A Limbu woman
|Regions with significant populations|
|Limbu (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n]), Nepali|
|Mundhum, Hinduism, Shamanism, Buddhism|
The Limbu (exonym) or Yakthung (endonym) (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]) tribes and clans are a Kirati people indigenous to the hill and mountainous regions of East Nepal between the Arun and Mechi rivers to as far as South Tibet, Bhutan, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Assam, Nagaland, and Burma.
The name Limbu is an exonym of an uncertain origin. They call themselves Yakthumba (IPA: [yakthuŋbɑ]. In Standard Tibetan, they are referred to as "Sikkimese people" (Tibetan: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་སྐད་, Wylie: 'bras ljongs pa) and in Sikkimese as Shong or Tsong "Tsang people". Their estimated population of 700,000 is centered in the districts of Sankhuwasabha, Tehrathum, Dhankuta, Taplejung, Morang, Sunsari, Jhapa, Panchthar, Ilam District, Kathmandu District, Lalitpur District, Bhaktapur District' in Nepal, These are all within the Mechi and Kosi Zones or "Limbuwan".
Portions of the Limbu population are also located in the east and west districts of Sikkim. A smaller number are scattered throughout the cities of Darjeeling and Kalimpong in West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland and in north and south Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma and recently migrated to the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, the United States and many other countries.
Limbu clans and tribes are divided into two gotras indicating their origin: Lhasa and Yunnan. The Limbu are known as Yakthung Thibong (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ thibo:ŋ]) or "Ten Limbu", from which thirteen Limbu subgroups have emerged. According to legend, five of the groups came from Yunnan and the other eight from Lhasa.
Unlike the caste system which was brought to the Nepal region after the invasion of the Hindu Gorkhas, a caste system is not practiced among the Limbu people and Limbu sub-groups. However, there are numerous different clans and family-sects.
- 1 Yakthungba or Yakthumba
- 2 Tsong people
- 3 Limbu language
- 4 Limbu vowels and consonants
- 5 Limbu Universal Vocabulary
- 6 Limbu Religion
- 7 Limbu culture
- 8 Limbu attire and ornaments
- 9 Limbu flag
- 10 Limbu economy
- 11 Wedding practices
- 12 Limbu religion and festivals
- 13 Limbu traditional music and singing styles
- 14 Folk musical instruments
- 15 Traditional sports
- 16 Limbus and Hindu caste system
- 17 Notable Limbu personalities
- 18 See also
- 19 Notes
- 20 Further reading
- 21 External links
Yakthungba or Yakthumba
The word Yakthungba (yakthuŋba) is most likely a combination of three Limbu syllables: yak, the animal; thum, "herder"; and ba or pa, "inhabitant" (feminine ma). Together these syllables may be translated as "hill people". They are also known as "yak herders" because some clans belonging to the Lhasa Gotra people have legends about their migration from southeast Tibet through the Olang Tshung Gola pass (above Taplejung District).
The Tsong people are a division of Limbu clans in Sikkim. They claim to have migrated from Tsang, Tibet, following their guru, Matog Lama, settling in Sikkim.
Limbu language went through its own unique evolution from the Tibetan and Devanagari writing systems. Far more Limbus are literate in Nepali than in Limbu, thus many Limbu publications are accompanied by Nepali translation.
Limbu language is one of the major spoken and written languages of Nepal, Sikkim, and other parts of Northern India. Today, linguists have reached the conclusion that pronominalization is an indigenous development of the Tibeto-Burman language, and Limbu language bears a close resemblance with Khambu Sampang and other unique Tibetan dialects. Limbu language has four main dialects: Panchthare, Tamarkhole, Phedappe and Chatthare.
Before the introduction of Sirijonga script among Limbu Kiratas, Rong script was popular in East Nepal, especially in the early Maurong state. Sirijonga script nearly disappeared for 800 years, but it was brought back into practice by Te-Ongsi Sirijonga Thebe of Tellok Sinam, Taplejung district.
Limbu language is one of developed and school and college language (Sikkim and Eastern part/Limbuwan of Nepal) with its own literature, grammars and dictionaries.
Accounts with Sirijonga
Limbu, Lepcha and Newar are the only Sino-Tibetan languages of the Central Himalayas to possess their own scripts. (Sprigg 1959: 590), (Sprigg 1959: 591-592 & MS: 1-4) The Limbu alphabet was devised during the period of the Buddhist expansion in Sikkim during the early 18th century when Limbuwan still constituted part of Sikkimese territory. The Limbu alphabet was probably composed during the same time as the Lepcha alphabet, which was created by the third King of Sikkim, Phyagrdor rNamrgyal, between 1700 and 1717.
Limbu vowels and consonants
Limbu Universal Vocabulary
1. Sun : nam; 2. Moon: la:ba; 3. Star: tanchoˀba; 4. Soil: kham; 5. Water: cwat; 6. Stone: luŋ; 7. Fire: mi; 8. Home: him; 9. Tree: sinŋbuŋ; 10. Mother: mamaˀ; 11. Father: papaˀ; 12. Path: lam; 13. Flower: phuŋ; 14. Head: thibokpa; 15. Eye: mik; 16. Leg: laŋ; 17. Hand: huk; 18. Eat: cama; 19. Drink: thuŋma; 20. Walk: laŋghekma; 21. Sleep: imma;
The Limbu people practice shamanism, calling it IPA: [yumaˀ][disambiguation needed] religion". The Limbus follow Mundhum. Their holy text is the Mundhum, also known as the (Nep) Kirat Veda. Limbu people worship nature forces such as sun, moon, wind, water (river), fire, main pillar of house and their ancestors.
Limbu people believe in a supreme god called Tagera Ningwaˀphuma, who is also known as the supreme knowledge. The Kirat ancestor IPA: [yumaˀ sɑmmɑŋ] and the god of war Thebaˀ Sammang are the most important deities.
Limbus practice many of their own life cycle rituals. They believe that lineage is not transmitted patrilineally. Rather, a woman inherits her mother's gods, and when she marries and lives with her husband she brings with her the deities that will then be recognized as the household deities.
Limbu bury their dead and observe for two-to-three days through practiced death rituals. The length of the mourning period varies depending on the gender of the deceased. Weddings, mourning, gift exchanges, and settlement of conflicts involve consumption of alcohol i.e. liquor, especially the Limbu traditional beer popularly known as thee which is also drank in a container called Tongba. Dancing parties are arranged for visitors to the village. These affairs give the young Limbu girls and boys a chance to meet and enjoy dancing and drinking.
Limbu attire and ornaments
The traditional dress of the Limbus are mekhli and taga.
Dhaka is the traditional fabric of the Limbus which are made by weaving it in geometric patterns in a handloomm. The art of making dhaka is taught by one generation to another. You will always see a Limbu man clad in dhaka topi (hat) and scarf, and a Limbu lady in dhaka saree, mekhli, blouse and shawl.
In the olden days, the Limbus were skilled in silk farming. The Kiratis were also known as silk traders. According to JB Subba and Iman Xin Chemjong, the Kirat is a corrupt form of kereta,silkworm.
- Mekhli- Long dress worn with a horizontal strip of cloth (phɔˀi:) with collars crossing over or in a Vneck style.
- Chunglokek/sunghamba- Blouse
- Chaubandi Cholo- Blouse with collars overlapping each other
- Sim- 'gunyo' in Nepali. A long strip of cloth wrapped around like a skirt.
- Phaoee IPA: [phɔˀi:]- waist belt
Limbu women are famed for their use of gold jewellery. Aside from samyang IPA: [sɑmyɑŋ] (gold), they use yuppa (silver), luung IPA: [luŋ](glass stones), ponche (coral/amber), and mudhin (turquoise). Most Limbu ornaments are nature inspired. As many other global indigenous people, they are shamanistic and worship nature.
- Samyanfung IPA: [sɑmyɑŋphuŋ](Gold flower)- Huge circular disc like in gold. The common design features a coral on the centre. Amongst Limbus, Samyangfung IPA: [sɑmyɑŋphuŋ] represents sun.
- Nessey IPA: [nɛssɛˀ] ( ne>nekho ear +se>to bulge)- Large circular flattened gold earring. Common designs are water springs with coral or glass stones.
- Laksari- Gold earrings worn continuously on the ear lobes In the shape of leaves, diamonds etc.
- Namloyee or yogakpa- Large silver necklace in the shape of a square or circle embedded with coral stones. Same as Tibetan ghau.
- Yangyichi or Reji - Long necklace with coins
- Sesephung (Bright Flower) - A forehead piece with coral moon. Nepali Sirbandi.
- Yarling- Lotus bud shaped earrings
- Pongwari or kantha- Necklace with golden beads and red felt.
- Hukpangi- Silver bangle
- Swagep- Finger ring
- Ponche-Red coral beads
Male dresses and ornaments
- Paga- Head wear that is pointy and tied at the back with long strips.
- Ningkheng- Muffler
- Phaoee IPA: [phɔˀi:]- Waist belt
- Sandokpa- Upper body dress
- Sungrehba- coat like upper body dress
- Lapetta and pagappa- Upper body dress
- Paohao- Main body dress
- Hangchang- Upper body dress for royal family
- Hangpen- Lower body dress for royal family
This form of clothing was worn until Nepal forced "one religion, one dress, one language" policy which is why many Limbus in Nepal wear the traditional Nepalese dress, chaubandi cholo and daura sural. The Yakthung of Sikkim still wear traditional Limbu clothing. Many efforts are being made by groups such as Yakthung Chumlung to raise awareness on the cultural dress and heritage.
The Limbu people have their own flag. The blue represents the bodies of water and the sky, the white represents air and peace, and the red represents the earth and pure blood of the Limbu people. The sun in the centre represents various Limbu spiritual practices and everyday living. The use and recognition of the flag ended in the eighteenth century during the Gorkha invasion. Recently, Limbuwan organisations have started to publish the flag in Limbuwan laaje IPA: [la:jeˀ] areas.
The Limbus traditionally practiced subsistence farming. Rice and maize comprised their principal crops. Although there is an abundance of arable land, productivity is greatly limited by insufficient technology. Excess crops are often traded for food that cannot be grown in the region.
A sizable number of Limbu youths are enlisted in the British and Indian Gurkha regiments, providing their families with a steady stream of income. This income from military service helped to improve the Limbu community as a whole in terms of health and education.
Limbus generally marry within their own community (Jones and Jones, 1976). Cross-cousin marriage is not allowed in Limbu culture. Marriage between a man and the widow of his elder brother can take place if they mutually agree. Marriage between a man and a woman outside the clan is also possible either by arrangement or by mutual consent of the man and woman in question. It is conventionally said that the customs and traditions of Limbus were established in the distant past by Sawa Yethang IPA: [sawa yethaŋ] (council of eight kings). The marriages are mostly arranged by parents or they can also result when a man elopes with a woman. Asking for a woman's hand is an important ceremony. In that system, the woman can ask for anything, including an amount of gold, silver, etc. This confirms to the woman's family that the man is financially secure enough to keep their daughter happy. A few days after the wedding, the man's family members have to visit the woman's house with a piglet and some alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, depending upon the financial standard of his house. The most important ceremonies of a Limbu wedding take place in the groom's house rather than the bride's because the bride has to stay with her husband. There are two special dances in this ceremony, one is called "yalakma" or dhan nach in Nepali (rice harvest dance) and "Kelangma" IPA: [ke la:ŋma] or Chyabrung IPA: [cyɑbruŋ] in Nepali. The Yalakma IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ] is characterized by men and women dancing in a slow circle, whereas the Kelangma IPA: [ke lɑ:ŋmɑ] consists of complex footwork synchronized with the beat of the drums. Anyone can join the dance, which can last for many hours. The Yalakma IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ] can also be a celebration of the harvest season or other social occasions.
Limbu religion and festivals
The Limbus follow the social rules and regulation of Mundhum oral 'scripture' similar to the Bön, shaman. However, their religion is also influenced by Tibetan Buddhism and Hinduism. They have their own distinct religion known as "Yumaˀ Samyo" or "Yumaˀism". They also have many different classes of ritual specialists, of which "Phedangma IPA: [phɛdɑŋmɑ]", "Yema/Yeba" IPA: [yɛma/yɛba], and "Shamba" are some. Their supreme deity is Tagera Ningwaˀphuma IPA: [niŋwɑˀphu:mɑŋ], but the deity Yuma IPA: [yumɒˀ] (literally: "Grandmother" or "Mother Earth") is the most important and popular among the Limbus and is worshiped in all occasions. Yuma IPA: [yumɒˀ]is the mother of all the Limbus, therefore one regards his or her mother as a goddess. Their religion is enshrined in the evergreen Cynodondactylon (Dubo) grass. Traditionally, the Limbu bury their dead, but due to the influence from their Hindu neighbours, cremation is becoming more popular. Limbu people also have their own clergy, such as Phedangma IPA: [phɛdaŋmɑ], Samba, Yeba (male) Yeba-Yema IPA: [yɛba/yɛma] (female). According to the Nepal Census of 2001, out of 359,379 Limbu, 86.29% were identified as practising the traditional Kiranti religion, and 11.32% were identified as Hindu and other religions. Modern Limbus have also been influenced by Christianity, especially those living in parts of India. There are some Limbu Ordained and Pastors in some parts of Indian state.
Limbu traditional music and singing styles
Limbus residing in Sikkim, Darjeeling, Assam, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma have their own identity because of a strong belief in "Yumawad". Yumawad is a type of religious scripture which has been kept alive by their religious leaders and handed down verbally from generation to generation. Some of the retellings of Yumawad are also included in Limbu traditional music with social stories, dreams, and everyday life. There has been a rich tradition of Limbus singing their folk songs. Their folk songs can be divided into the following groups:
- Khyali - a conversational song in which young lash and lads sing in very poetic expressions and in a very sweet tone.
- Traditional Love Songs -
- Sakpa Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm]Samlo - This song is sung during the Kusakpa Yaalang IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:ŋ] dance in a fast beat.
- Kemba Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm]Samlo - This song is sung during the Kemba Yeaaˀlang dance in a slow beat.
- Domke Akma Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm] Samlo - It is sung when doing the normal chores and also during the Domke Akma dance.
- Hakpare Samlo - this song is sung by middle-aged men and women who have interest in Mundhum and who are well versed in it. One can find spiritual and worldly specialties in this song.
- Nisammang IPA: [nisɑmmɑŋ]Sewa Samlo - This song is sung during religious functions. It is a devotional song. Dancing is an important aspect of life among Limbus. Based on acting style, the following types of dances are performed:
- Dance performed after origin of life: This type of dance is known as Ke Lang or Chyabrung dance. The dance imitates the actions of animals, insects and any form of living beings.
- Agricultural dance: Under this type of dance there are -
- Yea Kakma- This dance is performed in the evening after the crops are reaped.
- Damke Akme- This dance is performed while sowing crops.
- War dance: This form of dance is known as 'Nahangma IPA: [nɑ.hɑŋmɑ]' and is performed during "Nahangma IPA: [nɑ.hɑŋmɑ]"- their religious function. In this dance, only adult males and "Shamani" priests can take part. During the dance, they carry a sword in their right hand and a shield in their left hand, or an arrow in their right hand and a bow in their left hand.
- Historical dance: In this dance form, the historical war of ten Limbus fought in Aambepojoma IPA: [ɑmbɛˀpɔjɔˀmɑ] Kamketlungma is depicted.
- Mysterious and ancient dance performed by Shamani priests: this type of dance is known as Yagrangsing, Phungsok Lang, Tongsing Lang. The dance is performed only by the Shamani priests.
Folk musical instruments
Limbu musical instruments include the Niyari Hongsing Ke(Chyabrung),Ting, Drum, Miklakom, Simikla, Chethya/Yethala, Ta, Tungeba, Ungdung, Yalambar Baja, Tetlafakwa IPA: [tɛˀlɑphɛkwɑ], Mephrama, Negra, Yea Pongey, Puttungey, Phakwa, Phamuk, Phenjekom, and Megphama.
For the Limbu people, Archery has always been considered as the main traditional sport. Archery often involves religious demonstrations and rituals. Historically, Limbu cavalry archers were the important when resisting invasions before the pre-Nepal era. The word Limbu itself came from the word Lim-pfungh which in translation means "Shooting-Arrows" or "Act of archery".
There are legends about the beginning of the Limbuwan Gorkha war. In these legends, a Gorkha Military General met a Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] hunter in a forest. When the General asked the hunter about his presence and what he was doing, the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] hunter replied "Lim-pfungh". The Gorkha army later experienced the fierceness from the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]-Tribes' horseback archers for years during the Gorkha-Limbu war. Thus, the name "Limbu" was recorded on the papers of the Gorkhas to describe the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] people. However, after the success of Gorkha invasion, horse breeding and keeping declined swiftly in Limbu territories.
Bare-hand Wrestling has also been practised among the Limbu men during festivals. This was also used to settle personal matters after a festive drinking in which the losing wrestler would have to pay the winner by buying him a drink or inviting him to his house for a drink of traditional tongba IPA: [tɔ:ŋbɑ]. na:nchiŋma is the term for wrestling in Yakthung-pan IPA: [yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n].
Limbus and Hindu caste system
Although Limbus aren't Hindu, they are recognized in the Hindu Society. Nepal's pre-eminent sociologist, Professor Dor Bahadur Bista, asserted that of all the proverbial thirty-six caste and ethnic groups of Nepal, the Hindu caste system made the least impact on the Limbu. In part, this reflected not only their geographical distance from the seat of power in the capital city of Kathmandu but also their cultural independence.
Notable Limbu personalities
- Te-Ongsi - Sirijong Hang Thebe/Taplejung,
- Mahaguru - Phalgunanda Lingden/Panchthar,
- Kiratologist - Imasing Chemjong/Panchthar,
- Poet and Kiratologist - Bairagi Kainla/Til Bikram Nembang/Panchthar; Currently Kathmandu,
- Limbu culture expert and politician - Dr. Chaitanya Subba/Taplejung; Currently kathmandu,
- Limbu Culture Expert - Majul Kumar Yakthungba/Terathum; Currently Lalitpur,
- Poet and development expert - Bikram Subba/DB Ingwaba/Panchthar; Currently Kathmandu,
- Gorkha researcher and expert - Dr. Chandra Laksamba/Taplejung; Currently UK
- Film Director/Maker Nabin Subba/Taplejung; Currently,
- Film director - Pratap Subba/Darjeeling,
- Singer - Kumar Subba/Darjeeling,
- Composer and singer - Dinesh Subba/Darjeeling; Currently Hong Kong,
- Limbu culture expert - Yehang Laoti/Panchthar; currently Kathmandu,
- Politician - Padmasundar Laoti/Panchthar; Currently Kathmandu,
- Political Scientist/Professor - Dr. Mahendra Laoti/Panchthar; Currently USA
- Singer - Sunita Subba/Lalitpur,
- Singer and ethnomusicologist- Jhuma Limbu/Taplejung,
- Politician and lawyer - Subashchandra Nembang/Ilam,
- Linguist and Limbu expert - Amarjung Limbu/Taplejung,
- Linguist and Kiratologist - PS Muringla/Sikkim,
- Linguist and Limbu expert - BB Muringla/Sikkim,
- Poet and University teacher - Manprasad Subba/Darjeeling Bijanbari,
- Politician - Vijaya Prakash Thebe/Taplejung; Currently UK,
- Medical Doctor - Dr. Bina Thebe/Taplejung; Currently UK,
- Sociologist - Damber Chemjong/Panchthar; Currently USA,
- Model, Cine artist - Malvika Subba/Taplejung; Currently Kathmandu,
- Politician - Kumar Lingden/Panchthar
- Veteran Victoria Cross holder - Rambahadur Limbu/Panchthar; Currently Damak/Jhapa
- Limbu Festivals
- Kiranti languages
- Limbu language
- Rambahadur Limbu
- Tongba beverage
- Limbu Clans and Tribes
- Kirat Yakthung Chumlung social organization
- Mundhum religion
- Ethnic groups in Nepal
- Ethnic groups in Bhutan
- Indigenous peoples of Sikkim
- J.R. Subba, History, Culture and Customs of Sikkim, Sikkim(India),2008, Gyan Publishing House
- Government of Nepal.National Planning Commission Secretariat.Central Bureau of Statistics. National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report), November 2012 (PDF). Kathmandu.
- Saklani, Dinesh Prasad Ancient communities of the Himalaya Indus Publishing Company,India (1 Mar 2002) ISBN 978-81-7387-090-3 p. 36
- Levi, Sylvain Le Nepal Asian Educational Services,India; Facsimile edition (20 Dec 2007)ISBN 978-81-206-0580-0 p. 78
- Chaintanya Subba, The Culture and Religion of Limbus, K.B. Subba, 1995
- Kumar Pradhan, The Gurkha Conquests, Oxford University Press, 1991
- J.R. Subba, History, Culture and Customs of Sikkim, Sikkim(India),2008, Gyan Publishing House
- Bareh, Hamlet (2001). "The Sikkim Communities". Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Sikkim. Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-7099-794-1.
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