Lightner Witmer (June 28, 1867 – July 19, 1956) was an American psychologist who is credited with the introduction of the term "Clinical Psychology." Witmer also founded the world's first "Psychological Clinic" in the United States at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896.
Witmer contributed greatly to numerous branches of psychology including school psychology and clinical psychology. He also contributed to the development of the field of special education. Little is known about Witmer's life. He is described as being an introverted person who limited the information he shared about his personal life.
- 1 Witmer's early years and family
- 2 Education
- 3 First years at the University of Pennsylvania
- 4 Teaching at Rugby Academy
- 5 James McKeen Cattell's influence
- 6 The Experimental Psychological Lab
- 7 Journey to Germany
- 8 Witmer under Wundt's supervision
- 9 Return to the University of Pennsylvania
- 10 The American Psychological Association
- 11 First Psychological Clinic
- 12 Witmer's final days
- 13 Works
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
Witmer's early years and family
Lightner Witmer was born in Philadelphia on June 28, 1867. He was born David L. Witmer Jr. but at the age of 50, he changed his name to Lightner. Witmer was born to a devout Catholic mother and father, David Lightner was a Germantown pharmacist who graduated from a Philadelphia College in 1862, and Katherine Huchel, about whom little is known. Lightner Witmer was the eldest of four children, being followed by Albert Ferree, Lilly Evelyn (the third, only girl), and the last child named Paul DeLancey. Later in life, Lightner Witmer was a faculty member at the University of Pennsylvania. His siblings also did well for themselves, Ferree his brother obtained his physiology doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania, his sister Lilly Evelyn received her bacteriology medical degree in Berlin, and the youngest sibling obtained a doctoral degree in Pharmacy. By the end of 1905, Lightner Witmer and all his siblings had become doctors in a range of science careers. There is no doubt that their father influenced his children, he instilled in them a value of higher education, and the drive to continue on to obtain doctorates.
Lightner Witmer was born two years after the Civil War had ended. As a young man, Witmer wanted a better future and a better world after the social problems he saw as a result of the Civil War. Perhaps, this experience influenced his decision to develop a theory of applied psychology which focused on helping people, mainly children and those who most needed it. In 1880, Lightner Witmer and his brother Ferree enrolled the prestigious Prep School “Episcopal Academy of Philadelphia”, one of the best schools in America at the time. Witmer and all his siblings attended only top and outstanding private schools. An interesting anecdote where Witmer showed his intelligence and ability to reason was when he was attending his Prep School. Here, Witmer and two other boys were told to build a canoe. Each one had everything they needed to complete their assigned task, the two other kids were arguing over who would build the canoe first, but Lightner Witmer thought and told the other kids, "I wish to finish last as I will learn from others' mistakes and build the best canoe." By saying this, Witmer showed his ability to reason, and eventually he graduated with high honors at the age of seventeen years old.
First years at the University of Pennsylvania
In 1884, Witmer enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania to study Art, but then after a couple of years studying, he decided to change his Art major, and transferred to The Finance and Economy department where he obtained a BA degree at the age of twenty years old. During his freshman year at the University of Pennsylvania, he was chosen as the president of the class. He obtained his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Pennsylvania in 1888. After a stint as a teacher Witmer decided to return to the University of Pennsylvania for his graduate studies in political science.
Teaching at Rugby Academy
During the fall of 1888, Witmer was offered a job as an instructor at Rugby Academy, a male secondary school. Here, he taught two different subjects, history and English. While he was teaching at the academy, Witmer noticed that a 14-year-old student who wished to go to college, had extreme difficulties in differentiating sounds, and also had other speech problems which might today be called dyslexia. Witmer decided to help him to correct his verbal problem; the child progressed satisfactorily and was able to continue studying and enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania This success made Witmer believe that children with problems could satisfactorily engage in education with support, dedication and special education. In the following year in 1889, Witmer finally decided to attend graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania and got into the Philosophy department with the intention of studying law and start working towards an advanced degree in political science. While he was there he was introduced to James McKeen Cattell who inspired him to begin studying in the emerging field of psychology. This is when Witmer finally made his decision to join the experimental psychology department.
James McKeen Cattell's influence
George Fullerton, a member of the The University of Pennsylvania brought the well known experimental psychologist James McKeen Cattell to join the faculty of the University. At this time, Cattell was known as one of the best-trained psychologist of the world who had been educated by one of the most influential psychologists, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt. Witmer was asked by George Fullerton to become Cattell's assistant and, Witmer accepted this great offer, eventually, He decided to resign his teaching position at the Rugby Academy and attend the graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania as a full-time student.
The Experimental Psychological Lab
After he decided to become Cattell's assistant, Witmer and Cattell decided to work together and found the experimental psychology lab with the purpose of studying individual differences by using a wide range of subjects. Witmer's main tasks at the lab were to gather data on individual differences in reaction times, and through these he gained a lot of knowledge in the area of psychological experiments. While he was working at the lab, Witmer published a manual which explained how experimental psychology should be properly conducted. Witmer intended to get his doctoral degree under Cattell's supervision, However Cattell suddenly left the University of Pennsylvania, effectively abandoning his students, and laboratory. Cattell intended to obtain a higher paying position at Columbia University in New York. As a result, Witmer also decided to leave. There was no psychologist besides Cattell at that time, who could have taught psychology to Witmer and his classmates at the University of Pennsylvania, so Witmer was in search of a new teacher.
Journey to Germany
After Cattell left Witmer and his other experimental psychology students, he helped Witmer to get a job as Wundt's assistant in Leipzig, Germany. Witmer knew that Cattell's offer was a good opportunity, and without hesitation he travelled to the University of Leipzig to become Wundt's assistant.
Witmer under Wundt's supervision
In 1891, Witmer decided to travel to Germany for a year and work as Wundt's assistant, He also took classes with Oswald Kulpe, and Ludwig Strumpel. There are no records of what exactly Witmer did while he was working as Wundt's assistant, this is probably because Witmer was a very private person who did not like to share personal information of himself with others, moreover, historians have not found letters written by him sent to other colleagues while he was under Wundt's supervision. However, it is often said that while Witmer was Wundt’s assistant, they both had disagreements. One of those disputes was that Witmer desired to continue working on the work he had previously started with James Cattell,the study of reaction times but, Wundt insisted that they both should study the aesthetic value of different visual forms, and other different branches of psychology such as: educational psychology, and developmental psychology, naturally, Witmer accepted. Witmer obtained his doctoral diploma in the year 1892 from Wundt.
Return to the University of Pennsylvania
In 1892, Witmer left Germany and decided to go back to the University of Pennsylvania. On his return, he became the Director of The Laboratory of Psychology, effectively filling the shoes left by his old advisor, James McKeen Cattell. He was interested in teaching Child Psychology and taught several different courses. He also began conducting research on individual differences in sensory-perceptual variables and presented different papers in experimental psychology.In 1896, he presented a plan of organization for practical work in psychology to the American Psychological Association, and established the world's first psychological clinic. During the same year he used and explained the term "Clinical Psychology" for the first time. In 1902, he started advising graduate students, and published a laboratory manual. He married Emma Repplier in 1904, a prominent Philadelphian student graduated of the exclusive Agnes Irwin School. She was an excellent writer who worked for the American Philosophical Society, which is most likely the place that she and Witmer met, since both belonged to the society. In 1908, he established and staffed a small private residential school near Wallingford, Pennsylvania, an institution dedicated to care and treat retarded and troubled children. Later, he established a similar, but larger facility in Devon, Pennsylvania. He also founded the first speech clinic in the world in 1914.
The American Psychological Association
By 1896, Witmer, Stanley Hall, William James and James McKeen Cattell decided to become members of a new association for psychology professionals, during a meeting in the American Psychological Association (APA). Witmer and other experimental colleagues proposed that the APA should accept only psychological papers, be separated from the American Philosophical Association, and have a better selection process for choosing new members. These proposals caused disagreements among the members of the American Psychological Association because many of the current members did not want the field to separate from philosophy. Their proposals were ignored so Witmer decided to start a new society with Stanley Hall exclusively for experimental Psychologists, but Stanley Hall refused. In 1904 however, Titchener accepted Witmer's proposal to separate Psychology from Philosophy and decided to abandon the APA society and help Witmer create a society solely for experimental psychologists. Witmer told Titchener that the association should be only for men and women should be excluded because they were too emotional when talking about scientific issues. A reason to it could have been that women had not yet been recognized as scientists. But then, he changed his attitude and decided to teach female students and women became accepted to work at his clinic. Moreover, Witmer appointed a woman to become the manager of his clinic. Witmer also wrote and published articles to the APA, one article titled: “The Organization of Practical Work in Psychology,” where he described his desire to apply his knowledge to study humans, and help kids in an academic manner. After he presented his proposal he started developing his plan concerning education. Here, he proposed that schools should become more involved with their students' classes and grades, and that schools should have better educational equipment and the faculty members should receive teaching reflecting psychological findings. However, his proposal was not completely accepted by many.
First Psychological Clinic
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Witmer opened the first Psychological Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896, with the purpose of studying children who had either learning or behavior problems. Witmer’s main participants were children who attended public schools from Philadelphia and surrounding areas who were brought to the Psychological Clinic by their own teachers, or parents. Witmer‘s clinic was appreciated by many because it proactively employed psychology as a means of assisting these children who were struggling in school. In the clinic Witmer regularly dealt with speech problems, sleep disturbances, behavioral problems, hyperactivity, refusal to stay in school, as well as other issues. Every child who entered was given a complete examination of mind and body, which often ruled out physiological symptoms. His method of improving children with psychological problems involved breaking down information to a level that they could understand. He would focus on particular problems and work with the child in that area, often improving several areas at once.
In 1907 Witmer founded the journal The Psychological Clinic. In its first issue he published the article "Clinical Psychology" which explained its definition, describing it the following way:
"Although clinical psychology is clearly related to medicine, it is quite as closely related to sociology and pedagogy... An abundance of material for scientific study fails to be utilized, because the interest of psychologists is elsewhere engaged, and those in constant touch with the actual phenomena do not possess the training necessary to make the experience and observation of scientific value…I have borrowed the word "clinical" from medicine, because it is the term I can find to indicate the character of the method which I deem necessary for this work."
Witmer's "Clinical Psychology" was published and got a lot of attention, because it dealt with the study of children individually. In his article, Witmer presented the idea that all kinds of children (smart or mentally retarded) could reach their full potential with help. He included a definition of retardation using two different terms: "physiological retardation" referred to individuals who did not acquired a normal development for their chronological ages, whereas the other term was called "pedagogical retardation" referred to children who did not develop their full capacities when they reached adulthood.
In the first issue of The Psychological Clinic, he also criticized some of his colleagues and their departments because they had refused his ideas proposed to the American Psychological Association. In 1908, in a later issue of his journal, he criticized William James for what he felt was his unscientific attitude, calling James "the spoiled child of American Psychology". There was no doubt Witmer always defended his own ideas and beliefs even though it seemed that he did not care about other psychologists point of views. This and other disagreements caused Witmer to lose most of their colleagues' friendships, who decided not to attend any more of Witmer's meetings.
Lightner Witmer also attacked Harvard University for using the theory of introspection and teaching psychology incorrectly since Witmer also refused the idea theory introspection and did not care much for pure experimental psychology. He also criticized "Intelligence Tests" and encouraged his students not to trust them, because he thought those tests only gave a measure of the individual's efficiency, nothing else. He thought that people should not be referred as normal or abnormal due to the results of such tests. As one could then say that an individual was "normal" or "abnormal" depending on if, for example, he or she knew or not how write and read properly.
Another type of study performed by Witmer was the use of apes and compared them with children and taught them how to articulate some elements of spoken language, but their efforts to learn were not successful, however, one day Witmer attended a performance and noticed that a monkey was able to do some things human beings could do such as reading and writing, after being instructed to do such things. As mentioned before, Witmer also studied people's behavior and changed his mind by starting to study gifted children instead of mentally retarded children. In 1900, his book called "The Restoration of Children of the Slums" described Witmer's beliefs that criminal behavior was not caused hereditarily, instead he thought criminal behavior was caused due to environmental facts.
It is known that Witmer supported children tremendously, however, one day in 1911, Witmer supported a bill in the state of Pennsylvania in order to sterilize severely retarded people, with the purpose to minimize their spread in the nation. It is known that years ago, Witmer had defended the rights of all children, no matter if some were gifted or retarded children. But in 1912, he decided to go to Italy and learn how to study pedagogical methods with special children.
Witmer's final days
By 1917, Witmer joined the Red Cross during World War I. His main tasks were to help to rehabilitate homeless people who were victims of the war, but in 1918, decided to go back to the United States. When he came back, in 1920 his mother and Titchener had died and he decided not to publish any more. By 1930, the University of Pennsylvania gave him a copy of the volume called “ Clinical Psychology: Studies in honor of In July 19 in 1956 when he was 89 years old he died at the hospital in “Bryn Mawr”, in Pennsylvania from a heart failure, being the last member of the American Psychological Association who died
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- ''Are We Educating the Rising Generation?” Education Review. 37 (1909): 456-467.
- ''Children with mental Defects Distinguished from Mentally Defective Children.” Psychological Clinic. 7 (1913): 173-181.
- ''Clinical Psychology.” Psychological Clinic. 1 (1907): 1-9.
- ''Courses in Psychology for Normal Schools. Education Review 13 (1897): 45-57, 146-162.
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- ''The Problem of Educability. Psychological Clinic 12 (1919): 174-178.
- ''The raining of Very Bright Children. Psychological Clinic 13 (1919): 88-96.
- ''What Is Intelligence, and Who Has It? Scientific Monthly 15 (1922): 57-67.
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