|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (December 2009)|
Temporal range: 58–0Ma Early Paleogene - Recent
The Liliaceae, or the lily family, are a family of monocotyledons in the order Liliales. Plants in this family have linear leaves, mostly with parallel veins but with several having net venation (e.g., Cardiocrinum, Clintonia, Medeola, Prosartes, Scoliopus, Tricyrtis), and flower arranged in threes. Several have bulbs, while others have rhizomes. Shade-dwelling genera usually have broad, net-veined leaves, fleshy fruits with animal-dispersed seeds, rhizomes, and small, inconspicuous flowers; genera native to sunny habitats usually have narrow, parallel-veined leaves, capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds, bulbs, and large, visually conspicuous flowers.
Many plants in the Liliaceae are important ornamental plants, widely grown for their attractive flowers. Many species are poisonous if eaten and may cause serious complications, such as renal failure in household pets, especially cats.
The lily family was formerly a paraphyletic "catch-all" group of petaloid monocots that did not fit into other families. It included a great number of genera now included in other families and in some cases in other orders, including: Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Melanthiaceae, Nartheciaceae, Ruscaceae, Smilacaceae, Tecophilaeaceae, Themidaceae, Tofieldiaceae, and Uvulariaceae, and members of the monocot orders Asparagales, Dioscoreales, and Alismatales. Smilacaceae appears to be the family most closely related to Liliaceae in its modern restricted sense.
The genus Calochortus, which includes the sego and mariposa lilies, and its allied genera are separated into a separate family Calochortaceae in some schemes, while others maintain them as a subfamily of Liliaceae, the Calochortoideae.
It is estimated that the family evolved 58 million years ago during the Early Paleogene.
The list below includes genera that have historically been classified in family Liliaceae. Monocot classification has undergone considerable revision in recent years, and some newer systems, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group's APG III classification system, have assigned many of these genera to different families based on genetic relationships. APG III transfers to other families (including subfamilies and, where it applies, orders) are listed in brackets.
Changes in APG III
The genus list above is based on the APG III system. When it was published in 2009, the families Xanthorrhoeaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and Asparagaceae, were greatly expanded. Thirteen of the families of the earlier APG II system were thereby reduced to subfamilies. The APG II families and their equivalent APG III subfamilies are as follows:
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- Mark W. Chase, James L. Reveal, and Michael F. Fay. "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2):132–136.
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- Givnish, T. J., J. C. Pires, S. W. Graham, M. A. McPherson, L. M. Prince, T. B. Patterson, H. S. Rai, E. R. Roalson, T. M. Evans, W. J Hahn, K. C. Millam, A. W. Meerow, M. Molvray, P. Kores, H. E. O’Brien, W. J. Kress, J. Hall, and K. J. Sytsma. 2005. Repeated evolution of net venation and fleshy fruits among monocots in shaded habitats confirms a priori predictions: evidence from an ndhF phylogeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 272: 1481-1490.
- Givnish, T. J., J. C. Pires, S. W. Graham, M. A. McPherson, L. M. Prince, T. B. Patterson, H. S. Rai, E. R. Roalson, T. M. Evans, W. J Hahn, K. C. Millam, A. W. Meerow, M. Molvray, P. Kores, H. E. O’Brien, W. J. Kress, J. Hall, and K. J. Sytsma. 2006. Phylogeny of the monocotyledons based on the highly informative plastid gene ndhF: evidence for widespread concerted convergence. Pp. 28-51 in J. T. Columbus, E. A. Friar, J. M. Porter, L. M. Prince, and M. G. Simpson (eds.) Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, CA.
- Graham, S. W., J. M. Zgurski, M. A. McPherson, D. M. Cherniawsky, J. M. Saarela, E. F. C. Horne, S. Y. Smith, W. A. Wong, H. E. O'Brien, V. L. Biron, J. C. Pires, R. G. Olmstead, M. W. Chase, and H. S. Rai. 2006. Robust inference of monocot deep phylogeny using an expanded multigene plastid data set. Pp. 3-21 in J. T. Columbus, E. A. Friar, J. M. Porter, L. M. Prince, and M. G. Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 3-21.]
- Kelch, D. G. 2000. What happened to the lily family? Pacific Horticulture 61:76-79.
- Kubitzki, K. (Editor) 1998: The families and genera of vascular plants, Vol.3. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Germany. ISBN 3-540-64060-6
- Patterson, T. B., and T. J. Givnish. 2002. Phylogeny, concerted convergence, and phylogenetic niche conservatism in the core Liliales: insights from rbcL and ndhF sequence data. Evolution 56: 233-252.
- Rønsted, N., S. Law, H. Thornton, M. F. Fay, and M. W. Chase. 2005. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the monophyly of Fritillaria and Lilium (Liliaceae; Liliales) and the infrageneric classification of Fritillaria. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 509-527.
- Vinnersten, A., and K. Bremer. 2001. Age and biogeography of major clades in Liliales. American Journal of Botany 88: 1695-1703.
- Zomlefer, W. B., N. H. Williams, W. M. Whitten, and W. S. Judd. 2001. Generic circumscription and relationships in the tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with emphasis on Zigadenus: evidence from ITS and trnL-F sequence data. American Journal of Botany 88: 1657-1669.
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