Limerick East (Dáil Éireann constituency)

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Limerick East
Former Dáil Éireann
Parliamentary constituency
Former constituency
Created 1948
Abolished 2011
Seats 4 (1948–1961)
5 (1961–2011)
County/City council Limerick City
County Limerick
County Clare

Limerick East was a parliamentary constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas from 1948 to 2011. The method of election was the single transferable vote form of proportional representation (PR-STV).

History and boundaries[edit]

The constituency was created under the Electoral (Amendment) Act 1947 for the 1948 general election. It succeeded the constituency of Limerick, which was divided between Limerick East and Limerick West.

It encompassed the whole of Limerick City Council, together with the Castleconnell electoral area and part of the Bruff electoral area of Limerick County Council and the Ballyglass electoral area of Clare County Council. It was a largely urban constituency, and contained small parts of County Clare.[1]

The constituency elected 4 deputies (Teachtaí Dála, commonly known as TDs) from 1948–1961, and 5 deputies from 1961–2011.

It was long considered a stronghold of the Progressive Democrats (PD), having had at least one PD TD from 1987 until 2007.

The report of the Constituency commission published its final recommendations on 23 October 2007. As a result of population decline, Limerick East was replaced by a 4 seat constituency called Limerick City.[2] Most of the rural parts of Limerick East were transferred to the new Limerick constituency.[3]

TDs[edit]

Teachtaí Dála (TDs) for Limerick East 1948–2011[4]
Dáil Election Deputy
(Party)
Deputy
(Party)
Deputy
(Party)
Deputy
(Party)
Deputy
(Party)
13th 1948[5] Daniel Bourke
(FF)
Robert Ryan
(FF)
James Reidy
(FG)
Michael Keyes
(Lab)
4 seats
1948–1981
14th 1951[6] Tadhg Crowley
(FF)
1952 by-election[7] John Carew
(FG)
15th 1954[8] Donogh O'Malley
(FF)
16th 1957[9] Paddy Clohessy
(FF)
Ted Russell
(Ind)
17th 1961[10] Tom O'Donnell
(FG)
Stephen Coughlan
(Lab)
18th 1965[11]
1968 by-election[12] Desmond O'Malley
(FF)
19th 1969[13] Michael Herbert
(FF)
20th 1973[14]
21st 1977[15] Michael Lipper
(Ind)
22nd 1981[16] Peadar Clohessy
(FF)
Jim Kemmy
(Ind)
Michael Noonan
(FG)
23rd 1982 (Feb)[17] Willie O'Dea
(FF)
Jim Kemmy
(DSP)
24th 1982 (Nov)[18] Frank Prendergast
(Lab)
25th 1987[19] Peadar Clohessy
(PD)
Desmond O'Malley
(PD)
Jim Kemmy
(DSP)
26th 1989[20]
27th 1992[21] Jim Kemmy
(Lab)
28th 1997[22] Eddie Wade
(FF)
1998 by-election[23] Jan O'Sullivan
(Lab)
29th 2002[24] Peter Power
(FF)
Tim O'Malley
(PD)
30th 2007[25] Kieran O'Donnell
(FG)
31st 2011 Constituency abolished. See Limerick City and Limerick

Note: The columns in this table are used only for presentational purposes, and no significance should be attached to the order of columns. For details of the order in which seats were won at each election, see the detailed results of that election.

Elections[edit]

2007 general election[edit]

2007 general election: Limerick East[25]
Party Candidate  % 1st Pref Count 1 Count 2 Count 3 Count 4 Count 5 Count 6 Count 7 Count 8
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 38.6 19,082              
Fianna Fáil Peter Power 7.2 3,569 8,669            
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 15.2 7,507 8,484            
Labour Party Jan O'Sullivan 10.3 5,098 6,236 6,271 6,352 6,556 7,236 8,114 9,051
Fine Gael Kieran O'Donnell 10.3 5,094 5,566 5,584 5,644 5,816 6,148 6,498 6,966
Progressive Democrats Tim O'Malley 6.8 3,354 4,211 4,268 4,308 4,387 4,526 4,670 5,776
Fianna Fáil Noreen Ryan 2.8 1,391 2,943 3,245 3,278 3,419 3,536 4,110  
Sinn Féin Maurice Quinlivan 4.2 2,081 2,480 2,494 2,513 2,686 2,839    
Green Party Trish Forde Brennan 2.6 1,296 1,420 1,425 1,432 1,619      
Independent John Devane 0.7 330 457 461 469        
Independent Cathal McCarthy 0.4 188 232 233 236        
Independent Denis Riordan 0.4 186 207 209 210        
Christian Solidarity Conor O'Donoghue 0.4 171 202 203 205        
Independent Patrick Moore 0.1 28 38            
Electorate: 76,874   Valid: 49,375   Spoilt: 431 (0.9%)   Quota: 8,230   Turnout: 49,806 (64.8%)

2002 general election[edit]

2002 general election: Limerick East[24]
Party Candidate  % 1st Pref Count 1 Count 2 Count 3 Count 4 Count 5 Count 6 Count 7 Count 8 Count 9 Count 10 Count 11
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 26.3 13,174                    
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 18.9 9,451                    
Fianna Fáil Peter Power 7.8 3,881 5,838 5,879 5,969 6,007 6,080 6,253 6,425 6,851 9,491  
Progressive Democrats Tim O'Malley 9.8 4,885 5,327 5,415 5,490 5,506 5,631 5,782 5,872 6,324 6,953 7,723
Labour Party Jan O'Sullivan 9.3 4,629 5,048 5,193 5,255 5,356 5,715 5,927 6,323 6,958 7,256 7,467
Fine Gael Mary Jackman 8.9 4,468 4,712 5,409 5,497 5,529 5,657 5,842 5,979 6,569 6,986 7,162
Fianna Fáil Eddie Wade 5.8 2,918 4,029 4,042 4,084 4,105 4,134 4,266 4,323 4,529    
Independent Patrick Kennedy 4.2 2,092 2,313 2,366 2,434 2,567 2,650 2,840 3,379      
Independent John Gilligan 2.3 1,176 1,315 1,333 1,379 1,576 1,680 1,920        
Ind. Health Alliance Tom Ryan 2.3 1,148 1,269 1,289 1,361 1,405 1,478          
Green Party Timothy Hourigan 1.8 917 970 985 1,053 1,077            
Independent Michael Kelly 1.3 677 736 751 764              
National Party Nora Bennis 1.0 479 536 545                
Christian Solidarity Conor O'Donoghue 0.2 86 95 96                
Independent Aidan Ryan 0.1 19 27 29                
Electorate: 80,593   Valid: 50,000   Spoilt: 513 (1.0%)   Quota: 8,334   Turnout: 50,513 (62.7%)

1998 by-election[edit]

Following the death of Labour Party TD Jim Kemmy, a by-election was held on 11 March 1998. The seat was won by the Labour Party candidate Jan O'Sullivan.

1998 by-election: Limerick East[23]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Labour Party Jan O'Sullivan 10,619 24.9 1 5
Fianna Fáil Sandra Marsh 10,173 23.8
Fine Gael Mary Jackman 10,445 24.5
Progressive Democrats Tim O'Malley 4,287 10.0
Democratic Left John Ryan 3,868 9.1
Sinn Féin Jenny Marie Shapland 909 2.1
Independent John Gilligan 850 2.0
National Party Nora Bennis 700 1.6
Green Party Eric Sheppard 546 1.3
Independent Barney Sheehan 198 0.5
Independent Noel Hannon 108 0.3
Electorate: 78,461   Valid: 42,703   Quota: 21,352   Turnout: 54.4%

1997 general election[edit]

1997 general election: Limerick East[22]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 12,581 25.3 1 1
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 10,092 20.3 2 1
Fianna Fáil Eddie Wade 4,798 9.7 3 8
Progressive Democrats Desmond O'Malley 4,358 8.8 4 9
Labour Party Jim Kemmy 2,702 5.4 5 11
Fine Gael Mary Jackman 3,084 6.2
Democratic Left John Ryan 3,403 6.9
Fianna Fáil Peter Power 2,362 4.8
Labour Party Jan O'Sullivan 1,866 3.8
Progressive Democrats Eddie Creighton 1,817 3.7
National Party Nora Bennis 1,533 3.1
Green Party Eric Sheppard 802 1.6
Independent Noel Hannon 195 0.4
Independent Denis Riordan 108 0.2
Electorate: 76,705   Valid: 49,701   Spoilt: 348 (0.7%)   Quota: 8,284   Turnout: 50,049 (65.3%)

1992 general election[edit]

1992 general election: Limerick East[21]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 10,990 22.7 1 1
Progressive Democrats Desmond O'Malley 8,304 17.2 2 1
Labour Party Jim Kemmy 8,262 17.1 3 1
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 5,437 11.2 4 11
Progressive Democrats Peadar Clohessy 4,334 9.0 5 12
Fianna Fáil Eddie Wade 3,637 7.5
Labour Party Jan O'Sullivan 3,091 6.4
Fine Gael Mary Jackman 3,084 6.2
Democratic Left John Ryan 835 1.7
Independent Joe Harrington 370 0.8
Independent Augustine Moore 463 1.0
Sinn Féin Tom Clancy 400 0.8
Independent Jude Williams 118 0.2
Electorate: 71,136   Valid: 48,351   Spoilt: 721 (1.5%)   Quota: 8,059   Turnout: 49,072 (69.0%)

1989 general election[edit]

1989 general election: Limerick East[20]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 9,658 20.8 1 1
Democratic Socialist Jim Kemmy 9,168 19.8 2 1
Progressive Democrats Desmond O'Malley 8,385 18.1 3 1
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 5,805 12.5 4 7
Progressive Democrats Peadar Clohessy 4,233 9.1 5 8
Fianna Fáil Eddie Wade 3,073 6.6
Fine Gael Mary Jackman 2,715 5.9
Fianna Fáil Anthony Brommel 2,298 5.0
Labour Party Declan Leddin 1,006 2.2
Electorate: 66,471   Valid: 46,341   Spoilt: 499 (1.1%)   Quota: 7,724   Turnout: 46,840 (70.5%)

1987 general election[edit]

1987 general election: Limerick East[19]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Progressive Democrats Desmond O'Malley 12,358 24.9 1 1
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 9,268 18.7 2 1
Progressive Democrats Peadar Clohessy 6,069 12.2 3
Democratic Socialist Jim Kemmy 5,920 11.9 4
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 5,913 11.9 5
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 2,968 6.0
Labour Party Frank Prendergast 2,201 4.4
Fianna Fáil Richard O'Flaherty 2,111 4.3
Fianna Fáil Michael Parkes 1,254 2.5
Sinn Féin Pádraig Malone 565 1.1
Independent Martin Nugent 353 0.7
Workers' Party Fergal Grant 246 0.5
Independent Declan O'Lehane 241 0.5
Independent Denis Riordan 87 0.2
Independent John Donovan 59 0.1
Electorate: ?   Valid: 49,613   Quota: 8,269   Turnout:

November 1982 general election[edit]

November 1982 general election: Limerick East[18]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Desmond O'Malley 10,615 22.5 1 1
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 9,058 19.2 2 1
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 7,306 15.5 3
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 5,631 11.9 4
Labour Party Frank Prendergast 4,793 10.2 5
Democratic Socialist Jim Kemmy 4,125 8.7
Fianna Fáil Michael Herbert 3,204 6.8
Fine Gael John O'Sullivan 1,308 2.8
Fianna Fáil John Bourke 859 1.8
Independent Richard Power 177 0.4
Independent Patrick Moore 145 0.3
Electorate: ?   Valid: 47,221   Quota: 7,871   Turnout:

February 1982 general election[edit]

February 1982 general election: Limerick East[17]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Desmond O'Malley 9,049 19.1 1 1
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 8,514 18.0 2 1
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 7,425 15.7 3
Democratic Socialist Jim Kemmy 6,502 13.7 4
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 4,527 9.6 5
Fianna Fáil Peadar Clohessy 4,947 10.5
Labour Party Michael Lipper 2,684 5.7
Fine Gael Patrick Kennedy 1,938 4.1
Independent John Frawley 676 1.4
Independent Win Harrington 516 1.1
Independent John Gilligan 343 0.7
Independent Joseph Harrington 215 0.5
Electorate: ?   Valid: 47,336   Quota: 7,890   Turnout:

1981 general election[edit]

1981 general election: Limerick East[16]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 9,915 20.4 1
Fianna Fáil Desmond O'Malley 9,346 19.2 2
Fine Gael Michael Noonan 4,311 8.9 3
Democratic Socialist Jim Kemmy 4,190 8.6 4
Fianna Fáil Peadar Clohessy 5,256 10.8 5
Fianna Fáil Willie O'Dea 4,297 8.8
Labour Party Michael Lipper 2,905 6.0
Labour Party Frank Prendergast 2,840 5.8
Fine Gael Richard Hourigan 2,184 4.5
Fianna Fáil Éamonn Cregan 1,636 3.4
Independent John Frawley 866 1.8
Independent Joseph Harrington 844 1.7
Electorate: ?   Valid: 48,590   Quota: 8,099   Turnout:

1977 general election[edit]

1977 general election: Limerick East[15]
Party Candidate  % 1st Pref Count 1 Count 2 Count 3 Count 4 Count 5 Count 6 Count 7 Count 8 Count 9 Count 10
Fianna Fáil Desmond O'Malley 19.5 8,762 8,765 8,788 8,860 8,900 8,994        
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 14.6 6,571 6,573 6,585 6,692 7,302 7,374 7,636 10,169    
Independent Michael Lipper 11.6 5,224 5,257 5,322 5,429 5,575 6,023 7,608 8,049 9,775  
Fianna Fáil Michael Herbert 14.0 6,293 6,306 6,321 6,377 6,405 6,474 6,640 6,786 7,105 7,342
Fianna Fáil Peadar Clohessy 12.2 5,488 5,497 5,512 5,540 5,572 5,610 5,722 5,778 6,090 6,249
Labour Party Stephen Coughlan 7.9 3,553 3,555 3,565 3,618 3,693 3,786 4,008 4,380    
Fine Gael Ted Russell 6.7 3,022 3,024 3,030 3,097 3,403 3,521 3,684      
Democratic Socialist Jim Kemmy 5.2 2,333 2,348 2,413 2,476 2,530 2,920        
Independent Michael Crowe 2.9 1,325 1,335 1,358 1,408 1,447          
Fine Gael Patrick Kennedy 2.9 1,302 1,303 1,307 1,357            
Independent Win Harrington 1.4 646 657 677              
Sinn Féin (Workers' Party) Fergus Reynolds 0.6 262 280                
Independent Joseph Harrington 0.3 122                  
Electorate: 57,023   Valid: 44,903   Spoilt: 217 (0.5%)   Quota: 8,981   Turnout: 45,120 (79.1%)[26]

1973 general election[edit]

1973 general election: Limerick East[14]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Desmond O'Malley 7,806 21.0 1 1
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 6,841 18.4 2
Fianna Fáil Michael Herbert 4,532 12.2 3
Labour Party Stephen Coughlan 5,495 14.8 4
Fine Gael Ted Russell 3,523 9.5
Labour Party Michael Lipper 3,292 8.9
Fianna Fáil Peadar Clohessy 3,242 8.7
Fine Gael Patrick Kennedy 2,456 6.6
Electorate: ?   Valid: 37,187   Quota: 7,438   Turnout:

1969 general election[edit]

1969 general election: Limerick East[13]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 6,438 17.9 1
Labour Party Stephen Coughlan 6,362 17.7 2
Fianna Fáil Desmond O'Malley 5,960 16.6 3
Fianna Fáil Michael Herbert 4,985 13.9 4
Independent Hilda O'Malley 3,361 9.4
Labour Party Michael Lipper 3,222 9.0
Fianna Fáil Liam Hickey 2,838 7.9
Fine Gael Patrick Kennedy 1,821 5.1
Fine Gael Patrick Clancy 560 1.6
Labour Party Anthony Pratschke 366 1.0
Electorate: ?   Valid: 35,913   Quota: 7,183   Turnout:

1968 by-election[edit]

Following the death of Fianna Fáil TD Donogh O'Malley, a by-election was held on 22 May 1968. The seat was won by the Fianna Fáil candidate Desmond O'Malley, nephew of the deceased TD.

1968 by-election: Limerick East[12]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Desmond O'Malley 16,638 43.7 1
Labour Party Michael Lipper 10,151 26.7
Fine Gael James O'Higgins 10,039 26.4
Independent Michael Crowe 1,209 3.2
Electorate: 46,798   Valid: 38,037   Quota: 19,019   Turnout: 81.3%

1965 general election[edit]

1965 general election: Limerick East[11]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Donogh O'Malley 10,285 29.1 1 1
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 6,253 17.7 2
Labour Party Stephen Coughlan 5,623 15.9 3
Fianna Fáil Paddy Clohessy 4,812 13.6 4
Fine Gael Ted Russell 4,025 11.4
Fianna Fáil Michael Herbert 3,804 10.8
Fine Gael James Hickey 500 1.4
Electorate: ?   Valid: 35,302   Quota: 7,061   Turnout:

1961 general election[edit]

1961 general election: Limerick East[10]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Donogh O'Malley 8,622 26.2 1 1
Labour Party Stephen Coughlan 6,964 21.1 2 1
Fianna Fáil Paddy Clohessy 4,827 14.6 3
Fine Gael Tom O'Donnell 3,367 10.2 4
Independent Ted Russell 3,547 10.8
Fine Gael John Carew 3,288 10.0
Fianna Fáil William Slattery 1,388 4.2
Fine Gael John Kirby 958 2.9
Electorate: ?   Valid: 32,961   Quota: 6,593   Turnout:

1957 general election[edit]

1957 general election: Limerick East[9]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Donogh O'Malley 7,501 20.7 1 1
Fianna Fáil Paddy Clohessy 5,178 14.3 2
Independent Ted Russell 5,623 15.5 3
Fine Gael John Carew 4,193 11.6 4
Fianna Fáil Patrick Maguire 3,455 9.5
Clann na Poblachta Stephen Coughlan 3,395 9.4
Sinn Féin Pádraig Ó Maolcathaigh 3,085 8.5
Labour Party Christopher Keyes 2,098 5.8
Fine Gael Patrick Donegan 1,690 4.7
Electorate: ?   Valid: 36,218   Quota: 7,244   Turnout:

1954 general election[edit]

1954 general election: Limerick East[8]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fine Gael John Carew 5,362 14.2 1
Fianna Fáil Donogh O'Malley 6,860 18.1 2
Fianna Fáil Tadhg Crowley 4,857 12.8 3
Labour Party Michael Keyes 5,035 13.3 4
Clann na Poblachta Stephen Coughlan 5,652 14.9
Fianna Fáil Paddy Clohessy 4,458 11.8
Fine Gael James Reidy 3,16 8.45
Fine Gael Denis Quish 2,402 6.4
Electorate: ?   Valid: 37,822   Quota: 7,565   Turnout:

1952 by-election[edit]

Following the death of Fianna Fáil TD Daniel Bourke, a by-election was held on 26 June 1952. The seat was won by the Fine Gael candidate John Carew.

1952 by-election: Limerick East[7]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fine Gael John Carew 13,130 34.2 1
Fianna Fáil Thomas Clarke 15,964 41.6
Clann na Poblachta Ted Russell 6,465 16.9
Labour Party Seán Hayes 2,785 7.3
Electorate: 48,730   Valid: 38,344   Quota: 19,173   Turnout: 78.7%

1951 general election[edit]

1951 general election: Limerick East[6]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Daniel Bourke 7,268 19.6 1
Fianna Fáil Tadhg Crowley 5,266 14.2 2
Labour Party Michael Keyes 6,295 17.0 3
Fine Gael James Reidy 4,196 11.3 4
Clann na Poblachta Ted Russell 5,017 13.5
Fianna Fáil Robert Ryan 4,982 13.4
Fine Gael George C. Bennett 4,079 11.0
Electorate: ?   Valid: 37,103   Quota: 7,421   Turnout:

1948 general election[edit]

1948 general election: Limerick East[5]
Party Candidate 1st Pref  % Seat Count
Fianna Fáil Daniel Bourke 8,128 22.0 1 1
Fianna Fáil Robert Ryan 4,187 11.4 2
Fine Gael James Reidy 4,496 12.2 3
Labour Party Michael Keyes 5,756 15.6 4
Fianna Fáil Timothy Crowley 3,420 9.3
Fine Gael George C. Bennett 3,326 9.0
Clann na Poblachta Ted Russell 2,777 7.5
Clann na Talmhan Patrick Donegan 2,131 5.8
Clann na Poblachta Seán Carroll 1,533 4.2
Clann na Poblachta Thomas Malone 1,125 3.1
Electorate: ?   Valid: 36,879   Quota: 7,376   Turnout:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Electoral (Amendment) Act 2005: Schedule". Irish Statute Book database. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "Report on Dáil and European Parliament Constituencies 2007". Constituency Commission. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2010. 
  3. ^ "Electoral (Amendment) Act 2009: Schedule". Irish Statute Book database. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  4. ^ Walker, Brian M, ed. (1992). Parliamentary election results in Ireland, 1918–92. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 0-901714-96-8. ISSN 0332-0286. 
  5. ^ a b "General election 1948: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "General election 1951: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  7. ^ a b "By-election 1952: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "General election 1954: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  9. ^ a b "General election 1957: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  10. ^ a b "General election 1961: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  11. ^ a b "General election 1965: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  12. ^ a b "By-election 1968: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  13. ^ a b "General election 1969: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  14. ^ a b "General election 1973: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  15. ^ a b "General election 1977: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  16. ^ a b "General election 1981: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  17. ^ a b "General election February 1982: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  18. ^ a b "General election November 1982: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  19. ^ a b "General election 1987: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  20. ^ a b "General election 1989: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  21. ^ a b "General election 1992: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  22. ^ a b "General election 1997: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  23. ^ a b "By-election 1998: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 4 August 2010. 
  24. ^ a b "General election 2002: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  25. ^ a b "General election 2007: Limerick East". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  26. ^ The Irish Times, 20 June 1977, p7–10

External links[edit]