Lima Metropolitan Area
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- This article is about the administrative division. For the city, see Lima
- This article is about the metropolitan area in Peru. For the metropolitan area in the U.S. State of Ohio, see Lima, Ohio metropolitan area.
The Lima Metropolitan Area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nation's capital) and Callao. It is the largest of the metropolitan areas of Peru, the eighth largest in the Americas, and among the thirty largest in the world. The conurbation process started to be evident in the 1980s. The metropolitan area is composed of six subregions. These are the Lima Norte, Lima Sur, Lima Este, Residential Lima, Central Lima, and Callao. It has a population of 9,367,587 according to 2011 statiscs.
The city of Lima was founded by Spanish colonists on January 18, 1535. The port of Callao was founded similarly two years later. The city of Lima began when Francisco Pizarro declared it at what is known in Christianity as the Epiphany. He declared it at the center of the city, the Plaza Mayor. It would become the most important city in South America.
The city of Callao has also been highly important, as for hundreds of years it was the only port in all of the Viceroyalty of Peru (all of Spanish South America at the time) allowed to ship anything to the rest of the world. For hundreds of years, Lima and Callao were separated by a desert. This did not diminish the importance of the union between the two cities. It was not until the 19th century that they were connected by a railroad. The metropolitan linkage between these two cities did not start until they both grew enough to, in essence, crash into each other.
Today, this is the most important metropolis in Peru and the largest in the Andean region. The area's financial district is San Isidro. Many of the city's business centers, skyscrapers, and commerce are located here. The area's nightlife is mainly based in Miraflores and Barranco. The metropolis is a lively area and music at night is common in some areas. Today different parts of the metropolis have different aspects and slightly different cultures. The downtown area, unlike most downtowns in the world, is made up of historical architecture, such as cathedrals and churches.
In the latter half of the 20th century, the metropolis has grown rapidly by migration from other regions of Peru. Many of these migrants began to form new communities called pueblos jovenes and asentamientos humanos, literally Young Towns and Human Settlements. These towns are similar to the favelas of Brazil but considerably smaller. Many of them have no running water or electricity and the city has been unable to provide the infrastructure to all the new residents. Many of the communities, such as Comas, Los Olivos, and Villa El Salvador have evolved into modern districts, where residents have found the better life they were searching for.
The conurbation has an area of 2,819.26 km². It is concentrated mainly in the coastal area and runs north-south along the Pacific coast for almost 200 km, beginning in the district of Ancón, on the border with the Huaral Province of the Lima region, and ending in the district of Pucusana, on the border with the Cañete Province, also in the Lima region. The Rímac, Chillón and Lurín rivers pass through the area. It is made up of in total 49 districts. There are 43 districts in Lima and 6 in Callao. Most of the area is located in the desert whereas the eastern portion is located in the foothills of the Andes. It is the second largest metropolis in a desert after Cairo, Egypt. The metropolis is divided into six areas. They are the Cono Norte, Cono Sur, Eastern Lima, The High-Scale Commercial Districts, the Port of Callao, and the Historical Center of Lima.
Today the two cities are conurbanized so much that only signs mark the borders. Hundreds of streets and highways link the two cities.
- Taxicab vary in quality of service and price. They can be stopped at any street, or private taxi companies can be called to pick up passengers at a certain address. To improve the quality of taxis running in the metropolis, a new law was passed to prohibit importing used cars; thanks to this law, the city of Lima ensures that taxis and other users have new vehicles all over the city, reducing smog.
Numerous inter-urban bus companies offer transportation to other cities in Peru. Quality varies depending on the price, from luxury express buses to uncomfortable and crowded micros.
- Mass-transit systems:
El Metropolitano Nowadays Lima's Municipality has finish the construction of new bus system called Metropolitano an above-ground mass-transit system, which links the downtown area with the financial district, San Isidro, in the central part of the city. The system starts in Chorrillos (south of Lima) and finishes in Comas (north of Lima). It is expected to expand the lines of this system in the future.
Lima Metro In 2010 the government of Alan García renewed the project of Lima Metro, starting with the construction of Line 1. It calls for the construction and implementation of 11.7 kilometres (7.3 mi) (with a total of 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi)) of viaduct elevated of double ramp from the Atocongo Bridge to downtown Lima. The Lima Metro Line 1 is being built by a consortium made up by two engineering and construction companies. It is estimated that construction will be complete by December 2010, with remaining work the electrification of the line. Siemens Engineering has responsibility for that portion. The first part of Line 1 must be completed in June 2011 and starts daily operations in July 2011.
% of the metro area's total population, sorted by district areas:
- Lima Norte (Ancón, Carabayllo, Comas, Independencia, Los Olivos, Puente Piedra, San Juan de Lurigancho, San Martin de Porres, Santa Rosa): 25%
- Lima Este (Ate, Cieneguilla, Chaclacayo, El Agustino, Lurigancho, San Luis, Santa Anita): 12%
- Lima Sur (Chorrillos, Lurín, Pachacamac, Pucusana, Punta Hermosa, Punta Negra, San Bartolo, San Juan de Miraflores, Santa María del Mar, Villa el Salvador, Villa María del Triunfo): 20%
- Residential Lima (Barranco, Jesús María, La Molina, Lince, Magdalena, Miraflores, Pueblo Libre, San Borja, San Isidro, San Miguel, Santiago de Surco, Surquillo): 20%
- Callao (Bellavista, Callao District, Carmen de la Legua Reynoso, La Perla, La Punta, Ventanilla District): 12%
- Central Lima (Breña, La Victoria, Downtown Lima, Rimac): 11%
Growth of the metropolis
The following maps show how the Lima and Callao netropolitan area has grown over the years. The first map shows the population in 1535, which is the year Lima was founded, and the last map shows the population in 2006.
The Future as a megacity
Lima is expected to become a megacity before the end of the decade. A megacity is a metropolitan area of more than ten million people. It will be the first in the Andean States and the fourth in South America.
- Lima Metropolitana is formed by the Province of Lima and the Constitutional Province of Callao in accordance with D.S. N°011-72-PM as of 25 April 1972