|Deputy Secretaries||Maurizio Conte (vicar)
|Founded||9 December 1979|
|Headquarters||via Panà, 56
35027 Noventa Padovana (Province of Padua)
|National affiliation||Lega Nord|
|Chamber of Deputies|
|Regional Council of Veneto|
|Politics of Veneto
Liga Veneta (Łiga Vèneta, Venetian League, LV) is a regionalist political party based in Veneto, which in its ideology combines Venetian nationalism and fiscal federalism. Liga Veneta is by far the largest party in Veneto (35.2% in the last regional election) and the party of Luca Zaia, who has served as President of Veneto since March 2010.
It was the first party of its kind in Northern Italy, predating Umberto Bossi's Lega Lombarda by four years, and was a founding member of Lega Nord, a federation of regionalist parties of Northern Italy (which they call Padania), in 1991. Since then Liga Veneta is a "national" section of the federal party, thus retaining some autonomy.
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology
- 3 Factions
- 4 Leadership
- 5 Members
- 6 Popular support
- 7 References
- 8 Sources
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
Early years (1978–1989)
Liga Veneta was promoted in 1978 by Franco Rocchetta, a Venetian philologist who had been speaking of a "Venetian league" since 1968. The party constitution, modelled on those of the Valdotanian Union and the Radical Party, was officially signed by 14 founding members on 16 January 1980 in Padua. Shortly after, some hardliners, led by Luigi Faccia and Flavio Contin, left the party. In 1987 they launched the Most Serene Venetian Government, that would organize the St Mark's Campanile's "assault" during the night between 8 and 9 May 1997 (see Venetian nationalism#Controversies).
In the 1983 general election the party gained 4.3% in Veneto, having Achille Tramarin, first secretary of the party from 1980 to 1983, elected to the Chamber of Deputies and Graziano Girardi to the Senate. In the Pedemontana, the area of the Padanian-Venetian Plain at the foot of the Venetian Prealps, the LV became the second largest party after Christian Democracy (DC), then dominant in Venetian politics. DC would have been the most damaged party from the rise of the LV as both parties concurred for the support of the middle class. The DC regional leader Antonio Bisaglia even proposed to form a regional party on the model of the Bavarian CSU, but opposition from Rome and Bisaglia's sudden death stopped the plan.
Soon after the election, a power struggle for the leadership of the party took place and the winner was Rocchetta, disappointed for his missed election, who had been behind the scenes up to that moment. Tramarin was replaced as national secretary by Marilena Marin, future wife of Rocchetta.
In the 1985 regional election the party obtained 3.7% and two regional councillors: Ettore Beggiato and Rocchetta. Liga Veneta Serenissima of Tramarin, expelled from the party by Marin, won a mere 0.2% of the vote and, since then, Rocchetta and Marin had the party in their hands. In the 1980's the party suffered also other two splits: that of the Union of the Venetian People (UPV), formed by Beggiato (who was joined by Tramarin and Girardi) and that of the Veneto Autonomous Region Movement (MVRA). The only counterweight to Rocchetta–Marin within the LV was thus represented by the Treviso wing, which then started to gain influence, under the leadership of Gian Paolo Gobbo and Mauro Michielon. In the next elections the LV and the UPV had similar showings.
Foundation of Lega Nord (1989–1994)
In 1989 the party's charismatic leader, Franco Rocchetta, and his wife Marilena Marin, secretary of the party, managed to forge an alliance with Umberto Bossi's Lega Lombarda for that year's European Parliament election, Alleanza Nord. In 1989–1990 the LV took part in the process of federating the northern regionalist parties, ahead of the regional elections. In the 1990 regional election the LV and the UPV scored 5.9% and 1.9%, respectively. In the 1991 local elections the UPV passed the LV. Some attempts to merge the two parties into one failed, but from that point, thanks to the alliance with Bossi, Liga Veneta's rise seemed unstoppable.
In February 1991 the LV joined Lega Lombarda and other regionalist parties from every northern region to form Lega Nord (LN) and, since then, the LV has been the regional section of the party in Veneto. Bossi was elected federal secretary and Rocchetta federal president. Thanks to the federal structure of Lega Nord and to its ideology (according to which Padania is a country formed of different nations: Veneto, Lombardy, Piedmont, etc.), the LV retained much of its autonomy.
In the 1992 general election the LN scored 8.7% throughout Italy and the LV won 17.8% of the vote in Veneto, returning into the Italian Parliament after five years. The UPV and the MVRA both won 1.5% of the votes, while Lega Autonomia Veneta (LAV), formed by the former Socialist mayor of Venice Mario Rigo, got 4.7%. The Venetist movement, divided as ever, together gained the support of about quarter of Venetian voters.
Heyday and internal splits (1994–1998)
In the 1994 general election the LV won 21.6% of the vote in Veneto (the LAV took 3.2%) and three of its members joined Berlusconi I Cabinet: Franco Rocchetta was undersecretary of Foreign Affairs, Mariella Mazzetto of Education and Giovanni Meo Zilio (a former Socialist partisan during Italian resistance), of University and Research. Between 1994 and 1995 the LV was also part of the regional government for the first time, with Gian Paolo Gobbo as Vice President.
In July 1994 Marilena Marin was replaced by Fabrizio Comencini as national secretary of the party, while Gobbo was elected national president. Shortly after, in September, Rocchetta and Marin left the party in disagreement with Bossi and the new Venetian leadership. Rocchetta was replaced by Stefano Stefani, leading member of the LV, as federal president of Lega Nord in February 1995. The exit of Rocchetta and Marin made possible the comeback of Ettore Beggiato into the party. Thanks to this the LV did not suffer a major setback in the 1995 regional election: 17.4% and 9 regional councillors elected.
In the 1996 general election Umberto Bossi led Lega Nord to its strongest showing in a general election: with 10.1% of the vote, the party, present only in Northern Italy, became the fourth largest of the country. Comencini's Liga Veneta was the strongest national section of the League: it gained 29.3% of the vote in Veneto, 19 deputies and 9 senators, mostly elected in single-seat constituencies, in which the party, favoured by split-ticket voting, gained a total 32.8% of the vote.
In 1994 the party won the mayorship of Treviso with Giancarlo Gentilini, and a year later it gained control of three provinces: Padua with Renzo Sacco, Verona with Antonio Borghesi and Treviso with Giovanni Mazzonetto. In 1997 the party won also in the province of Vicenza with Manuela Dal Lago, while Luca Zaia was elected President of the province of Treviso, replacing Mazzonetto, in 1998. Also in 1998 Gentilini was re-elected mayor of Treviso.
In 1998 Fabrizio Comencini left the party over disagreements with Bossi and formed a brand-new Venetist party named Liga Veneta Repubblica (then Veneti d'Europa). Seven regional councillors out of nine followed Comencini into the new party, while Gobbo took over as national secretary of the LV, along with a new national president, Giuseppe Ceccato (who left the party in 1999). In the 1999 provincial elections the party lost the provinces of Padua and Verona.
Decline and resurgence (1998–2006)
By 2000 the party started to recover from the schism of 1998 and took 12.0% of the vote in the 2000 regional election (the combined score of Veneti d'Europa and Fronte Marco Polo, another split, was 3.7%), re-joining after five years the regional government.
In the 2001 general election the LV had its worst result since 1987 in terms of votes: only 10.2% throughout Veneto, with 9 deputies and 4 senators elected, all in single-seat constituencies, thanks to the alliance with Forza Italia within the House of Freedoms coalition. After the election, Gianpaolo Dozzo and Stefano Stefani joined Berlusconi II Cabinet as undersecretaries of Agriculture and Industry, respectively.
In the 2002 provincial elections the party won for the second time in a row in Vicenza and Treviso. The province of Treviso confirmed itself as the most-leghista province of Italy and Luca Zaia was re-elected Provincial President with more than 40% in the first round and with almost 70% in the run-off, although he had refused the support of Lega Nord's allies in Rome and Venice, Forza Italia and National Alliance. Also in 2002 LV's Luciano Gasperini was elected federal president of Lega Nord. In a party congress in Vicenza, Gobbo was re-elected national secretary and Dal Lago was elected national president. In 2003 Gobbo was also elected mayor of Treviso.
In the 2005 regional election the LV gained 14.7% of the vote, despite the presence of other two Venetist parties (North-East Project and Liga Fronte Veneto, 5.4% and 1.2% respectively), and was decisive for the third re-election of Giancarlo Galan as President of Veneto. After the election, the LV joined the Galan III Government, with Luca Zaia Vice President of the Region and minister of Agriculture and Flavio Tosi minister of Health.
In the 2006 general election however, the party scored 11.1% and got elected 5 deputies and 3 senators. It was the worst result in terms of elected members in the Italian Parliament since 1987, due to the razor-edge victory of the centre-left, which won the majority-premium for the Chamber of Deputies and to the presence of North-East Project (2.7%) and of Liga Fronte Veneto (0.7%). In a provincial election Leonardo Muraro was elected President of the province of Treviso and the LV scored 29.2% (combined result of party list, 15.6%, and Zaia's personal list, 13.6%), despite a good result by the rival North-East Project (11.6%).
Road to the leadership of Veneto (2006–2010)
In 2007 Flavio Tosi was elected mayor of Verona by a landslide (60.8% against the 33.9% of incumbent Paolo Zanotto), while in the provincial election of Vicenza Attilio Schneck succeeded to Manuela Dal Lago as President (60.0%, largely ahead of his opponenents: Pietro Collareda 17.2% and Giorgio Carollo, supported also by Liga Fronte Veneto, 9.9%). Both Tosi, who was the second leghista to become mayor of a big city after Marco Formentini in Milan between 1993 and 1997, and Schneck were supported by the House of Freedoms coalition, but the LV had an excellent result in both races: in Vicenza it garnered 19.0% of the vote (despite the presence on the ballot of several rival regionalist parties), while in Verona it ranked first among the parties with 28.4% (combined score of party list, 12.0%, and Tosi's personal list, 16.4%). In June 2007, Tosi was replaced as regional minister of Health by Francesca Martini.
In the 2008 general election the LV won a surprising 27.1% in Veneto, its best result since the 1996 election, getting 16 deputies and 7 senators elected. Meanwhile Gobbo was re-elected mayor of Treviso with 50.4% of the vote, twice the score of his main opponent. The combined result of the LV and Giancarlo Gentilini's personal list was 35.4%. Subsequently Zaia became minister of Agriculture and Martini undersecretary of Health in Berlusconi IV Cabinet. Federico Bricolo became floor leader of Lega Nord in the Senate. Zaia and Martini were thus replaced in the regional government by Franco Manzato and Sandro Sandri, respectively.
In July 2008 the party held its national congress in Padua. Gobbo was re-elected for the fourth time national secretary, while Tosi replaced Dal Lago as national president. Tosi appeared to be also the standard-bearer of the party in view of the 2010 regional election, along with Zaia.
In the 2009 European Parliament election the LV confirmed its strength, by gaining 28.4% and three MEPs: Lorenzo Fontana, a rising star from Verona, Giancarlo Scottà and Mara Bizzotto. The party also won two more provinces, Venice, a stronghold of the left, with Francesca Zaccariotto, and Belluno with Gianpaolo Bottacin.
2010 regional election and aftermath (2010–2012)
In December 2009 The People of Freedom (PdL) determined that the coalition candidate in the 2010 regional election would be a leghista. Subsequently the national council of Liga Veneta nominated Zaia for President. Tosi, who, as party president, presided the Council, tried to be himself the candidate, and others proposed instead Franco Manzato. However, Zaia had a broader support than Tosi and was unanimously chosen by the Council.
In the election Zaia was elected President of Veneto by a landslide, with 60.2% of the vote against 29.1% of his foremost opponent, Giuseppe Bortolussi of the Democratic Party (PD). The election was a triumph for the LV, which was by far the largest party in the region with 35.2% of the vote, up from 14.7% of five years before, and got 20 seats in the Regional Council, up from 11. Zaia was also the most voted President of Veneto since direct election was introduced in 1995. After the election, Zaia appointed a cabinet including six party members: Roberto Ciambetti (Budget and Finances), Luca Coletto (Health), Maurizio Conte (Environment), Marino Finozzi (Tourism), Franco Manzato (Agriculture) and Daniele Stival (Venetian Identity).
In the 2011 provincial election of Treviso Leonardo Muraro was easily re-elected President. The LV won 40.8% of the vote (combined result of party list, 29.6%, and Muraro's personal list, 11.4%), which was a 11.6% gain since the previous provincial election in 2006, but also a 7.7% loss from the 2010 regional election.
In late 2011, after the fall of Berlusconi's government, Lega Nord abandoned the alliance with the PdL. Perceiving that the party was entering a crisis, Giuseppe Covre (a former mayor of Oderzo and MP) and Marzio Favero (mayor of Montebelluna and philosopher) proposed a "Manifesto for the League which will be". In its call for a "cultural revolution" and for a bottom-up restructuring of the party, the document was interpreted as a call for a new leadership, both at national and federal level.
All throughout 2011 the faction around Tosi (linked to Roberto Maroni at the federal level) won most provincial congresses in Veneto. In March 2012 Tosiani conquered the biggest prize, Treviso, where Giorgio Granello was elected provincial secretary with the support of Muraro, Covre, Favaro and Federico Caner.
Party's renewal and reform (2012–present)
In early April 2012 a corruption scandal hit the "magic cirle" around Bossi, who resigned from federal secretary after 21 years. This had consequences also in Veneto.
A "national" congress was scheduled for 2–3 June 2012 and, after fourteen years on top, Gian Paolo Gobbo decided to step down from secretary. Flavio Tosi, just re-elected mayor of Verona with 57.4% of the vote (three times his closest opponent Michele Bertucco, who got a mere 22.8%), started his bid for the party's "national" leadership. Massimo Bitonci, a darling of Venetists and long-time rival of Tosi, was chosen as joint candidate by Venetists and Gobbo's loyalists. On 3 June 2012 Tosi was elected secretary with 57% of the votes (236 delegates out of 414), while Bitonci had 43% (178 delegates). On 9 June the national council of LV elected Luca Baggio, an ally of Tosi, as national president. Zaia warned Tosi that if he were not to be a unifying leader a split might occur.
On 1 July 2012 Roberto Maroni was elected federal secretary during a federal congress presided by Zaia. The Venetian delegates elected also four members to the federal council: Marino Finozzi (tosiano), Massimo Bitonci (Venetist, anti-Tosi), Daniele Stival (Venetist, tosiano) and Manuela Dal Lago (Venetist, independent). A few days later Maroni appointed Caner, who was supported both by Tosi and Gobbo, as his vicar. As early as in May 2013 Caner was replaced by Tosi.
At the 2013 general election the LV stopped at 10.5%, almost a record low, resulting in just 5 deputies and 5 senators. Tosi considered this a consequence of the renewed alliance with the PdL (instrumental to Maroni's election as President of Lombardy), while many party bigwigs, including Zaia, criticized his leadership, management of the campaign and selection of candidates. Most provincial leaders resigned or were deposed by Tosi, who appointed loyalists. In April the national council of LV, led by Tosi, expelled 35 party members (mostly Venetists or old-guard Bossiani), including two regional councillors and a former deputy. In August the dissidents, led by Corrado Callegari, a former deputy, formed Veneto First.
On 6 October Tosi is set to launch a liberal think tank in order to run for Prime Minister of Italy in a hypothetical centre-right primary, in symmetry to what Matteo Renzi has been doing in the centre-left.
Liga Veneta was conceived by Franco Rocchetta and others in the late 1970s. During its first official meeting in Recoaro on 9 December 1979, Achille Tramarin, who was then elected secretary of the new party, gave a speech titled Venetian Autonomy and Europe: "Today for Venetians the moment has come, after 113 years of Italian unitary colonization, to take their natural and human resources back, to fight against the wild exploitation that brought poverty, emigration, pollution and uprooting from their culture". European integration was seen as an opportunity to give Veneto its autonomy back.
Rocchetta, who left the party in 1994 after a power struggle and has since become a bitter critic of his former colleagues in the name of pure Venetism, conceived the LV as a libertarian, secular and Europeanist party. The promotion the re-discovery the Republic of Venice's heritage, traditions, culture, and especially Venetian language, and opposition to the displacement of Mafia inmates in Veneto were key goals of the party since its foundation.
The LV is aimed to unite all Venetians who support autonomy for Veneto and federal reform. For this reason it tends to be a multi-ideological catch-all party, following what Umberto Bossi stated in 1982 to his early followers of Lega Lombarda: "It does not matter how old are you, what your job is and what your political tendency: what matters is that you and we are all Lombard. [...] It is as Lombards that, indeed, that we have a fundamental common goal in that face of which our division in parties should fall behind". While the bulk of the original Lega Lombarda (including Umberto Bossi, Roberto Maroni and Marco Formentini) came from the left (Bossi and Maroni were previously active in the Italian Communist Party, Proletarian Democracy and the Greens) and conceived the party as a centre-left (and, to some extent, social-democratic) political force, the LV was characterized more as liberal and centrist party and has always proposed a more libertarian political line.
This difference reflected also its position in Venetian politics: while, in the early 1990s, the League stole votes especially from the Communists and the Italian Socialist Party, in Veneto the LV basically replaced Christian Democracy as dominant political force. In fact, even if most of the early members of the party came from the centre-right (Christian Democracy and the Italian Liberal Party), there were also people coming from the left such as Giovanni Meo Zilio, Actionist and Socialist partisan in the Italian resistance movement, was one of the founding fathers of the party.
The last political platform of the party was released on 20 December 2009 in the run-up to the 2010 regional election.
Its key words were "innovation" and "modernity". The challenges that Veneto should face in the next decades, said the party, were to enhance "internationalization" in the era of globalization, to overcome the traditional Venetian policentrism and interpret Veneto as a united and cohesive region: a "European region in Italian land". The program stressed also concepts such as "Europe of the regions", "Europe of citizens", "global Veneto", "openeness toward the world", "green economy", "urban planning" in respect of the environment, "repect for diversity" and "integration" of immigrants, along with the more traditional "think globally, act locally". Along these, the core issues of the party, especially promotion of Venetian language and culture, were also included in the program. According to the paper, a strong Veneto as that imagined by the party would be a protagonist of federal reform in Italy and Europe.
Manifesto for a new League
In April 2012 some key members from the province of Treviso, led by Giuseppe Covre and Marzio Favero, proposed a "Manifesto for the League which will be", which was soon endorsed by Roberto Maroni (see above).
The text, divided in eighteen points, was aimed at preparing a new course for the party. The proponents wanted to re-launch the federalist structure of Lega Nord, in spite of the centralization and leaderism which had long characterized it. Thus, they highlighted the centrality of members, internal democracy, open debate and frequent congresses. They also wanted a more open party, capable of dialogue with intellectuals, economic forces, and associations.
After many insuccesses in Rome, the party should start building the way toward federalism "outside the Parliament", by forming alliances among regions, provinces and municipalities. The party should also adopt a different language: in fact the proponents realized how some "xenophobic statements, calls for localistic isolation and invocations of a token traditionalism had damaged the cause and the growth of the League. [...] Local autonomy intended as autarchy is anachronistic, while it must be conceived as a value [...] toward international openness, as the glorious Venetian history tells us!".
The League should be able to talk to a larger portion of the electorate, by reclaiming "the Catholic, socialist, liberal, ecc. strains of ideas" and by "irrevocably leaving the rusty alternative between right and left behind": "For too long the League has been stuck in a contradiction. On one side it has presented itself as a movement for institutional reform and, as such, super partes. On the other it has allowed itself to be absorbed in the right/left dialectic. The real battle today is between idolatry of the state and federalism, between an artificial institution and the real communities. Neither with the right nor with the left: the League is above."
Within the party there are no formal factions, yet there are some unofficial groupings.
Gian Paolo Gobbo and Luca Zaia are the leaders of the wing from Treviso, which has its roots in the original Liga Veneta and is more Venetist in character, while the Verona wing, whose standard-bearers are Flavio Tosi and Federico Bricolo, is more conservative and has strong links with Lega Lombarda. While Lighisti from Venice are usually closer to Gobbo and Zaia, those from Vicenza and Padua are set somewhere in the middle between Treviso and Vicenza.
An ideological strain worth of mention is embodied by pure Venetists who stress issues such as Venetian identity and language: they notably include Massimo Bitonci, Roberto Ciambetti, Daniele Stival, Giovanni Furlanetto and Nicola Finco.
Gobbo was re-elected secretary in 2007 due to an agreement with Tosi, who was Gobbo's strongest rival for the leadership. At the 2012 congress Tosi defeated the Venetists' standard-bearer Bitonci, who was supported by 43% of delegates and many MPs.
Many in the party were outraged when Tosi, as mayor of Verona, announced that he was going to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Italian unification in 2011 and declared that Italian unity was a good thing. Gobbo promptly disavowed Tosi and confirmed that the party was opposed to any celebration. Tosi was criticized also by other party bigwigs, such as Francesca Martini, while Furlanetto even proposed the ejection of Tosi from the party. In early 2012 another friction was caused by Tosi's decision to present a personal list, alongside the party's one, in the forthcoming Verona municipal election and his intention to drop its traditional ally, The People of Freedom. Not only Gobbo opposed the move by Tosi, but he also took the opportunity to describe Tosi's views on Italy and Padania as "heresy".
It is difficult to say who is more conservative or liberal between Tosi and Zaia, who often exchange their position within the party. Of course, Tosi is a more traditional conservative liberal, while Zaia, while being a centrist, resembles a green-populist position on environmental issues, nuclear power, GMOs, etc. In occasion of the 2011 referendum, Zaia declared his support for three referenda aimed at blocking the return to nuclear energy and the privatization of water services. Needless to say, Tosi declared himself a "keen nuclearist" and a supporter of the free market instead. At the federal level of the party, Tosi is very close to Roberto Maroni.
- National Secretary: Achille Tramarin (1980−1983), Marilena Marin (1983−1984), Franco Rocchetta (1984−1985), Marilena Marin (1985−1994), Fabrizio Comencini (1994−1998), Gian Paolo Gobbo (1998−2012), Flavio Tosi (2012−present)
- National President: Franco Rocchetta (1991−1994), Gian Paolo Gobbo (1994−1998), Giuseppe Ceccato (1998–1999), Manuela Dal Lago (2001−2008), Flavio Tosi (2008−2012), Luca Baggio (2012−present)
- Party Leader in the Regional Council: Franco Rocchetta (1985–1994), Gian Paolo Gobbo (1994–2000), Flavio Tosi (2000–2002), Franco Manzato (2002–2008), Gianpaolo Bottacin (2008–2009), Roberto Ciambetti (2009–2010), Federico Caner (2010–present)
The party has 5 deputies, 5 senators and 18 regional councillors. It controls also four provinces (Treviso, Vicenza, Venice and Belluno), and, among others, the mayorships of Verona, Castelfranco Veneto, Montebelluna, Vittorio Veneto and Mogliano Veneto.
Members of Liga Veneta successively held office as federal president of Lega Nord from 1991 to 2005:
Members of Liga Veneta have been floor leader of Lega Nord in the Senate, successively since 2008:
A member of Liga Veneta has been the floor leader of Lega Nord in the Chamber of Deputies:
- Gianpaolo Dozzo (2012–2013)
A member of Liga Veneta has been the head of delegation of Lega Nord at the European Parliament:
- Lorenzo Fontana (2012–present)
Members of Liga Veneta have been federal deputy secretary of Lega Nord:
A member of Liga Venta has been the federal administrative secretary of Lega Nord:
- Stefano Stefani (2012–present)
Luciano Gasperini was Lega Nord's candidate for President of the Republic in 1999.
The party has its stongholds in the provinces of the Pedemontana (40–50% of the vote), thus the area at the foot of the Venetian Prealps, and in mountain areas (especially in Lessinia, 45–55%). In the 2010 regional election the party did well in most of the region, but had its best results in Luca Zaia's province of Treviso (48.5%). Treviso was followed by Vicenza (38.1%), Verona (36.1%), Belluno (32.8%), Padua (31.4%), Venice (26.1%) and Rovigo (22.7%). The party's urban strongholds were in the cities of Treviso (35.4%), Schio (34.8%), San Donà di Piave (32.8%), Bassano del Grappa (31.2%), Verona (30.4%) and Vicenza (26.1%).
The electoral results of Liga Veneta in Veneto since 1990 are shown in the table below.
|1990 regional||1992 general||1994 general||1995 regional||1996 general||1999 European||2000 regional||2001 general||2004 European||2005 regional||2006 general||2008 general||2009 European||2010 regional||2013 general|
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, pp. 36, 43
- Ezio Toffano, Short History of the Venetian Autonomism, Raixe Venete
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, pp. 54, 105-111
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, pp. 46-47, 50-51
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, p. 55
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, p. 57
- Ministry of the Interior – Historical Electoral Archive
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, pp. 63-66
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, p. 79
- Ministry of the Interior – Historical Electoral Archive
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, pp. 115-117
- Ministry of the Interior – 2010 regional election in Veneto
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, p. 43
- Corriere del Veneto, 20 December 2009, p. 21
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009, p. 44
- Liga Veneta, Calendario 2008, 2008 (a collection of 1980s' posters)
- David Parenzo; Davide Romano, Romanzo padano. Da Bossi a Bossi. Storia della Lega, Sperling & Kupfer, Milan 2009, p. 19
- Adalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. 22-23, 57
- Ilvo Diamanti, Bianco, rosso, verde... e azzurro, Il Mulino, Bologna 2003, pp. 55-83
- Francesco Jori, Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti, Marsilio, Venice 2009
- Ezio Toffano, Short History of the Venetian Autonomism, Raixe Venete
- Furio Gallina, Die venezianischen Lega – Bewegungen von den Anfängen bis zur Entstehung der Lega Nord, in Vv.Aa., Jeder für sich oder alle gemeinsam in Europa? Die Debatte über Identität, Wohlstand und die institutionellen Grundlagen der Union00, Nomos, Baden-Baden, 2013, pp. 35–50.
- Veneto Region – Legislatures
- Regional Council of Veneto – Elections
- Cattaneo Institute – Archive of Election Data
- Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections