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"Lily" and "Lilies" redirect here. For other uses, see Lily (disambiguation) and Lilies (disambiguation).
For the band, see Lilium (band).
Lilium candidum 1.jpg
Lilium candidum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Subfamily: Lilioideae
Tribe: Lilieae
Genus: Lilium
Type species
Lilium candidum L.

See text

  • Lirium Scop.
  • Martagon Wolf
  • Martagon (Rchb.) Opiz

Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have "lily" in their common name but are not related to true lilies.


The botanic name Lilium is the Latin form and is a Linnaean name. The Latin name is derived from the Greek λείριον, leírion, generally assumed to refer to true, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily.[2][3] The word was borrowed from Coptic (dial. Fayyumic) hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, from Egyptian hrṛt "flower".[citation needed] Meillet maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean.[citation needed] The Greeks also used the word κρῖνον, krīnon, albeit for non-white lilies.

The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants, often with only superficial resemblance to the true lily, including lotus, Agapanthus, Zantedeschia, daylily, and others.[citation needed] All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan, shōshannā as "lily", but the "lily among the thorns" of Song of Solomon, for instance, may be the honeysuckle.[which?][4]

For a list of other species described as lilies, see Lily (disambiguation).


Lilium longiflorum flower – 1. Stigma, 2. Style, 3. Stamens, 4. Filament, 5. Tepal

Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft (60–180 cm). They form naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their overwintering organs. In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes, on which numerous small bulbs are found. Some species develop stolons. Most bulbs are deeply buried, but a few species form bulbs near the soil surface. Many species form stem-roots. With these, the bulb grows naturally at some depth in the soil, and each year the new stem puts out adventitious roots above the bulb as it emerges from the soil. These roots are in addition to the basal roots that develop at the base of the bulb.

The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a range of colours including whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings include spots and brush strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a "Turk's cap". The tepals are free from each other, and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary is 'superior', borne above the point of attachment of the anthers. The fruit is a three-celled capsule.[5]

Seeds ripen in late summer. They exhibit varying and sometimes complex germination patterns, many adapted to cool temperate climates.

Naturally most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their native environment. But a few species which distribute in hot summer and mild winter area (Lilium candidum, Lilium catesbaei,Lilium longiflorum) lose leaves and remain relatively short dormant in Summer or Autumn, sprout from Autumn to winter, forming dwarf stem bearing a basal rosette of leaves until accept enough chilling requirement, the stem begins to elongate while warming.


Taxonomical division in sections follows the classical division of Comber,[6] species acceptance follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families,[7] the taxonomy of section Pseudolirium is from the Flora of North America,[8] the taxonomy of Section Liriotypus is given in consideration of Resetnik et al. 2007,[9] the taxonomy of Chinese species (various sections) follows the Flora of China [10] and the taxonomy of Section Sinomartagon follows Nishikawa et al.[11] as does the taxonomy of Section Archelirion.[12]

There are seven sections;

  • Martagon
  • Pseudolirium
  • Liriotypus
  • Archelirion
  • Sinomartagon
  • Leucolirion
  • Daurolirion

Some species formerly included within this genus have now been placed in other genera. These genera include Cardiocrinum, Notholirion, Nomocharis and Fritillaria.

Section Martagon[edit]

Picture Botanical name common name
Lilium distichum.jpg Lilium distichum
Hanson's Lily Lilium hansonii Flowers 1842px.jpg Lilium hansonii
Lil martagon var cattaniae 01Infl Griechenland Rhodopen 16 07 01.jpg Lilium martagon Martagon or Turk's cap lily
Lilium medeoloides 220708.JPG Lilium medeoloides
Lilium tsingtauense.jpg Lilium tsingtauense

Section Pseudolirium[edit]

Picture Sub Section Botanical name common name
Lilium bolanderi.jpg 2a Lilium bolanderi Bolander's Lily
LiliumPuberulum.png 2a Lilium puberulum
Lilium kelloggii.jpg 2a Lilium kelloggii
Lilium rubescens edit.jpg 2a Lilium rubescens
Lilium washingtonianum 3.jpg 2a Lilium washingtonianum Washington Lily, Shasta Lily, or Mt. Hood Lily
Lilium kelleyanum.jpg 2b Lilium kelleyanum
Lilium maritimum 2.jpg 2b Lilium maritimum
Lilium occidentale.jpg 2b Lilium occidentale
Lilium pardalinum.jpg 2b Lilium pardalinum Panther or Leopard lily
Lilium parryi.jpg 2b Lilium parryi
Lilium parvum 2.jpg 2b Lilium parvum Sierra tiger lily or Alpine lily
CanadaLily.jpg 2c Lilium canadense Canada Lily or Meadow Lily
Lilium grayi 2.jpg 2c Lilium grayi
Lilium iridollae.jpg 2c Lilium iridollae
Tiger-lily.JPG 2c Lilium michiganense Michigan Lily
Lilium michauxii.jpg 2c Lilium michauxii Carolina Lily
LiliumSuperbum1.jpg 2c Lilium superbum Swamp lily or American tiger lily
L.pyrophilum3r.JPG 2c Lilium pyrophilum Sandhills Lily[13]
Lilium catesbaei1LEPPYONE.jpg 2d Lilium catesbaei
Wild Lily Blooming along Dog Lake Trail at Kootenay National Park.jpg 2d Lilium philadelphicum Wood lily, Philadelphia lily or prairie lily

Section Liriotypus[edit]

Picture Sub Section Botanical name common name
Lilium candidum 1.jpg 3a Lilium candidum Madonna lily
Lil albanicum 1aEB Griechenland Katarapass 14 06 00.jpg 3b Lilium albanicum
Lilium bosniacum.JPG 3b Lilium bosniacum (Lilium carniolicum var. bosniacum)
Lil chalcedonicum 01EB Griechenland Hrisomiglia 17 07 01.jpg 3b Lilium chalcedonicum
Lilium carniolicum.jpg 3b Lilium carniolicum
Lilium ciliatum (2).jpg 3b Lilium ciliatum
3b Lilium heldreichii
LiliumJankaeBulgaria1.jpg 3b Lilium jankae
Lilium pomponium.jpg 3b Lilium pomponium Turban lily
Lil carniolicum subsp ponticum 01EB Tuerkei Ikizdere 02 07 93.jpg 3b Lilium ponticum
Lilium pyrenaicum.jpg 3b Lilium pyrenaicum
Lii akkusianum 01aHab Tuerkei Akkus 07 07 93.jpg 3c Lilium akkusianum
Lil kesselringianum 01Hab Tuerkei Ardahan Savsat 04 07 94.jpg 3c Lilium kesselringianum
Lilium monadelphum.JPG 3c Lilium monadelphum
Lil rhodopeum 01Infl Griechenland Rhodopen Livaditis 12 06 00.jpg 3c Lilium rhodopeum
Lilium sp. (flower).jpg 3c Lilium szovitsianum Polish Lily
Lilium polyphyllum.jpg 3c Lilium polyphyllum
Lilium ledebourii 2.jpg 3c Lilium ledebourii
Lilium bulbiferum mg-k.jpg 3d Lilium bulbiferum Orange Lily or Fire Lily

Section Archelirion[edit]

Picture Sub Section Botanical name common name
Lilium speciosum.jpg 4a Lilium speciosum Japanese lily
LiliumAuratumVVirginaleBluete2Rework.jpg 4b Lilium auratum Golden rayed lily of Japan, or Goldband lily
Lilium longiflorum var alexandrae.jpg 4c Lilium alexandrae
Lilium japonicum 'Hyuga form' in Mount Hokodake 4c Lilium japonicum
Lilium nobilissimum.jpg 4c Lilium nobilissimum
Lilium brownii.jpg 4d Lilium brownii
Lilium rubellum.jpg 4d Lilium rubellum
Lilium auratum var. platyphyllum.jpg 4d Lilium platyphyllum

Section Sinomartagon[edit]

Picture Sub Section Botanical name common name
Lilium davidii 5.jpg 5a Lilium davidii
Lilium duchartrei.jpg 5a Lilium duchartrei
Lilium henryi Inflorescence BotGardBln0806b.jpg 5a Lilium henryi Tiger Lily or Henry's lily
Tigerlilysmall.jpg 5a Lilium lancifolium Tiger Lily (often known as L. tigrinum)
Lilium lankongense2.jpg 5a Lilium lankongense
Leichtlinii.jpg 5a Lilium leichtlinii
Lilium papilliferum (1) edit.jpg 5a Lilium papilliferum
LiliumRosthorniiFlora.jpg 5a Lilium rosthornii
Lilium amabile.jpg 5b Lilium amabile
Lilium callosum.jpg 5b Lilium callosum
Lilium cernuum.jpg 5b Lilium cernuum
Lilium concolor.jpg 5b Lilium concolor Morning Star Lily
Lilium fargesii.jpg 5b Lilium fargesii
Lilium pumilum (Flower) 1.JPG 5b Lilium pumilum Coral Lily, Low Lily, or Siberian Lily
5b Lilium xanthellum
Lilium amoenum.jpg 5c Lilium amoenum
5c Lilium arboricola
Lilium bakerianum.jpg 5c Lilium bakerianum
Lil euxanthum 02aHab China Yunnan Pass 4150 m 22 06 01.jpg 5c Lilium euxanthum
5c Lilium henrici
Lil lophophorum 01aHab China Yunnan Big Snow Pass 19 06 01.jpg 5c Lilium lophophorum
Siroi Lily.jpg 5c Lilium mackliniae Siroi Lily
Lilium majoense.jpg 5c Lilium majoense
Lilium nanum.JPG 5c Lilium nanum
Lilium nepalense (flower).jpg 5c Lilium nepalense
Lilium oxypetalum var insigne.jpg 5c Lilium oxypetalum
5c Lilium paradoxum
Poilanei.jpg 5c Lilium poilanei
Lilium primulinum var.jpg 5c Lilium primulinum
5c Lilium sempervivoideum
5c Lilium sherriffiae
Lilium souliei.jpg 5c Lilium souliei
5c Lilium stewartianum
Lilium taliense.jpg 5c Lilium taliense
Lilium wardii.jpg 5c Lilium wardii
5? Lilium brevistylum
Lilium lijiangense.jpg 5? Lilium lijiangense
5? Lilium anhuiense
5? Lilium eupetes
Lil habaense 01aEB China Yunnan Gang Ho Ba 25 06 01.jpg 5? Lilium habaense
5? Lilium huidongense
5? Lilium jinfushanense
5? Lilium matangense
5? Lilium medogense
5? Lilium pinifolium
5? Lilium pyi
5? Lilium saccatum
5? Lilium tianschanicum
5? Lilium floridum

Section Leucolirion[edit]

Picture Sub Section Botanical name common name
Lilium leucanthum var. centifolium.jpg 6a Lilium leucanthum
Lil regale 01Infl China Sichuan Wolong 18 06 04.jpg 6a Lilium regale
LiliumSargentiae.jpg 6a Lilium sargentiae
Liliumsulphureumflower2.jpg 6a Lilium sulphureum
Lilium wenshanense.jpg 6a Lilium wenshanense
6b Lilium anhuiense
Lilium formosanum.jpg 6b Lilium formosanum
Lilium longiflorum (Easter Lily).JPG 6b Lilium longiflorum Easter Lily
6b Lilium neilgherrense
LiliumPhillipinenseFlora6.jpg 6b Lilium philippinense
Lilium wallichianum.jpg 6b Lilium wallichianum
6b Lilium zairii
Lilium puerense (1).jpg 6b Lilium puerense

Section Daurolirion[edit]

Picture Botanical name common name
Lilium dauricum.jpg Lilium dauricum
Lilium maculatum flower.jpg Lilium maculatum
Lilium pensylvanicum.jpg Lilium pensylvanicum

Section not specified[edit]

Lilium eupetes

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe, across most of Asia to Japan, south to India, and east to Indochina and the Philippines. In the New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States. They are commonly adapted to either woodland habitats, often montane, or sometimes to grassland habitats. A few can survive in marshland and epiphytes are known in tropical southeast Asia. In general they prefer moderately acidic or lime-free soils.


Lilies are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Dun-bar.


Many species are widely grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions. They may also be grown as potted plants. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed. They can be used in herbaceous borders, woodland and shrub plantings, and as patio plants. Some lilies, especially Lilium longiflorum, form important cut flower crops. These may be forced for particular markets; for instance, Lilium longiflorum for the Easter trade, when it may be called the Easter lily.

Lilies are usually planted as bulbs in the dormant season. They are best planted in a south-facing (northern hemisphere), slightly sloping aspect, in sun or part shade, at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb (except Lilium candidum which should be planted at the surface). Most prefer a porous, loamy soil, and good drainage is essential. Most species bloom in July or August (northern hemisphere). The flowering periods of certain lily species begin in late spring, while others bloom in late summer or early autumn.[14] They have contractile roots which pull the plant down to the correct depth, therefore it is better to plant them too shallowly than too deep. A soil pH of around 6.5 is generally safe. The soil should be well-drained, and plants must be kept watered during the growing season. Some plants have strong wiry stems, but those with heavy flower heads may need staking.[15][16]


Below is a list of lily species and cultivars that have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:[17][18][19]-

Classification of garden forms[edit]

Numerous forms, mostly hybrids, are grown for the garden. They vary according to the species and interspecific hybrids that they derived from, and are classified in the following broad groups:[20][21][22]

Asiatic hybrid flower
Dwarf Asiatic Lily 'Tiny Dessert' growing in patio border

Asiatic hybrids (Division I)[edit]

These are derived from hybrids between species in Lilium section Sinomartagon.[23][24]
They are derived from central and East Asian species and interspecific hybrids, including Lilium amabile, Lilium bulbiferum, Lilium callosum, Lilium cernuum, Lilium concolor, Lilium dauricum, Lilium davidii, Lilium × hollandicum, Lilium lancifolium (syn. Lilium tigrinum), Lilium lankongense, Lilium leichtlinii, Lilium × maculatum, Lilium pumilum, Lilium × scottiae, Lilium wardii and Lilium wilsonii.
These are plants with medium sized, upright or outward facing flowers, mostly unscented.
  • Dwarf (Patio, Border) varieties are much shorter, c.36–61 cm in height and were designed for containers.[25] They often bear the cultivar name 'Tiny', such as the 'Lily Looks' series, e.g. 'Tiny Padhye',[26] 'Tiny Dessert'.[27]

Martagon hybrids (Division II)[edit]

These are based on Lilium dalhansonii, Lilium hansonii, Lilium martagon, Lilium medeoloides, and Lilium tsingtauense.
The flowers are nodding, Turk's cap style (with the petals strongly recurved).

Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) hybrids (Division III)[edit]

This includes mostly European species: Lilium candidum, Lilium chalcedonicum, Lilium kesselringianum, Lilium monadelphum, Lilium pomponium, Lilium pyrenaicum and Lilium × testaceum.

American hybrids (Division IV)[edit]

These are mostly taller growing forms, originally derived from Lilium bolanderi, Lilium × burbankii, Lilium canadense, Lilium columbianum, Lilium grayi, Lilium humboldtii, Lilium kelleyanum, Lilium kelloggii, Lilium maritimum, Lilium michauxii, Lilium michiganense, Lilium occidentale, Lilium × pardaboldtii, Lilium pardalinum, Lilium parryi, Lilium parvum, Lilium philadelphicum, Lilium pitkinense, Lilium superbum, Lilium ollmeri, Lilium washingtonianum, and Lilium wigginsii.
Many are clump-forming perennials with rhizomatous rootstocks.

Longiflorum hybrids (Division V)[edit]

These are cultivated forms of this species and its subspecies.
They are most important as plants for cut flowers, and are less often grown in the garden than other hybrids.

Trumpet lilies (Division VI), including Aurelian hybrids (with L. henryi)[edit]

This group includes hybrids of many Asiatic species and their interspecific hybrids, including Lilium × aurelianense, Lilium brownii, Lilium × centigale, Lilium henryi, Lilium × imperiale, Lilium × kewense, Lilium leucanthum, Lilium regale, Lilium rosthornii, Lilium sargentiae, Lilium sulphureum and Lilium × sulphurgale.
The flowers are trumpet shaped, facing outward or somewhat downward, and tend to be strongly fragrant, often especially night-fragrant.
An Oriental hybrid showing open and unopened flower
An emasculated Lilium 'Stargazer'

Oriental hybrids (Division VII)[edit]

These are based on hybrids within Lilium section Archelirion,[23][24] specifically Lilium auratum and Lilium speciosum, together with crossbreeds from several species native to Japan, including Lilium nobilissimum, Lilium rubellum, Lilium alexandrae, and Lilium japonicum.
They are fragrant, and the flowers tend to be outward facing. Plants tend to be tall, and the flowers may be quite large. The whole group are sometimes referred to as "stargazers" because many of them appear to look upwards. (For the specific cultivar, see Lilium 'Stargazer'.)

Other hybrids (Division VIII)[edit]

Includes all other garden hybrids.

Species (Division IX)[edit]

All natural species and naturally occurring forms are included in this group.

The flowers can be classified by flower aspect and form:[28]

  • Flower aspect:
  • a up-facing
  • b out-facing
  • c down-facing
  • Flower form:
  • a trumpet-shaped
  • b bowl-shaped
  • c flat (or with tepal tips recurved)
  • d tepals strongly recurved (with the Turk’s cap form as the ultimate state)

Many newer commercial varieties are developed by using new technologies such as ovary culture and embryo rescue.[29]

Pests and diseases[edit]

Scarlet lily beetles, Oxfordshire, UK

Aphids may infest plants. Leatherjackets feed on the roots. Larvae of the Scarlet lily beetle can cause serious damage to the stems and leaves. The scarlet beetle lays its eggs and completes its life cycle only on true lilies (Lilium) and fritillaries (Fritillaria).[30] Oriental, rubrum, tiger and trumpet lilies as well as Oriental trumpets (orienpets) and Turk's cap lilies and native North American Lilium species are all vulnerable, but the beetle prefers some types over others. The beetle could also be having an effect on native Canadian species and some rare and endangered species found in northeastern North America.[31] Daylilies (Hemerocallis, not true lilies) are excluded from this category. Plants can suffer from damage caused by mice, deer and squirrels. Slugs, snails and millipedes attack seedlings, leaves and flowers. Brown spots on damp leaves may signal botrytis (also known as lily disease). Various fungal and viral diseases can cause mottling of leaves and stunting of growth.

Propagation and growth[edit]

Lilies can be propagated in several ways;

  • by division of the bulbs
  • by growing-on bulbils which are adventitious bulbs formed on the stem
  • by scaling, for which whole scales are detached from the bulb and planted to form a new bulb
  • by seed; there are many seed germination patterns, which can be complex
  • by micropropagation techniques (which include tissue culture);[32] commercial quantities of lilies are often propagated in vitro and then planted out to grow into plants large enough to sell.

According to a study done by Anna Pobudkiewicz and Jadwiga the use of flurprimidol foliar spray helps aid in the limitation of stem elongation in oriental lilies. (1)


Some Lilium species are toxic to cats. This is known to be so especially for Lilium longiflorum though other Lilium and the unrelated Hemerocallis can also cause the same symptoms.[33][34][35] The true mechanism of toxicity is undetermined, but it involves damage to the renal tubular epithelium (composing the substance of the kidney and secreting, collecting, and conducting urine), which can cause acute renal failure. Veterinary help should be sought, as a matter of urgency, for any cat that is suspected of eating any part of a lily - including licking pollen that may have brushed onto its coat.[36]

Culinary and herb uses[edit]


Lilium bulbs are starchy and edible as root vegetables, although bulbs of some species may be very bitter. The non-bitter bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, Lilium pumilum, and especially Lilium brownii (Chinese: 百合 ; pinyin: bǎihé gān) and Lilium davidii var. nicolor are grown on a large scale in China as a luxury or health food, and are most often sold in dry form for herb, the fresh form often appears with other vegetables. The dried bulbs are commonly used in the south to flavor soup. Lily flowers are also said to be efficacious in pulmonary affections, and to have tonic properties.[37] Lily flowers and bulbs are eaten especially in the summer, for their perceived ability to reduce internal heat.[38] They may be reconstituted and stir-fried, grated and used to thicken soup, or processed to extract starch. Their texture and taste draw comparisons with the potato, although the individual bulb scales are much smaller. There are also species which are meant to be suitable for culinary and/or herb uses. There are five traditional lily species whose bulbs are certified and classified as "vegetable and non-staple foodstuffs" on the National geographical indication product list of China.[39]

Culinary use:[40]
野百合Lilium brownii, 百合(变种)Lilium brownii var. viridulum, 渥丹 Lilium concolor, 毛百合 Lilium dauricum, 川百合 Lilium davidii, 东北百合 Lilium distichum, 卷丹 Lilium lancifolium, 新疆百合(变种)Lilium martagon var. pilosiusculum, 山丹Lilium pumilum, 南川百合Lilium rosthornii, 药百合(变种)Lilium speciosum var. gloriosoides.
Herb use:[41][42]
野百合 Lilium brownii, 百合(变种) Lilium brownii var. viridulum, 渥丹 Lilium concolor, 毛百合 Lilium dauricum, 卷丹 Lilium lancifolium, 山丹 Lilium pumilum, 南川百合 Lilium rosthornii, 药百合(变种)Lilium speciosum var. gloriosoides, 淡黄花百合 Lilium sulphureum.
And there are researches about the selection of new varieties of edible lilies from the horticultural cultivars, such as 'Batistero' and 'California' among 15 lilies in Beijing,[43] and 'Prato' and 'Small foreigners' among 13 lilies in Ningbo.[44]


Culinary use: Yuri-ne (lily-root) is also common in Japanese cuisine, especially as an ingredient of chawan-mushi (savoury egg custard). The major lilium species cultivated as vegetable are Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii, Lilium lancifolium, and Lilium auratum.[45][46]

Herb use: Lilium lancifolium, Lilium brownii var. viridulum, Lilium brownii var. colchesteri, Lilium pumilum[47]


Culinary use:

  • The parts of lilium species which are officially listed as food material are the flower and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium Thunb., Lilium brownii var. viridulum Baker, Lilium pumilum DC., Lilium candidum Loureiro.[48] Most edible lily bulbs which can be purchased in a market are mostly imported from mainland China (only in the scale form, and most marked as 蘭州百合 Lilium davidii var. unicolor) and Japan (whole bulbs, should mostly be Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii). There are already commercially available organic growing and normal growing edible lily bulbs. The varieties are selected by the Taiwanese Department of Agriculture from the Asiatic lily cultivars that are imported from the Netherlands; the seedling bulbs must be imported from the Netherlands every year.[49][50][51]

Herb use:

South Korea[edit]

The lilium species which are officially listed as herbs are 이 약은 참나리 Lilium lancifolium Thunberg; 백합 Lilium brownii var. viridulun Baker; 또는 큰솔나리 Lilium pumilum DC.[53][54]

The "lily" flower buds known as jīnzhēn (金针, "golden needles") in Chinese cuisine are actually from the daylily Hemerocallis fulva.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Retrieved June 13, 2014. 
  2. ^ Hyam, R. & Pankhurst, R.J. (1995). Plants and their names : a concise dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-19-866189-4. 
  3. ^ "Classification". Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  4. ^ Shorter Oxford English dictionary, 6th ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 0199206872. 
  5. ^ European Garden Flora; Volume 1
  6. ^ Harold Comber, 1949. "A new classification of the genus Lilium." Lily Yearbook, Royal Hortic. Soc., London. 15:86–105.
  7. ^ Govaerts, R. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 2013-02-03. 
  8. ^ Flora of North America, Vol. 26, Online
  9. ^ Resetnik I., Liber Z., Satovic Z., Cigic P., Nikolic T. (2007). "Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Lilium carniolicum group (Liliaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences". Plant Systematics and Evolution 265: 45–58. doi:10.1007/s00606-006-0513-y. 
  10. ^ Flora of China, Vol. 24,
  11. ^ Nishikawa Tomotaro, Okazaki Keiichi, Arakawa Katsuro, Nagamine Tsukasa (2001). "Phylogenetic Analysis of Section Sinomartagon in Genus Lilium Using Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region in Nuclear Ribosomal DNA". 育種学雑誌 Breeding science 51 (1): 39–46. doi:10.1270/jsbbs.51.39. 
  12. ^ Nishikawa Tomotaro, Okazaki Keiichi, Nagamine Tsukasa (2002). "Phylogenetic Relationships among Lilium auratum Lindley, L. auratum var. platyphyllum Baker and L. rubellum Baker Based on Three Spacer Regions in Chloroplast DNA". 育種学雑誌 Breeding science 52 (3): 207–213. doi:10.1270/jsbbs.52.207. 
  13. ^ "Lilium pyrophilum in Flora of North America @". Retrieved 2013-02-03. 
  14. ^ "Lily". 8/6/2013. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ RHS encyclopedia of plants & flowers. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2010. p. 744. ISBN 1405354232. 
  16. ^ Jefferson-Brown, Michael (2008). Lilies (Wisley handbooks). United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 96. ISBN 1845333845. 
  17. ^ Plant awards The Royal Horticultural Society
  18. ^ Search for AGM plants The Royal Horticultural Society
  19. ^ AGM lists The Royal Horticultural Society
  20. ^ "North American Lily Society: Types of Lilies". Retrieved 2013-02-03. 
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  22. ^ "The RHS is the International Registration Authority for lilies". 
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