once more. Levin still maintains that his original data were correct, as the positive and negative control experiments were in order. Moreover, Levin's team, on 12 April 2012, reported a statistical speculation, based on old data —reinterpreted mathematically through cluster analysis— of the Labeled Release experiments, that may suggest evidence of "extant microbial life on Mars." Critics counter that the method has not yet been proven effective for differentiating between biological and non-biological processes on Earth so it is premature to draw any conclusions.
A research team from the National Autonomous University of Mexico headed by Rafael Navarro-González, concluded that the GCMS equipment (TV-GC-MS) used by the Viking program to search for organic molecules, may not be sensitive enough to detect low levels of organics. Klaus Biemann, the principal investigator of the GCMS experiment on Viking wrote a rebuttal. Because of the simplicity of sample handling, TV–GC–MS is still considered the standard method for organic detection on future Mars missions, so Navarro-González suggests that the design of future organic instruments for Mars should include other methods of detection.
After the discovery of perchlorates on Mars by the Phoenix lander, practically the same team of Navarro-González published a paper arguing that the Viking GCMS results were compromised by presence of perchlorates. A 2011 astrobiology textbook notes that "while perchlorate is too poor an oxidizer to reproduce the LR results (under the conditions of that experiment perchlorate does not oxidize organics), it does oxidize, and thus destroy, organics at the higher temperatures used in the Viking GCMS experiment." Biemann has written a commentary critical of this Navarro-González paper as well, to which the latter have replied; the exchange was published in December 2011.
Phoenix lander, 2008
The Phoenix mission landed a robotic spacecraft in the polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008 and it operated until November 10, 2008. One of the mission's two primary objectives was to search for a "habitable zone" in the Martian regolith where microbial life could exist, the other main goal being to study the geological history of water on Mars. The lander has a 2.5 meter robotic arm that was capable of digging shallow trenches in the regolith. There was an electrochemistry experiment which analysed the ions in the regolith and the amount and type of antioxidants on Mars. The Viking program data indicate that oxidants on Mars may vary with latitude, noting that Viking 2 saw fewer oxidants than Viking 1 in its more northerly position. Phoenix landed further north still. Phoenix's preliminary data revealed that Mars soil contains perchlorate, and thus may not be as life-friendly as thought earlier. The pH and salinity level were viewed as benign from the standpoint of biology. The analysers also indicated the presence of bound water and CO2.
Mars Science Laboratory
The Mars Science Laboratory mission is a NASA project that launched on November 26, 2011 the Curiosity rover, a nuclear-powered robotic vehicle, bearing instruments designed to assess past and present habitability conditions on Mars. The Curiosity rover landed on Mars on Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater, near Aeolis Mons (a.k.a. Mount Sharp), on August 6, 2012.
- ExoMars is a European-led multi-spacecraft programme currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Federal Space Agency for launch in 2016 and 2018. Its primary scientific mission will be to search for possible biosignatures on Mars, past or present. A rover with a 2 metres (6.6 ft) core drill will be used to sample various depths beneath the surface where liquid water may be found and where microorganisms might survive cosmic radiation.
- Mars 2020 rover mission – The Mars 2020 rover mission is a Mars planetary rovermission concept under study by NASA with a possible launch in 2020. It is intended to investigate an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars, investigate its surface geological processes and history, including the assessment of its past habitability and potential for preservation of biosignatures within accessible geological materials.
- Mars Sample Return Mission — The best life detection experiment proposed is the examination on Earth of a soil sample from Mars. However, the difficulty of providing and maintaining life support over the months of transit from Mars to Earth remains to be solved. Providing for still unknown environmental and nutritional requirements is daunting. Should dead organisms be found in a sample, it would be difficult to conclude that those organisms were alive when obtained.
- Mumma, Michael J. (January 8, 2012). "The Search for Life on Mars". Origin of Life Gordon Research Conference. Galveston, TX.
- McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R. (1989). "The early environment and its evolution on Mars: Implication for life". Reviews of Geophysics 27 (2): 189–214. Bibcode:1989RvGeo..27..189M. doi:10.1029/RG027i002p00189.
- Gaidos, Eric; Selsis, Franck (2007). "From Protoplanets to Protolife: The Emergence and Maintenance of Life". Protostars and Planets V: 929–44. arXiv:astro-ph/0602008. Bibcode:2007prpl.conf..929G.
- Grotzinger, John P. (January 24, 2014). "Introduction to Special Issue - Habitability, Taphonomy, and the Search for Organic Carbon on Mars". Science 343 (6169): 386–387. Bibcode:2014Sci...343..386G. doi:10.1126/science.1249944.
- Various (January 24, 2014). "Special Issue - Table of Contents - Exploring Martian Habitability". Science 343 (6169): 345–452.
- Various (January 24, 2014). "Special Collection - Curiosity - Exploring Martian Habitability". Science.
- Grotzinger, J. P.; Sumner, D. Y.; Kah, L. C.; Stack, K.; Gupta, S.; Edgar, L.; Rubin, D.; Lewis, K.; Schieber, J. et al. (January 24, 2014). "A Habitable Fluvio-Lacustrine Environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars". Science 343 (6169, number 6169): 1242777. doi:10.1126/science.1242777.
- Wallace, Alfred Russel (1907). Is Mars habitable?: A critical examination of Professor Percival Lowell's book 'Mars and its canals,' with an alternative explanation. London: Macmillan. OCLC 263175453.[page needed]
- Chambers, Paul (1999). Life on Mars; The Complete Story. London: Blandford. ISBN 0-7137-2747-0.[page needed]
- Conrad, P. G.; Archer, D.; Coll, P.; De La Torre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Fisk, M.; Freissenet, C.; Franz, H. et al. (2013). "Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results". 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 1719: 2185. Bibcode:2013LPICo1719.2185C.
- Schuerger, Andrew C.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, Doug W. (2012). "Biotoxicity of Mars soils: 1. Dry deposition of analog soils on microbial colonies and survival under Martian conditions". Planetary and Space Science 72 (1): 91–101. Bibcode:2012P&SS...72...91S. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.07.026.
- MEPAG Special Regions-Science Analysis Group; Beaty, D.; Buxbaum, K.; Meyer, M.; Barlow, N.; Boynton, W.; Clark, B.; Deming, J.; Doran, P. T. et al. (2006). "Findings of the Mars Special Regions Science Analysis Group". Astrobiology 6 (5): 677–732. Bibcode:2006AsBio...6..677M. doi:10.1089/ast.2006.6.677. PMID 17067257.
- Q. Choi,, Charles (May 17, 2010). "Mars Contamination Dust-Up". Astrobiology Magazine. "Whenever multiple biocidal factors are combined, the survival rates plummet quickly,"
- Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frederic; Bost, Nicolas; Betrand, Marylene; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard (2013). "Habitability on Mars from a Microbial Point of View". Astrobiology 13 (18): 887. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13..887W. doi:10.1089/ast.2013.1000.
- Summons, Roger E.; Amend, Jan P.; Bish, David; Buick, Roger; Cody, George D.; Des Marais, David J.; Dromart, Gilles; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L. et al. (2011). "Preservation of Martian Organic and Environmental Records: Final Report of the Mars Biosignature Working Group". Astrobiology 11 (2): 157–81. Bibcode:2011AsBio..11..157S. doi:10.1089/ast.2010.0506. PMID 21417945. "There is general consensus that extant microbial life on Mars would probably exist (if at all) in the subsurface and at low abundance."
- Dehant, V.; Lammer, H.; Kulikov, Y. N.; Grießmeier, J. -M.; Breuer, D.; Verhoeven, O.; Karatekin, Ö.; Hoolst, T. et al. (2007). "Planetary Magnetic Dynamo Effect on Atmospheric Protection of Early Earth and Mars". Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets. Space Sciences Series of ISSI 24. pp. 279–300. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74288-5_10. ISBN 978-0-387-74287-8.
- "NASA Rover Finds Conditions Once Suited for Ancient Life on Mars". NASA. March 12, 2013.
- Chang, Kenneth (December 9, 2013). "On Mars, an Ancient Lake and Perhaps Life". New York Times.
- Various (December 9, 2013). "Science - Special Collection - Curiosity Rover on Mars". Science.
- Neal-Jones,, Nancy; O'Carroll, Cynthia (October 12, 2005). "New Map Provides More Evidence Mars Once Like Earth". Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA.
- "Martian Interior: Paleomagnetism". Mars Express. European Space Agency. January 4, 2007.
- Wall, Mike (March 25, 2011). "Q & A with Mars Life-Seeker Chris Carr". Space.com.
- "Ames Instrument Helps Identify the First Habitable Environment on Mars, Wins Invention Award". Ames Research Center (Space Ref). June 24, 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- Than, Ker (January 29, 2007). "Study: Surface of Mars Devoid of Life". Space.com. "After mapping cosmic radiation levels at various depths on Mars, researchers have concluded that any life within the first several yards of the planet's surface would be killed by lethal doses of cosmic radiation."
- Dartnell, L. R.; Desorgher, L.; Ward, J. M.; Coates, A. J. (2007). "Modelling the surface and subsurface Martian radiation environment: Implications for astrobiology". Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2): L02207. Bibcode:2007GeoRL..34.2207D. doi:10.1029/2006GL027494. "Bacteria or spores held dormant by freezing conditions cannot metabolise and become inactivated by accumulating radiation damage. We find that at 2 m depth, the reach of the ExoMars drill, a population of radioresistant cells would need to have reanimated within the last 450,000 years to still be viable. Recovery of viable cells cryopreserved within the putative Cerberus pack-ice requires a drill depth of at least 7.5 m."
- Lovet, Richard A. (February 2, 2007). "Mars Life May Be Too Deep to Find, Experts Conclude". National Geographic News.
- Dartnell, L. R.; Desorgher, L.; Ward, J. M.; Coates, A. J. (2007). "Modelling the surface and subsurface Martian radiation environment: Implications for astrobiology". Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2). Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3402207D. doi:10.1029/2006GL027494. "The damaging effect of ionising radiation on cellular structure is one of the prime limiting factors on the survival of life in potential astrobiological habitats."
- Dartnell, L. R.; Desorgher, L.; Ward, J. M.; Coates, A. J. (2007). "Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology". Biogeosciences 4 (4): 545–558. Bibcode:2007BGeo....4..545D. doi:10.5194/bg-4-545-2007. "This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation. [..] Even at a depth of 2 meters beneath the surface, any microbes would probably be dormant, cryopreserved by the current freezing conditions, and so metabolically inactive and unable to repair cellular degradation as it occurs."
- "Scientists find evidence Mars subsurface could hold life". Digital Journal – Science. January 21, 2013. "There can be no life on the surface of Mars because it is bathed in radiation and it's completely frozen. However, life in the subsurface would be protected from that. - Prof. Parnell."
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Gronstal, Aaron (May 15, 2014). "Destroying Glycine in Ice". NASA Astrobiology. Retrieved 2014-08-13. "To date, we have not left the top-most surface of Mars, and the radiation environment there (as recently determined by Curiosity) is so high that any biological organisms would not survive without protection."
- Steigerwald, Bill (January 15, 2009). "Martian Methane Reveals the Red Planet is not a Dead Planet". NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA). Archived from the original on 2009-01-16. "If microscopic Martian life is producing the methane, it probably resides far below the surface, where it's still warm enough for liquid water to exist"
- "Mars Rovers Sharpen Questions About Livable Conditions". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-02-18.
- "Mars: 'Strongest evidence' planet may have supported life, scientists say". BBC News. January 20, 2013.
- Michalski, Joseph R.; Cuadros, Javier; Niles, Paul B.; Parnell, John; Deanne Rogers, A.; Wright, Shawn P. (2013). "Groundwater activity on Mars and implications for a deep biosphere". Nature Geoscience 6 (2): 133–8. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..133M. doi:10.1038/ngeo1706.
- De Morais, A. (2012). "A Possible Biogeochemical Model for Mars". 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 43: 2943. Bibcode:2012LPI....43.2943D. "The extensive volcanism at that time much possibly created subsurface cracks and caves within different strata, and the liquid water could have been stored in these subterraneous places, forming large aquifers with deposits of saline liquid water, minerals organic molecules, and geothermal heat – ingredients for life as we know on Earth."
- Anderson, Paul S. (December 15, 2011). "New Study Says Large Regions of Mars Could Sustain Life". Universe Today. "Most scientists would agree that the best place that any organisms could hope to survive and flourish would be underground."
- "Habitability and Biology: What are the Properties of Life?". Phoenix Mars Mission. The University of Arizona. Retrieved 2013-06-06. "If any life exists on Mars today, scientists believe it is most likely to be in pockets of liquid water beneath the Martian surface."
- Hecht, Michael H.; Vasavada, Ashwin R. (2006). "Transient liquid water near an artificial heat source on Mars". International Journal of Mars Science and Exploration 2: 83–96. Bibcode:2006IJMSE...2...83H. doi:10.1555/mars.2006.0006. "In summary, on present-day Mars, liquid water is unlikely except as the result of a quick and dramatic change in environmental conditions such as from a landslide that exposes buried ice to sunlight (Costard et al. 2002), or from the introduction of an artificial heat source."
- Haberle, Robert M.; McKay, Christopher P.; Schaeffer, James; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmon A.; Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard (2001). "On the possibility of liquid water on present-day Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 106 (El0): 23317–26. Bibcode:2001JGR...10623317H. doi:10.1029/2000JE001360. "Introduction: The mean annual surface pressure and temperature on present-day Mars do not allow for the stability of liquid water on the surface. […] Conclusion: It is possible, even likely, that solar-heated liquid water never forms on present-day Mars."
- "Conference: The Present-Day Habitability of Mars 2013" (PDF). The UCLA Institute for Planets and Exoplanets. February 4–6, 2013.
- "Liquid Water From Ice and Salt on Mars". Geophysical Research Letters (NASA Astrobiology). July 3, 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
- Jones, E. G.; Lineweaver, C. H. (2012). "Using the phase diagram of liquid water to search for life". Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 59 (2): 253–62. Bibcode:2012AuJES..59..253J. doi:10.1080/08120099.2011.591430.
- Lobitz, B.; Wood, BL; Averner, MM; McKay, CP (2001). "Use of spacecraft data to derive regions on Mars where liquid water would be stable". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 (5): 2132–2137. Bibcode:2001PNAS...98.2132L. doi:10.1073/pnas.031581098. PMC 30104. PMID 11226204. "These results do not indicate that water is present at these locations, only that, if it were present and heat sources were sufficient to bring the water in thermal equilibrium with the surface, the resulting liquid would be stable against freezing or boiling."
- Parro, Victor; de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Blanco, Yolanda; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gómez, Felipe; Gómez, Manuel J. et al. (December 2011). "A Microbial Oasis in the Hypersaline Atacama Subsurface Discovered by a Life Detector Chip: Implications for the Search for Life on Mars" (PDF). Astrobiology 11 (10): 969–996. Bibcode:2011AsBio..11..969P. doi:10.1089/ast.2011.0654. PMID 22149750.
- Pyle, Rod (February 25, 2013). "Mars May Be Habitable Today, Scientists Say". space.com.
- Dartnell, Lewis R.; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Griffiths, Andrew. D.; Coates, Andrew J.; Ward, John M. (March 7–11, 2011). "Implications of cosmic radiation on the Martian surface for microbial survival and detection of fluorescent biosignatures" (PDF). "42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference". The Woodlands, Texas: Lunar and Planetary Institute.
- Hsu, Jeremy (June 1, 2009). "Scarce Shelter on Mars". Astrobiology Magazine.
- "Goal 1: Determine if Life Ever Arose On Mars". NASA. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T. (1997). "Mars: Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere". In Shirley, J. H.; Fainbridge, R. W. Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences. New York: Chapman and Hall. pp. 454–6.
- Phillips, Tony (January 31, 2001). "The Solar Wind at Mars". NASA.
- "What makes Mars so hostile to life?". BBC News. January 7, 2013.
- Keating, A.; Goncalves, P. (November 2012). "The impact of Mars geological evolution in high energy ionizing radiation environment through time". Planetary and Space Science – Eslevier 72 (1): 70–77. Bibcode:2012P&SS...72...70K. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.04.009.
- Dartnell, Lewis R.; Storrie-Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Griffiths, Andrew. D.; Coates, Andrew J.; Ward, John M. (2011). "Implications of Cosmic Radiation on the Martian Surface for Microbial Survival and Detection of Fluorescent Biosignatures" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Institute.
- Lovet, Richard A. (February 2, 2007). "Mars Life May Be Too Deep to Find, Experts Conclude". National Geographic News. "That's because any bacteria that may once have lived on the surface have long since been exterminated by cosmic radiation sleeting through the thin Martian atmosphere."
- Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Martin, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Koehler, Jan; Guo, Jingnan et al. (2013). "The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL's Cruise to Mars". EGU General Assembly 2013 15: 12596. Bibcode:2013EGUGA..1512596H.
- Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, C et al. (January 24, 2014). "Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars ScienceLaboratory's Curiosity Rover" (PDF). Science 343 (6169): 1244797. doi:10.1126/science.1244797. PMID 24324275.
- McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Glass, Brian J.; Davé, Arwen I.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Marinova, Margarita M.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Quinn, Richard C. et al. (April 5, 2013). "The Icebreaker Life Mission to Mars: A Search for Biomolecular Evidence for Life". Astrobiology 13 (4): 334–353. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13..334M. doi:10.1089/ast.2012.0878. PMID 23560417.
- Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ulrich, Richard; Berry, Bonnie J.; Nicholson, Wayne L. (February 2013). "Growth of Serratia liquefaciens under 7 mbar, 0°C, and CO2-Enriched Anoxic Atmospheres". Astrobiology 13 (2): 115–131. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13..115S. doi:10.1089/ast.2011.0811. PMC 3582281. PMID 23289858.
- Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Toon, Owen B.; Pollard, Wayne H.; Mellon, Michael T.; Pitlick, John; McKay, Christopher P.; Andersen, Dale T. (2005). "Formation of Martian gullies by the action of liquid water flowing under current Martian environmental conditions". Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (E5): E05004. Bibcode:2005JGRE..11005004H. doi:10.1029/2004JE002261.
- Kostama, V.-P.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W. (2006). "Recent high-latitude icy mantle in the northern plains of Mars: Characteristics and ages of emplacement". Geophysical Research Letters 33 (11): 11201. Bibcode:2006GeoRL..3311201K. doi:10.1029/2006GL025946.
- Hecht, Michael H.; Vasavada, Ashwin R. (2006). "Transient liquid water near an artificial heat source on Mars". International Journal of Mars Science and Exploration 2: 83. Bibcode:2006IJMSE...2...83H. doi:10.1555/mars.2006.0006.
- Shiga, David (December 7, 2009). "Watery niche may foster life on Mars". New Scientist.
- Vieru, Tudor (December 7, 2009). "Greenhouse Effect on Mars May Be Allowing for Life". Softpedia.[unreliable source?]
- Mellon, Michael T. (May 10, 2011). "Subsurface Ice at Mars: A review of ice and water in the equatorial regions" (PDF). Planetary Protection Subcommittee Meeting. University of Colorado.
- Britt, Robert Roy (February 22, 2005). "Ice Packs and Methane on Mars Suggest Present Life Possible". space.com.
- Mellon, Michael T.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Postawko, Susan E. (1997). "The persistence of equatorial ground ice on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 19357–69. Bibcode:1997JGR...10219357M. doi:10.1029/97JE01346.
- Arfstrom, J. D. (2012). "A Conceptual Model of Equatorial Ice Sheets on Mars". Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets 1675: 8001. Bibcode:2012LPICo1675.8001A.
- "Mars Odyssey: Newsroom". Mars.jpl.nasa.gov. May 28, 2002.
- Feldman, W. C. (2004). "Global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research 109. Bibcode:2004JGRE..10909006F. doi:10.1029/2003JE002160.
- "Mars Global Surveyor Measures Water Clouds". Retrieved 2009-03-07.
- Baker, V. R.; Strom, R. G.; Gulick, V. C.; Kargel, J. S.; Komatsu, G.; Kale, V. S. (1991). "Ancient oceans, ice sheets and the hydrological cycle on Mars". Nature 352 (6336): 589. Bibcode:1991Natur.352..589B. doi:10.1038/352589a0.
- "Flashback: Water on Mars Announced 10 Years Ago". SPACE.com. June 22, 2000.
- "The Case of the Missing Mars Water". Science@NASA. Retrieved 2009-03-07.
- "Mars Rover Opportunity Examines Clay Clues in Rock". NASA (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). May 17, 2013.
- "NASA Rover Helps Reveal Possible Secrets of Martian Life". NASA. November 29, 2005.
- ISBN 0-312-24551-3[page needed][full citation needed]
- "PSRD: Ancient Floodwaters and Seas on Mars". Psrd.hawaii.edu. July 16, 2003.
- "Gamma-Ray Evidence Suggests Ancient Mars Had Oceans". SpaceRef. November 17, 2008.
- Carr, Michael H.; Head, James W. (2003). "Oceans on Mars: An assessment of the observational evidence and possible fate". Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets) 108: 5042. Bibcode:2003JGRE..108.5042C. doi:10.1029/2002JE001963.
- Harwood, William (January 25, 2013). "Opportunity rover moves into 10th year of Mars operations". Space Flight Now.
- Di Achille, Gaetano; Hynek, Brian M. (2010). "Ancient ocean on Mars supported by global distribution of deltas and valleys". Nature Geoscience 3 (7): 459–63. Bibcode:2010NatGe...3..459D. doi:10.1038/ngeo891. Lay summary – ScienceDaily (June 14, 2010).
- Smith, D. E.; Sjogren, W. L.; Tyler, G. L.; Balmino, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Konopliv, A. S. (1999). "The gravity field of Mars: Results from Mars Global Surveyor". Science 286 (5437): 94–7. Bibcode:1999Sci...286...94S. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.94. PMID 10506567.
- Tosca, Nicholas J.; Knoll, Andrew H.; McLennan, Scott M. (2008). "Water Activity and the Challenge for Life on Early Mars". Science 320 (5880): 1204–7. Bibcode:2008Sci...320.1204T. doi:10.1126/science.1155432. PMID 18511686.
- DasSarma, Shiladitya (2006). "Extreme Halophiles Are Models for Astrobiology". Microbe 1 (3): 120–6.
- Malin, Michael C.; Edgett, Kenneth S. (2000). "Evidence for Recent Groundwater Seepage and Surface Runoff on Mars". Science 288 (5475): 2330–5. Bibcode:2000Sci...288.2330M. doi:10.1126/science.288.5475.2330. PMID 10875910.
- Martínez, G. M.; Renno, N. O.; Elliott, H. M.; Fischer, E. (2013). "Present Day Liquid Water On Mars: Theoretical Expectations, Observational Evidence And Preferred Locations" (PDF). The Present-day Mars Habitability Conference. Los Angeles.
- Kolb, K.; Pelletier, Jon D.; McEwen, Alfred S. (2010). "Modeling the formation of bright slope deposits associated with gullies in Hale Crater, Mars: Implications for recent liquid water". Icarus 205: 113–137. Bibcode:2010Icar..205..113K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.09.009.
- "Icarus - Vol 218, Iss 1, In Progress, (March, 2012)". ScienceDirect.com. June 8, 2004.[page needed]
- "Press Release". University of Arizona. March 16, 2006.
- Kerr, Richard (December 8, 2006). "Mars Orbiter's Swan Song: The Red Planet Is A-Changin'". Science 314 (5805): 1528–1529. doi:10.1126/science.314.5805.1528. PMID 17158298.
- "NASA Finds Possible Signs of Flowing Water on Mars". voanews.com.
- Source: Ames Research Center Posted Saturday, June 6, 2009 (June 6, 2009). "NASA Scientists Find Evidence for Liquid Water on a Frozen Early Mars". SpaceRef.
- "Dead Spacecraft on Mars Lives on in New Study". SPACE.com. June 10, 2008.
- McEwen, Alfred S.; Ojha, Lujendra; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Byrne, Shane; Wray, James J.; Cull, Selby C.; Murchie, Scott L. et al. (2011). "Seasonal Flows on Warm Martian Slopes". Science 333 (6043): 740–3. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..740M. doi:10.1126/science.1204816. PMID 21817049.
- "Mars Rover Spirit Unearths Surprise Evidence of Wetter Past" (Press release). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. May 21, 2007.
- "Mars Rover Investigates Signs of Steamy Martian Past" (Press release). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. December 10, 2007.
- Leveille, R. J. (2010). "Mineralized iron oxidizing bacteria from hydrothermal vents: Targeting biosignatures on Mars". American Geophysical Union 12: 07. Bibcode:2010AGUFM.P12A..07L.
- Walter, M. R.; Des Marais, David J. (1993). "Preservation of Biological Information in Thermal Spring Deposits: Developing a Strategy for the Search for Fossil Life on Mars". Icarus 101 (1): 129–43. Bibcode:1993Icar..101..129W. doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1011. PMID 11536937.
- Allen, Carlton C.; Albert, Fred G.; Chafetz, Henry S.; Combie, Joan; Graham, Catherine R.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Kivett, Steven J.; McKay, David S. et al. (2000). "Microscopic Physical Biomarkers in Carbonate Hot Springs: Implications in the Search for Life on Mars". Icarus 147 (1): 49–67. Bibcode:2000Icar..147...49A. doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6435. PMID 11543582.
- Wade, Manson L.; Agresti, David G.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Armendarez, Lawrence P.; Farmer, Jack D. (1999). "A Mössbauer investigation of iron-rich terrestrial hydrothermal vent systems: Lessons for Mars exploration". Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (E4): 8489–507. Bibcode:1999JGR...104.8489W. doi:10.1029/1998JE900049. PMID 11542933.
- Agresti, D. G.; Wdowiak, T. J.; Wade, M. L.; Armendarez, L. P.; Farmer, J. D. (1995). "A Mossbauer Investigation of Hot Springs Iron Deposits". Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 26: 7. Bibcode:1995LPI....26....7A.
- Agresti, D. G.; Wdowiak, T. J.; Wade, M. L.; Armendarez, L. P. (1997). "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Thermal Springs Iron Deposits as Martian Analogs". Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution 916: 1. Bibcode:1997LPICo.916....1A.
- Mumma, M. J.; Novak, R. E.; Disanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P. (2003). "A Sensitive Search for Methane on Mars". American Astronomical Society 35: 937. Bibcode:2003DPS....35.1418M.
- Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Novak, Robert E.; Hewagama, Tilak; Bonev, Boncho P.; Disanti, Michael A.; Mandell, Avi M.; Smith, Michael D. (2009). "Strong Release of Methane on Mars in Northern Summer 2003". Science 323 (5917): 1041–5. Bibcode:2009Sci...323.1041M. doi:10.1126/science.1165243. PMID 19150811.
- Formisano, Vittorio; Atreya, Sushil; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Giuranna, Marco (2004). "Detection of Methane in the Atmosphere of Mars". Science 306 (5702): 1758–61. Bibcode:2004Sci...306.1758F. doi:10.1126/science.1101732. PMID 15514118.
- Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Maillard, Jean Pierre; Owen, Tobias C. (2004). "Detection of methane in the martian atmosphere: Evidence for life?". Icarus 172 (2): 537–47. Bibcode:2004Icar..172..537K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.004.
- "Mars Express confirms methane in the Martian atmosphere" (Press release). ESA. March 30, 2004.
- Moran, Mark; Miller, Joseph D.; Kral, Tim; Scott, Dave (2005). "Desert methane: Implications for life detection on Mars". Icarus 178: 277–80. Bibcode:2005Icar..178..277M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.06.008.
- Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A. (2006). "Some problems related to the origin of methane on Mars". Icarus 180 (2): 359–67. Bibcode:2006Icar..180..359K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.10.015.
- "Planetary Fourier Spectrometer website". Mars Express. ESA.[verification needed]
- "Hunting for young lava flows". Geophysical Research Letters (Red Planet). June 1, 2011.
- Court, Richard W.; Sephton, Mark A. (2009). "Investigating the contribution of methane produced by ablating micrometeorites to the atmosphere of Mars". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288 (3–4): 382–5. Bibcode:2009E&PSL.288..382C. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.09.041. Lay summary – Phys.org (December 8, 2009).
- Keppler, Frank; Vigano, Ivan; McLeod, Andy; Ott, Ulrich; Früchtl, Marion; Röckmann, Thomas (2012). "Ultraviolet-radiation-induced methane emissions from meteorites and the Martian atmosphere". Nature 486 (7401): 93–6. Bibcode:2012Natur.486...93K. doi:10.1038/nature11203. PMID 22678286.
- Kral, T. A.; Goodhart, T.; Howe, K. L.; Gavin, P. (2009). "Can Methanogens Grow in a Perchlorate Environment on Mars?". 72nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society 72: 5136. Bibcode:2009M&PSA..72.5136K.
- Howe, K. L.; Gavin, P.; Goodhart, T.; Kral, T. A. (2009). "Methane Production by Methanogens in Perchlorate-supplemented Media". 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 40: 1287. Bibcode:2009LPI....40.1287H.
- Levin, Gilbert V.; Straat, Patricia Ann (2009). "Methane and life on Mars". In Hoover, Richard B; Levin, Gilbert V; Rozanov, Alexei Y; Retherford, Kurt D. Instruments and Methods for Astrobiology and Planetary Missions XII 7441. pp. 12–27. Bibcode:2009SPIE.7441E..12L. doi:10.1117/12.829183. ISBN 978-0-8194-7731-6.
- Oze, Christopher; Jones, Camille; Goldsmith, Jonas I.; Rosenbauer, Robert J. (June 7, 2012). "Differentiating biotic from abiotic methane genesis in hydrothermally active planetary surfaces". PNAS 109 (25): 9750–9754. Bibcode:2012PNAS..109.9750O. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205223109. PMC 3382529. PMID 22679287.
- Staff (June 25, 2012). "Mars Life Could Leave Traces in Red Planet's Air: Study". Space.com.
- Brogi, Matteo; Snellen, Ignas A. G.; de Krok, Remco J.; Albrecht, Simon; Birkby, Jayne; de Mooij, Ernest J. W. (June 28, 2012). "The signature of orbital motion from the dayside of the planet τ Boötis b". Nature 486 (7404): 502–504. arXiv:1206.6109. Bibcode:2012Natur.486..502B. doi:10.1038/nature11161.
- Mann, Adam (June 27, 2012). "New View of Exoplanets Will Aid Search for E.T.". Wired (magazine).
- Freedman, Kevin; Catling, David (2011). "42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference" (PDF). "Is there Methane on Mars? Part II". Lunar and Planetary Institute. Unknown parameter
|duplicate_last=ignored (help); Unknown parameter
- "Methane on Mars. Now you see it. Now you don't...". The Economist. December 29, 2010.
- Zahnle, Kevin; Freedman, Richard S.; Catling, David C. (2011). "Is there methane on Mars?". Icarus 212 (2): 493–503. Bibcode:2011Icar..212..493Z. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.027.
- Tenenbaum, David (June 9, 2008). "Making Sense of Mars Methane". Astrobiology Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-09-23.
- Steigerwald, Bill (January 15, 2009). "Martian Methane Reveals the Red Planet is not a Dead Planet". NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA). Archived from the original on 2009-01-17.
- "Mars Curiosity Rover News Telecon -November 2, 2012".
- Kerr, Richard A. (November 2, 2012). "Curiosity Finds Methane on Mars, or Not". Science (journal).
- Wall, Mike (November 2, 2012). "Curiosity Rover Finds No Methane on Mars — Yet". Space.com.
- Chang, Kenneth (November 2, 2012). "Hope of Methane on Mars Fades". New York Times.
- Mann, Adam (July 18, 2013). "Mars Rover Finds Good News for Past Life, Bad News for Current Life on Mars". Wired (magazine).
- Webster, Chris R.; et al. (July 19, 2013). "Isotope Ratios of H, C, and O in CO2 and H2O of the Martian Atmosphere". Science 341 (6143): 260–263. doi:10.1126/science.1237961. PMID 23869013.
- Mahaffy, Paul R.; et al. (July 19, 2013). "Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Gases in the Martian Atmosphere from the Curiosity Rover". Science 341 (6143): 263–266. doi:10.1126/science.1237966.
- Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Flesch, Gregory J.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Kemppinen, O.; Bridges, N.; Johnson, J. R.; Minitti, M.; Cremers, D.; Bell, J. F.; Edgar, L.; Farmer, J.; Godber, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wellington, D.; McEwan, I.; Newman, C.; Richardson, M.; Charpentier, A.; Peret, L.; King, P.; Blank, J.; Weigle, G.; Schmidt, M.; Li, S.; Milliken, R.; Robertson, K.; Sun, V. et al. (September 19, 2013). "Low Upper Limit to Methane Abundance on Mars". Science 342 (6156): 355. doi:10.1126/science.1242902.
- Cho, Adrian (September 19, 2013). "Mars Rover Finds No Evidence of Burps and Farts". Science (journal).
- Chang, Kenneth (September 19, 2013). "Mars Rover Comes Up Empty in Search for Methane". New York Times.
- Rincon, Paul (July 9, 2009). "Agencies outline Mars initiative". BBC News.
- "NASA orbiter to hunt for source of Martian methane in 2016". Thaindian News. Asian News International. March 6, 2009.
- Peplow, Mark (February 25, 2005). "Formaldehyde claim inflames martian debate". Nature. doi:10.1038/news050221-15 (inactive 2014-10-20).
- Hogan, Jenny (February 16, 2005). "A whiff of life on the Red Planet". New Scientist.
- Peplow, Mark (September 7, 2005). "Martian methane probe in trouble". Nature. doi:10.1038/news050905-10.
- "NASA Statement on False Claim of Evidence of Life on Mars". NASA News (NASA). February 18, 2005.
- Greenwood, Veronique. "What Life Leaves Behind".
- "Curiosity tasked with hunting for elusive Mars organics". Astronomy Now. May 22, 2013.
- Levin, Gilbert V. (2007). "Analysis of evidence of Mars life". Electroneurobiología 15 (2): 39–47. arXiv:0705.3176. Bibcode:2007arXiv0705.3176L.
- Klotz, Irene (Apr 12, 2012). "Mars Viking Robots 'Found Life'" (Press release). Discovery Communications, LLC.
- Crocco, Mario; Contreras, N- C. (2008). Folia Neurobiológica Argentina Vol. XI, "Un palindrome: las criaturas vivas conscientes como instrumentos de la naturaleza; la naturaleza como instrumento de las criaturas vivas conscientes". Ediciones Análisis, Buenos Aires–Rosario–Bahía Blanca. p. 70. ISBN 978-987-29362-0-4.
- Bianciardi, Giorgio; Miller, Joseph D; Straat, Patricia Ann; Levin, Gilbert V. (2012). "Complexity Analysis of the Viking Labeled Release Experiments". Int'l J. of Aeronautical & Space Sci. 13 (1): 14–26. Bibcode:2012.13.1.14 IJASS 2012.13.1.14. doi:10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.14.
- Navarro–Gonzáles, Rafael; Vargas, Edgar; de la Rosa, José; Raga, Alejandro C.; McKay, Christopher P. (2010-12-15). "Reanalysis of the Viking results suggests perchlorate and organics at midlatitudes on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research – Planets 115 (E12010). doi:10.1029/2010JE003599. Retrieved 2011-01-07.
- "Correction to "Reanalysis of the Viking results suggests perchlorate and organics at midlatitudes on Mars"". doi:10.1029/2011JE003854.
- "Reanalysis of the Viking results suggests perchlorate and organics at midlatitudes on Mars". Bibcode:2010JGRE..11512010N.
- Johnson, John (2008-08-06). "Perchlorate found in Martian soil". Los Angeles Times.
- "Martian Life Or Not? NASA's Phoenix Team Analyzes Results". Science Daily. 2008-08-06.
- "Did Viking Mars Landers Find Life's Building Blocks? Missing Piece Inspires New Look at Puzzle". ScienceDaily. 2010-09-05. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Navarro-González, Rafael; et al. "Comment on "Reanalysis of the Viking results suggests perchlorate and organics at midlatitudes on Mars". doi:10.1029/2011JE003869.
- Levin, Gilbert V.; Straat, Patricia Ann. "MARS: Dead or Alive?" (PDF). Mars Society Convention.
- Crocco, Mario (April 14, 2007). "Los taxones mayores de la vida orgánica y la nomenclatura de la vida en Marte: primera clasificación biológica de un organismo marciano" [The higher taxa of organic life and nomenclature of life on Mars: first biological classification of a Martian organism]. Electroneurobiología (in Spanish) 15 (2): 1–34.
- Crocco, Mario; Szirko, N. C. (2008). Folia Neurobiológica Argentina Vol. XI, "Un palindrome: las criaturas vivas conscientes como instrumentos de la naturaleza; la naturaleza como instrumento de las criaturas vivas conscientes". Ediciones Análisis, Buenos Aires–Rosario–Bahía Blanca. pp. 291–298. ISBN 978-987-29362-0-4. Unknown parameter
|last3=in Authors list (help)
- Levin's 2007 paper "Analysis of evidence of Mars life" currently archived at arXiv supporting Crocco's taxonomy, was not accepted for publication.
- "Mars Meteorites". NASA. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
- Gibson Jr., E. K.; Westall; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Wentworth, S.; Romanek, C. S. "Evidence for ancient Martian life" (PDF).
- "Allan Hills 84001". The Meteorolitical Society. April 2008.
- Crenson, Matt (August 6, 2006). "After 10 years, few believe life on Mars". Space.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2006-08-09.
- McKay, David S.; Gibson, Everett K.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Vali, Hojatollah; Romanek, Christopher S.; Clemett, Simon J.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Maechling, Claude R.; Zare, Richard N. (1996). "Search for Past Life on Mars: Possible Relic Biogenic Activity in Martian Meteorite ALH84001". Science 273 (5277): 924–30. Bibcode:1996Sci...273..924M. doi:10.1126/science.273.5277.924. PMID 8688069.
- Jeffs, William P. (November 30, 2009). "New Study Adds to Finding of Ancient Life Signs in Mars Meteorite". NASA (NASA News).
- Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J. (2009). "Origins of magnetite nanocrystals in Martian meteorite ALH84001". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 (21): 6631–77. Bibcode:2009GeCoA..73.6631T. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2009.05.064.
- Baalke, Ron (1995). "The Nakhla Meteorite". Jet Propulsion Lab. NASA. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- "Rotating image of a Nakhla meteorite fragment". London: Natural History Museum. 2008.
- Rincon, Paul (February 8, 2006). "Space rock re-opens Mars debate". BBC News.
- Meyer, C. (2004). "Mars Meteorite Compendium" (PDF). NASA.
- Whitehouse, David (August 27, 1999). "Life on Mars – new claims". BBC News.
- Compilation of scientific research references on the Nakhla meteorite: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/marsmets/nakhla/references.cfm
- "Shergoti Meteorite". JPL, NASA.
- Webster, Guy (February 27, 2014). "NASA Scientists Find Evidence of Water in Meteorite, Reviving Debate Over Life on Mars". NASA.
- White, Lauren M.; Gibson, Everett K.; Thomnas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; McKay, David (February 19, 2014). "Putative Indigenous Carbon-Bearing Alteration Features in Martian Meteorite Yamato 000593". Astrobiology 14 (2): 170–181. Bibcode:2014AsBio..14..170W. doi:10.1089/ast.2011.0733.
- Gannon, Megan (February 28, 2014). "Mars Meteorite with Odd 'Tunnels' & 'Spheres' Revives Debate Over Ancient Martian Life". Space.com.
- "NASA Findings Suggest Jets Bursting From Martian Ice Cap". Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA). August 16, 2006.
- Kieffer, H. H. (2000). "Annual Punctuated CO2 Slab-Ice and Jets on Mars". International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration: 93. Bibcode:2000mpse.conf...93K.
- Portyankina, G.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Keller, H. U.; Bibring, J.-P.; Neukum, G. (2006). "Simulations of Geyser-type Eruptions in Cryptic Region of Martian South Polar Cap". Fourth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration 1323: 8040. Bibcode:2006LPICo1323.8040P.
- Kieffer, Hugh H.; Christensen, Philip R.; Titus, Timothy N. (2006). "CO2 jets formed by sublimation beneath translucent slab ice in Mars' seasonal south polar ice cap". Nature 442 (7104): 793–6. Bibcode:2006Natur.442..793K. doi:10.1038/nature04945. PMID 16915284.
- Horváth, A.; Gánti, T.; Gesztesi, A.; Bérczi, Sz.; Szathmáry, E. (2001). "Probable Evidences of Recent Biological Activity on Mars: Appearance and Growing of Dark Dune Spots in the South Polar Region". 32nd Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 32: 1543. Bibcode:2001LPI....32.1543H.
- Pócs, T.; Horváth, A.; Gánti, T.; Bérczi, Sz.; Szathemáry, E. (2004). "Possible crypto-biotic-crust on Mars?". Proceedings of the Third European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology 545: 265–6. Bibcode:2004eab..conf..265P.
- Gánti, Tibor; Horváth, András; Bérczi, Szaniszló; Gesztesi, Albert; Szathmáry, Eörs (2003). "Dark Dune Spots: Possible Biomarkers on Mars?". Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 33 (4/5): 515–57. doi:10.1023/A:1025705828948.
- Horváth, A.; Gánti, T.; Bérczi, Sz.; Gesztesi, A.; Szathmáry, E. (2002). "Morphological Analysis of the Dark Dune Spots on Mars: New Aspects in Biological Interpretation". 33rd Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 33: 1108. Bibcode:2002LPI....33.1108H.
- András Sik, Ákos Kereszturi. "Dark Dune Spots – Could it be that it's alive?". Monochrom. Retrieved 2009-09-04. (Audio interview, MP3 6 min.)
- Orme, Greg M.; Ness, Peter K. (June 9, 2003). "Martian Spiders" (PDF). Marsbugs 10 (23): 5–7. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
- Manrubia, S. C.; Prieto Ballesteros, O.; González Kessler, C.; Fernández Remolar, D.; Córdoba-Jabonero, C.; Selsis, F.; Bérczi, S.; Gánti, T.; Horváth, A. (2004). "Comparative analysis of geological features and seasonal processes in 'Inca City' and 'Pityusa Patera' regions on Mars". Proceedings of the Third European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology 545: 77–80. Bibcode:2004eab..conf...77M. ISBN 92-9092-856-5.
- Ness, Peter K.; Orme, Greg M. (2002). "Spider-Ravine Models and Plant-Like Features on Mars – Possible Geophysical and Biogeophysical Modes of Origin". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 55 (3/4): 85–108. Bibcode:2002JBIS...55...85N.
- Landis, Geoffrey; Oleson, Steven; McGuire, Melissa (2012). "Design Study for a Mars Geyser Hopper". 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. Nashville. doi:10.2514/6.2012-631 (inactive June 27, 2013).
- Committee on an Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars; National Research Council (2007). "Planetary Protection for Mars Missions". An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars. The National Academies Press. pp. 95–98. ISBN 978-0-309-10851-5.
- Cowing, Keith (April 11, 2013). "Planetary Protection: A Work in Progress". Astrobiology.
- Debus, A. (2005). "Estimation and assessment of Mars contamination". Advances in Space Research 35 (9): 1648–53. Bibcode:2005AdSpR..35.1648D. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.04.084. PMID 16175730.
- Dartnell, Lewis R.; Hunter, Stephanie J.; Lovell, Keith V.; Coates, Andrew J.; Ward, John M. (2010). "Low-Temperature Ionizing Radiation Resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans and Antarctic Dry Valley Bacteria". Astrobiology 10 (7): 717–32. Bibcode:2010AsBio..10..717D. doi:10.1089/ast.2009.0439. PMID 20950171.
- de la Vega, U. Pogoda; Rettberg, P.; Reitz, G. (2007). "Simulation of the environmental climate conditions on martian surface and its effect on Deinococcus radiodurans". Advances in Space Research 40 (11): 1672–7. Bibcode:2007AdSpR..40.1672D. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.05.022.
- Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ulrich, Richard; Berry, Bonnie J.; Nicholson., Wayne L. (February 2013). "Growth of Serratia liquefaciens under 7 mbar, 0°C, and CO2-Enriched Anoxic Atmospheres". Astrobiology 13 (2): 115–131. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13..115S. doi:10.1089/ast.2011.0811. PMC 3582281. PMID 23289858.
- de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Butina, Frederike; Lorek, Andreas; Wernecke, Roland; Ott, Sieglinde (2010). "Survival Potential and Photosynthetic Activity of Lichens Under Mars-Like Conditions: A Laboratory Study". Astrobiology 10 (2): 215–27. Bibcode:2010AsBio..10..215D. doi:10.1089/ast.2009.0362. PMID 20402583.
- de Vera, J.-P. P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Khan, A.; Lorek, A.; Koncz, A.; Möhlmann, D.; Spohn, T. (2012). "The adaptation potential of extremophiles to Martian surface conditions and its implication for the habitability of Mars". EGU General Assembly 2012 14: 2113. Bibcode:2012EGUGA..14.2113D.
- "Surviving the conditions on Mars". DLR. April 26, 2012.
- de Vera, Jean-Pierre (2012). "Lichens as survivors in space and on Mars". Fungal Ecology 5 (4): 472–9. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2012.01.008.
- de la Torre Noetzel, R.; Sanchez Inigo, F.J.; Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.; de Vera, J. P.; Sancho, L.G. "Survival of lichens to simulated Mars conditions" (PDF).[self-published source?]
- Sánchez, F. J.; Mateo-Martí, E.; Raggio, J.; Meeßen, J.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Sancho, L. G.; Ott, S.; de la Torre, R. (2012). "The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. Provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions—a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophile". Planetary and Space Science 72 (1): 102–10. Bibcode:2012P&SS...72..102S. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.08.005.
- Robbins, Stuart (2008). ""Journey Through the Galaxy" Mars Program: Mars ~ 1960-1974". SJR Design. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
- Mihos, Chris (11 January 2006). "Mars (1960-1974): Mars 1". Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
- Strom, R.G.; Barlow, Nadine G. (1992). The Martian Impact Cratering Record. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1257-4.
|last2=in Authors list (help)[page needed]
- Raeburn, P. (1998). "Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet Mars". National Geographic Society (Washington D.C.).[page needed]
- Moore, P.; et al. (1990). The Atlas of the Solar System. NY, NY.: Mitchell Beazley Publishers.[page needed]
- "Astrobiology". Biology Cabinet. September 26, 2006.
- Plaxco, Kevin W.; Gross, Michael (2011). Astrobiology: A Brief Introduction. JHU Press. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-1-4214-0194-2.
- Stenger, Richard (November 7, 2000). "Mars sample return plan carries microbial risk, group warns". CNN.
- Plaxco, Kevin W.; Gross, Michael (2006). Astrobiology: A Brief Introduction. JHU Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-8018-8366-8.
- Plaxco, Kevin W.; Gross, Michael (2011). Astrobiology: A Brief Introduction (2nd ed.). JHU Press. pp. 285–286. ISBN 978-1-4214-0194-2.
- Klein, Harold P.; Horowitz, Norman H.; Levin, Gilbert V.; Oyama, Vance I.; Lederberg, Joshua; Rich, Alexander; Hubbard, Jerry S.; Hobby, George L.; Straat, Patricia A. (1976). "The Viking Biological Investigation: Preliminary Results". Science 194 (4260): 99–105. Bibcode:1976Sci...194...99K. doi:10.1126/science.194.4260.99. PMID 17793090.
- Bianciardi, Giorgio; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia Ann; Levin, Gilbert V. (2012). "Complexity Analysis of the Viking Labeled Release Experiments". International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences 13 (1): 14–26. Bibcode:2012IJASS..13...14B. doi:10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.14.
- "Life on Mars Found by NASA's Viking Mission?".
- Klotz, Irene (April 12, 2012). "Mars Viking Robots 'Found Life'". DiscoveryNews.
- Biemann, Klaus (2007). "On the ability of the Viking gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer to detect organic matter". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (25): 10310–10313. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10410310B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703732104. PMC 1965509. PMID 17548829.
- Webster, Guy; Hoover, Rachel; Marlaire, Ruth; Frias, Gabriela (September 3, 2010). "Missing Piece Inspires New Look at Mars Puzzle". Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
- Plaxco, Kevin W.; Gross, Michael (2011). Astrobiology: A Brief Introduction (2nd ed.). JHU Press. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-1-4214-0194-2.
- Biemann, K.; Bada, J. L. (2011). "Comment on "Reanalysis of the Viking results suggests perchlorate and organics at midlatitudes on Mars" by Rafael Navarro-González et al". Journal of Geophysical Research 116. doi:10.1029/2011JE003869.
- Navarro-González, R.; McKay, C. P. (2011). "Reply to comment by Biemann and Bada on "Reanalysis of the Viking results suggests perchlorate and organics at midlatitudes on Mars"". Journal of Geophysical Research 116. doi:10.1029/2011JE003880.
- "Piecing Together Life's Potential". Mars Daily.
- "NASA Spacecraft Confirms Perchlorate on Mars". NASA (NASA). August 5, 2008.
- Johnson, John (August 6, 2008). "Perchlorate found in Martian soil". Los Angeles Times.
- "Martian Life Or Not? NASA's Phoenix Team Analyzes Results". Science Daily. August 6, 2008.
- Lakdawalla, Emily (June 26, 2008). "Phoenix sol 30 update: Alkaline soil, not very salty, "nothing extreme" about it!". The Planetary Society weblog. Planetary Society.
- "Mars Science Laboratory Launch". November 26, 2011.
- "NASA Launches Super-Size Rover to Mars: 'Go, Go!'". New York Times. Associated Press. November 26, 2011.
- USGS (May 16, 2012). "Three New Names Approved for Features on Mars". USGS.
- NASA Staff (March 27, 2012). "'Mount Sharp' on Mars Compared to Three Big Mountains on Earth". NASA.
- Agle, D. C. (March 28, 2012). "'Mount Sharp' On Mars Links Geology's Past and Future". NASA.
- Staff (March 29, 2012). "NASA's New Mars Rover Will Explore Towering 'Mount Sharp'". Space.com.
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (July 22, 2011). "NASA's Next Mars Rover To Land At Gale Crater". NASA JPL.
- Chow, Dennis (July 22, 2011). "NASA's Next Mars Rover to Land at Huge Gale Crater". Space.com.
- Amos, Jonathan (July 22, 2011). "Mars rover aims for deep crater". BBC News.
- "ExoMars: ESA and Roscosmos set for Mars missions". European Space Agency (ESA). March 14, 2013.
- Cowing, Keith (December 21, 2012). "Science Definition Team for the 2020 Mars Rover". NASA. Science Ref.
- Study Reveals Young Mars Was A Wet World
- NASA – The Mars Exploration Program
- Scientists have discovered that Mars once had saltwater oceans
- BBC News: Ammonia on Mars could mean life
- Scientist says that life on Mars is likely today
- Ancient salty sea on Mars wins as the most important scientific achievement of 2004 – Journal Science
- Mars meteor found on Earth provides evidence that suggests microbial life once existed on Mars
- Scientific American Magazine (November 2005 Issue) Did Life Come from Another World?
- Audio interview about "Dark Dune Spots"