From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Limux)
Jump to: navigation, search
LiMux (logo).svg
Company / developer LiMux Project
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Combination of Free and open source software and proprietary software
Initial release 2006 (2006)
Latest release 4.1 / August 2011
Available in German
Package manager dpkg
Kernel type Monolithic (Linux)
Default user interface K Desktop Environment 3.5
License Various free software licenses, plus proprietary
Official website Project Site

LiMux is a project by the city of Munich to migrate their software systems from closed-source, proprietary Microsoft products to free and open source software. The project was successfully completed in late 2013, which involved migrating 15,000 personal computers and laptops of public employees to free and open source software using the Linux distribution "LiMux" (an Ubuntu derivative) as the operating system and LibreOffice as the primary productivity software.[1] The project initially had used OpenOffice, but has since switched to LibreOffice.[2] The city reports in addition to gaining freedom in software decisions and increased security, it has also saved €11.7 million (US$16 million).[3]

Similar projects were started with differing success in Vienna (Wienux),[4] Solothurn,[5] Amsterdam (Open.Amsterdam),[6][7] and Zaragoza (AZLinux).

LiMux is also the name of the Linux distribution being used for the project. LiMux is the first Linux-based workplace certified for industry use (ISO 9241) by the TÜV IT, Technical Service, Germany.[8] It was first based on Debian, but later changed to Ubuntu. Version 3 available from December 2010 is based on Ubuntu 8.10, version 4 available from August 2011 is based on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS,[9] although using KDE Desktop 3.5[10] and version 4.1 available from August 2012 is also based on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS. The future version of LiMux will be based on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS.


The migration project in Munich is ongoing and not an overnight switch to free software on every desktop. The main goal is to achieve more independence from software distributors, concerning client/server and native client software. The decision in 2003 had two components, on the one hand to get free software running on most of the desktops, and on the other hand to buy and develop web-based and platform independent (e.g. Java-based) business applications. A core goal of the project is to reduce reliance of Microsoft-based software stacks and fund local developers to write replacement software.[11]


  • May 28, 2003 - The city council of Munich votes to go ahead with planning.[12] (From the press release: "Until spring 2004, a detailed concept of implementation and migration will be developed. Based on the results of this evaluation, the city council will decide how the migration to Linux will take place."[13])
  • June 16, 2004 - The city council votes 50-29 in favor of migrating and to start an open competitive bidding within months[14][15]
  • August 5, 2004 - The project is temporarily halted, due to legal uncertainties concerning software patents.[16][17]
  • April 28, 2005 - Debian is selected as a platform.[18]
  • September 6, 2005 - It is decided that the project needs an additional one year pilot test, and migration slips one year.[19]
  • September 22, 2006 - The "soft" migration begins, one year behind original schedule.[20]
  • November 2008: 1200 out of 14,000 have migrated to the LiMux environment (9%; March 2008: 1000=7%), in addition 12000 workstations use 2 installed on Windows (March 2008: 6000) and more 100% use Mozilla Firefox 1.5 and Mozilla Thunderbird 1.5 (March 2008: 90%). 18000 of 21000 macros, templates and forms are changed into Linux-enabled[21]
  • 29 May 2008: The related WollMux-software, developed in-house to support personalised templates and forms in office textprocessing, is declared Open Source[22]
  • 31 December 2009: The first step, the complete switch to enabling the Open Document Format as standard format is done[23]
  • June 2010: "More than 3000" are LiMux-workplaces by now. Further 2000 shall migrate in 2010.[24]
  • In February 2011 more than 5000 workplaces were based on LiMux.
  • In June 2011 more than 6500 workplaces were based on LiMux.
  • December 17, 2011: "9000" PCs are LiMux-workplaces now. With this they are 500 workplaces ahead of their goal for 2011.[25][26]
  • March 28, 2012: In response to a request from the CSU the City reported that it has already saved about 4 million euros in licensing costs as well as reduced the number of support calls [27]
  • July 2012: About 10,500 LiMux PC-workstations[28]
  • November 23, 2012: Report shows that the savings brought in using LiMux environment are over 10 million euros[29]
  • January 2013: About 13,000 LiMux PC-workstations[30]
  • October 2013: Over 15,000 LiMux PC-workstations (of about 18,000 workstations)
  • December 2013: Munich open source switch 'completed successfully'[31]
  • August 2014: Munich deputy mayor, Josef Schmid, and mayor, Dieter Reiter, considering going back to Windows due to productivity problems. The city council and Karl-Heinz Schneider, head of municipal IT services, said that most of things are fine, they saved 10 m$, and there is no serious reason to come back. Microsoft wants to move German headquarters to Munich in 2016, helped by Reiter who describes himself as a "Microsoft fan"[32] · [33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Switching to Linux saves Munich over €11 million". IT World. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Libre Office für München". Münchner IT-Blog. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "Linux: City of Munich ditches Microsoft moves to Linux and open source". GiraffeDog IT support services. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  4. ^ Mobily, Tony (2008-06-09). "Vienna failed to migrate to GNU/Linux: why?". Free Software Magazine. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  5. ^ "Swiss Canton of Solothurn abandons Linux". 2010-09-20. Archived from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-17. "As reported in the printed edition of Solothurner Zeitung next year the Swiss Canton of Solothurn will abort its Linux migration project and equip all its desktop computers with Windows 7." 
  6. ^ "Open software Amsterdam" (in Dutch). 2009-09-10. Archived from the original on 2010-09-17. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  7. ^ van Adrighem, Vincent (2011-03-10). "Open Amsterdam Project". Retrieved 2011-10-18. "When the project FINALLY completed (it was not all tech...there was a lot of politics as well) it was shelved because of other priorities." 
  8. ^ "TÜV zertifiziert Münchens LiMUX-Client". 2007-05-16. Retrieved 2010-11-16. (German)
  9. ^ "LiMux Desktop Retrospective". 2011-08-08. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  10. ^ "München bringt neues Release 4.0 des LiMux Clients heraus". 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  11. ^
  12. ^ "Munich breaks with Windows for Linux". Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  13. ^ "Munich to Use Linux". Center for Digital Government. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  14. ^ "Limux – the IT-Evolution". IDABC. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  15. ^ "Microsoft Loses Munich Contract for 14,000 PCs to Linux Program". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  16. ^ "Munich halts biggest-ever Linux migration". Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  17. ^ "Patent fears halt Munich Linux migration". The Register. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  18. ^ "Debian wins Munich Linux deal". Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  19. ^ "Munich's Linux migration slips to 2006". Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  20. ^ "Munich fires up Linux at last". Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  21. ^ Florian Schießl, deputy project manager (2008-04-22). "Zwei Jahre freie Software in München". (German)
  22. ^ "Munich's WollMux will be free software". 2008-05-29. 
  23. ^ Florian Schießl, Communications manager free software & open standards (2009-12-30). "LiMux review 2009". 
  24. ^ "Projekt LiMux: Die IT-Evolution geht weiter". 2010-06-30. 
  25. ^ Kirsten Böge (2011-12-17). "München hat den 9.000. PC-Arbeitsplatz auf den LiMux Client migriert". 
  26. ^ Reed, Michael (2 January 2012). "Munich Linux Migration Project LiMux Reports Success". Linux Journal. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  27. ^ Jörg Thoma (2012-03-28). "München spart mit Limux Geld und hat weniger Störungen". 
  28. ^ Dr. Jutta Kreyss, IT Architect, LiMux (Munich, Germany) (2012-07-10). "LiMux - the IT-Evolution, Status of Migration". 
  29. ^ Anika Kehrer (2012-11-23). "Linux brings over €10 million savings for Munich". Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. 
  30. ^ Presse- und Informationsamt der Landeshauptstadt München (2013-01-22). "Rathaus Umschau - HP-Studie untersucht im Auftrag von Microsoft LiMux-Umstellung". 
  31. ^ Loek Essers (2013-12-13). "Munich open source switch 'completed successfully'". 
  32. ^ Simon Sharwood (2014-08-19). "Munich considers dumping Linux for ... GULP ... Windows!". 
  33. ^ Peter Bright (2014-08-18). "Linux-on-the-desktop pioneer Munich now considering a switch back to Windows". 

External links[edit]