Arend Lijphart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Lijphart)
Jump to: navigation, search
Arend d'Angremond Lijphart
Born (1936-08-17) 17 August 1936 (age 77)
Apeldoorn, Netherlands
Nationality Dutch, American (dual)
Fields Political Science
Institutions University of California, San Diego
Alma mater Principia College, Yale University
Known for Patterns of Democracy
Notable awards President of APSA (1995–1996), Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science (1997), honorary doctorates from University of Leiden (2001), Queen's University Belfast (2004), Ghent University (2009)

Arend d'Angremond Lijphart (born 17 August 1936, Apeldoorn, Netherlands) is a political scientist specializing in comparative politics, elections and voting systems, democratic institutions, and ethnicity and politics. He received his PhD in Political Science at Yale University in 1963, after studying at Principia College from 1955 to 1958. He is currently Research Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of California, San Diego. Dutch by birth, he has spent most of his working life in the United States and is an American citizen. He has since regained his Dutch citizenship and is now a dual citizen of both the Netherlands and the United States.

Major works[edit]

Lijphart is the leading authority on consociationalism, or the ways in which segmented societies manage to sustain democracy through power-sharing. Lijphart developed this concept in his first major work, The Politics of Accommodation, a study of the Dutch political system, and further developed his arguments in Democracy in Plural Societies.

His later work has focused on the broader contrasts between majoritarian and "consensus" democracies. While Lijphart advocated consociationalism primarily for societies deeply divided along ethnic, religious, ideological, or other cleavages, he sees consensus democracy as appropriate for any society with a consensual political culture.[1] In contrast to majoritarian democracies, consensus democracies have multiparty systems, parliamentarism with oversized (and therefore inclusive) cabinet coalitions, proportional electoral systems, corporatist (hierarchical) interest group structures, federal structures, bicameralism, rigid constitutions protected by judicial review, and independent central banks. These institutions ensure, firstly, that only a broad supermajority can control policy and, secondly, that once a coalition takes power, its ability to infringe on minority rights is limited.

In Patterns of Democracy (1999, 2nd ed., 2012), Lijphart classifies thirty-six democracies using these attributes. He finds consensus democracies to be "kinder, gentler" states, having lower incarceration rates, less use of the death penalty, better care for the environment, more foreign aid work, and more welfare spending – qualities he feels "should appeal to all democrats".[2] He also finds that consensus democracies have a less abrasive political culture, more functional business-like proceedings, and a results-oriented ethic.

Lijphart has also made influential contributions to methodological debates within comparative politics, most notably through his 1971 article 'Comparative politics and the comparative method', published in the American Political Science Review.[3]

Honours[edit]

In 1989, Lijphart was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and from 1995 to 1996 served as President of the American Political Science Association.[4] He was awarded the prestigious Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science in 1997.[5]

Publications[edit]

Books[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lijphart, Arend (1999). Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07893-5. 
  2. ^ Lijphart, Arend (1999). Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 293. ISBN 0-300-07893-5. 
  3. ^ Lijphart, Arend (1971). "Comparative politics and the comparative method". American Political Science Review (The American Political Science Review, Vol. 65, No. 3) 65 (3): 682–693. doi:10.2307/1955513. JSTOR 1955513. 
  4. ^ "Arend Lijphart". Department of Political Science, University of California at San Diego. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  5. ^ "Johan Skytte Prize winners". Skytte Foundation, Uppsala University. Retrieved 23 August 2008. 

External links[edit]