Life skills are behaviors used appropriately and responsibly in the management of personal affairs. They are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life. The subject varies greatly depending on social norms and community expectations.
Enumeration and categorization
UNICEF states "there is no definitive list" of life skills but enumerates many "psychosocial and interpersonal skills generally considered important." It asserts life skills are a synthesis: "many skills are used simultaneously in practice. For example, decision-making often involves critical thinking ("what are my options?") and values clarification ("what is important to me?"). Ultimately, the interplay between the skills is what produces powerful behavioural outcomes, especially where this approach is supported by other strategies..."
Life skills can vary from financial literacy, substance abuse prevention, to therapeutic techniques to deal with disabilities, such as autism. Life skills curricula designed for K-12 often emphasizes communications and practical skills needed for successful independent living for developmental disabilities/special education students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP). However, some programs are for general populations, such as the Overcoming Obstacles program for middle schools and high schools.
Parenting 2.0 (P2.0), LinkedIn's largest parenting group with more than 2,700 members (as of March, 2013), defines Life Skills as all the non-academic foundational skills human beings learn and use to thrive individually and live optimally in community with others. P2.0's founder, Marlaine Paulsen Cover created a Life Skills Report Card that lists five basic skills categories:
Life skills are often taught in the domain of parenting, either indirectly through the observation and experience of the child, or directly with the purpose of teaching a specific skill. Yet skills for dealing with pregnancy and parenting can be considered and taught as a set of life skills of themselves. Teaching these parenting life skills can also coincide with additional life skills development of the child. Many life skills programs are offered when traditional family structures and healthy relationships have broken down, whether due to parental lapses, divorce or due to issues with the children (such as substance abuse or other risky behavior). For example, the International Labor Organization is teaching life skills to ex-child laborers and risk children in Indonesia to help them avoid the worst forms of child labor.
Youth: behavior prevention vs. positive development
While certain life skills programs focus on teaching the prevention of certain behaviors the Search Institute has found those programs can be relatively ineffective. Based upon their research The Family and Youth Services Bureau, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advocates the theory of Positive Youth Development as a replacement for the less effective prevention programs. Positive Youth Development, or PYD as it's come to be known as, focuses on the strengths of an individual as opposed to the older methods which tend to focus on the "potential" weaknesses that have yet to be shown. The Family and Youth Services Bureau has found that individuals who developed life skills in a positive, rather than preventive, manner feel a greater sense of competence, usefulness, power, and belonging.
Development in adults
Beyond the K-12 domain, other life skills programs are focused on social welfare and social work programs, such as Casey Life Skills. This program covers diverse topics: career planning, communication, daily living, home life, housing and money management, self care, social relationships, work and study skills, work life, pregnancy and parenting.
- UNICEF: Life Skills
- USA Funds Life Skills
- Botvin LifeSkills Training
- Therapeutic Life Skills
- Life Skills, Inc.
- Puget Sound ESD: Pre-K-12 Life Skills Curriculum Guide
- Overcoming Obstacles
- Parenting Life Skills Center
- Botvin Life Skills Training: Parent Program
- Improving Vocational and Life Skills of Ex-Child Labourers and at Risk Children Aged 15 to 17 Years
- LOGGA Life Skills Education Using Positive Development Methods
- Casey Life Skills
- Casey Life Skills Guide (PDF)