2013 Lincoln MKS
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Assembly||Ford Chicago Assembly,
Chicago, Illinois, USA
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Full-size luxury car|
|Body style||4-door sedan|
|Layout||Front engine, front-wheel drive / all wheel drive|
|Platform||Ford D3 platform|
Ford Taurus X
|Engine||3.7 L Cyclone V6 DOHC
273 hp (277 PS) at 6250 rpm
3.7 L Cyclone V6 Ti-VCT DOHC
305 hp at 6500 rpm
3.5 L Ecoboost V6 DOHC
355 hp (360 PS) at 5700 rpm
|Transmission||6-speed 6F50 automatic
6-speed 6F55 automatic
|Wheelbase||112.9 in (2,868 mm)|
|Length||2009–12: 204.1 in (5,184 mm)
2013– : 205.6 in (5,222 mm)
|Width||75.9 in (1,928 mm)|
|Height||61.6 in (1,565 mm)|
|Curb weight||4,127 lb (1,872 kg) (Front-wheel drive)
4,276 lb (1,940 kg) (All-wheel drive)
|Predecessor||Lincoln Town Car|
The Lincoln MKS is a full-size luxury sedan from the Lincoln division of the Ford Motor Company. The MKS first appeared in concept form at the North American International Auto Show in January 2006 with the production version, a 2009 model, appearing later at the Los Angeles International Auto Show in November 2007. The MKS began production in May 2008 with sales beginning a month later. The Lincoln MKS continues Lincoln's three-letter nomenclature for new models, preceded by the MKZ, MKT, and MKX. The purpose of the new nomenclature was to mimic the alphanumeric naming schemes used by other luxury brands like Cadillac and products of the major German manufacturers.
The MKS is based on Ford's D3 platform, which is shared with the current Ford Taurus and other vehicles. The car is front-wheel drive with optional all-wheel drive. The MKS is powered by a 3.7 L Duratec V6 mated to a 6-speed automatic transmission. An optional EcoBoost 3.5 L twin-turbo, direct injection V6 is also available. The MKS can seat up to five people. The MKS debuted with a base MSRP of US$38,465, ranging up to US$48,835 when fully optioned. The Lincoln MKS is built at Ford's Chicago Assembly plant.
The MKS became the marque's sole full-size sedan in the 2012 model year with the discontinuation of the Town Car, its predecessor. It also became the longest domestic production sedan at 204.1 in (5,184 mm) overall length.
2006 MKS Concept
The Lincoln MKS made its first appearance as a concept vehicle at the 2006 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan. The MKS Concept provided a preliminary view of the design direction that Lincoln was taking for their new full-size flagship sedan of the same name. The exterior of the MKS Concept was sculpted to convey a strong sense of performance while maintaining traditional luxury-car elegance. Patrick Schiavone, design director of Ford North America, said of the car's design, "Lincoln MKS communicates power, motion and speed. It's athletic and muscular, yet elegant." The MKS included Lincoln's signature waterfall grille with a crosshatching that was later used in the grille for the 2007-2009 Lincoln MKZ. The MKS' sleekly shaped headlight assemblies featured adaptive lighting which pivots the headlight projectors in concert with steering inputs to improve visibility in turns. Also housed in the headlight assemblies were a series of LEDs that would blink in sequence for turn indication. Side vents positioned aft of the front wheel wells were adorned with the Lincoln star and added character to the MKS' profile. On the top of the MKS Concept was Ford's Panoramic Vista Roof (a large sunroof and moonroof combination that takes the place of a conventional roof), which first appeared in production-form in the Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX. In the MKS Concept's rear were LED-based parking and brake lamps and dual chrome, trapezoidal-shaped exhaust tips. The MKS Concept rode on 20x8.5-inch, ten spoke five/five wheels which gave the unique appearance of a five spoke chrome wheel combined with an offset five spoke alloy wheel. The purpose of this was to blend the sportiness associated with five spoke wheel designs with the multi-spoke designs commonly associated with luxury cars.
Inside the MKS Concept was an interior design that was modern and contemporary, getting away from the designs used in previous Lincoln concept vehicles, such as the 2004 Lincoln Zephyr Concept, that drew inspiration from classic Lincoln interiors. The MKS Concept's seats were covered in cream-colored Aniline leather while the doors and interior panels were covered in pearl-white suede. Contrasting with the lightly colored suede-covered panels, the MKS' dash board was covered in dark grey suede. Instrumentation and controls featured satin nickel inserts and chrome trim with backlighting provided by white LEDs. An applique of real maple wood ran across the instrument panel, dividing it into upper and lower sections. Technological features in the interior included Bluetooth device connectivity, a DVD-based navigation system, a 14-speaker, 500-Watt audio system, a passive entry system that identifies the car's driver and allows him or her to start the vehicle by only carrying its key fob, and a push button ignition system. Safety was provided by dual front airbags, driver and passenger side airbags, and side curtain airbags to protect occupants in a rollover situation.
The MKS Concept was based on Ford's natively front-wheel drive, Volvo-derived D3 platform which was already in use in the then-Ford Five Hundred, Ford Freestyle, and Mercury Montego (the version used for the MKS in particular was coded D385). The platform features a fully independent suspension with MacPherson struts and rearward-facing lower L-arms with a stabilizer bar in the front and a multilink coil over shock setup with a stabilizer bar in the rear. Though it would be optional in the production MKS, the MKS Concept featured an active all-wheel drive system that could seamlessly transmit power to any wheel as needed to maintain traction in slippery conditions. Powering the MKS Concept was a Ford/Yamaha 4.4 L DOHC V8 producing 315 hp (235 kW) at 4500 rpm and 320 lb·ft (433 N·m) of torque at 3000 rpm. The engine was mated to a 6-speed automatic transmission.
The production version of the Lincoln MKS was unveiled to the public in November 2007 at the Los Angeles International Auto Show. The MKS went on to make its sales debut in the summer of 2008 as a 2009 model. A number of changes occurred to the MKS during its transition from concept to production vehicle. While the MKS' greenhouse and overall exterior shape was kept, the front fascia received a significant update in the form of a new, bolder grille. The new grille was a chrome, split-wing design inspired by the grille used on the 2007 Lincoln MKR Concept, which was in turn inspired by the grille design of the 1941 Lincoln Continental. In a smaller change, the dual trapezoidal-shaped chrome exhaust tips of the MKS Concept gave way to more common circular chrome tips in the production version.
Inside the production MKS, many of the design elements seen in the MKS Concept were carried over, though with some revision. While much of the design and shape of elements in the production MKS' interior is shared with that of the MKS Concept, the production MKS differs in the types of materials used. The concept's Aniline leather, used in seating surfaces, is substituted with Scottish Bridge of Weir leather in the production version. The suede used to cover door panels, interior panels, and dashboard top in the MKS Concept is replaced with soft ThermoPlastic Olefin for the door and interior panels and leatherette for the top of the dashboard. The real wood instrument panel applique from the concept was kept but used olive-ash or ebony wood instead of maple. One of the only other obvious interior changes from the concept was the steering wheel, which was changed to a design similar to that of steering wheels in other, similar model year Lincolns.
Ford claims that the Lincoln MKS has the largest selection of technologies and comfort and convenience features in its class. Some of the MKS' key features include optional adaptive cruise control (which adjusts the car's speed based on the position of other vehicles on the road), a standard intelligent access system with a push button start (which was shown in the MKS Concept), a standard new generation keyless entry keypad that is mounted flush inside the driver-side B-pillar with buttons that only appear when touched, and optional adaptive HID headlights (also shown in the MKS Concept). Other features that are standard in the MKS include automatic HID headlights, foglights, an Easy Fuel capless fuel filler, foldable power adjustable mirrors with memory, 18x7.5-inch machined aluminum wheels, a 6-speaker audio system with an AM/FM radio and 6-disc in-dash CD changer, Sirius satellite radio with a six-month prepaid subscription, dual-zone automatic climate control, an auto-dimming rear view mirror with compass, 12-way, heated and cooled power driver and passenger seats, heated rear seats, a power tilt and telescoping steering wheel with memory, a universal garage door opener, and Lincoln SYNC.
Safety features are similar to the MKS Concept with dual front airbags, driver and passenger side airbags, and side curtain airbags to protect occupants in a rollover situation. These and other features are available in or apart of three equipment packages. The Navigation Package includes a DVD navigation system, a THX II-Certified, 14-speaker, 600-Watt audio system with an AM/FM radio and six-disc in-dash CD player, and a rearview camera to aid in backing up. The Technology Package includes adaptive HID headlights, rain-sensing windshield wipers, a forward-sensing system, a power sunshade for the rear window, and the intelligent access system with push button start. The Ultimate Package includes everything in the Navigation and Technology packages and a dual panel moonroof, premium 19x8-inch painted alloy wheels, Ultimate seating trim with color-keyed seude strip in the center of the seat back, and a Lincoln Star logo embroidered into the front seat headrests. An Aluminum Applique Package, which includes an aluminum dash applique (in the place of wood) with a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift knob, is also available but requires the Navigation, Technology, or Ultimate packages. Other features in the MKS that are optional and not attached to any of the aforementioned packages include all-wheel drive, 19x8-inch machined aluminum wheels, 20x8-inch polished aluminum wheels, adaptive cruise control, and a PowerCode remote starter.
Active Park Assist, a system which uses ultrasonic sensors (as opposed to a camera-based system used by Lexus) to find and measure a parking space, then operate the steering wheel to accomplish the parallel parking task, will be available in mid-2009 as an option on the 2010 MKS. This feature is accomplished by using software control of the Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, and provides a basis for further steering enhancements being applied to other vehicles, such as the Ford Escape.
Like the MKS Concept, the production MKS rides on Ford's D3 platform. The MKS features a fully independent suspension with MacPherson struts and rearward-facing lower L-arms with a 26 mm (1.0 in) stabilizer bar in the front and a multilink coil over shock setup with stamped steel lower control arms and cast upper control arms in the rear. The car features four-wheel antilock disc brakes (12.25-inch (311 mm) rotors in the front and 12.75-inch (324 mm) rotors in the rear) with standard AdvanceTrac traction control and Roll Stability Control (RSC). Front-wheel drive (FWD) is standard while all-wheel drive (AWD) is optional. In a significant departure from the MKS Concept and past Lincoln flagship sedans, the production MKS does not offer a V8 engine. In the place of the 4.4 L Ford/Yamaha V8 found in the MKS Concept, the production MKS is powered by an all-aluminum 3.7 L Duratec DOHC V6, a larger bore derivative of the Duratec 35 and a member of Ford's Cyclone engine family. The engine was designed to accept either regular grade, 87 octane gasoline or premium grade, 91 octane gasoline. Using regular grade gasoline, the 3.7 L V6 produces 273 hp (204 kW) at 6250 rpm and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. Using premium grade gasoline results in a small boost in output to 275 hp (205 kW) at 6250 rpm and 276 lb·ft (374 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. Power from the MKS' V6 is transmitted to the wheels via Ford's 6F50 6-speed automatic transmission. The transmission is equipped with SelectShift which simulates the operation of a manual transmission. A road test by Car and Driver magazine revealed that an AWD-equipped MKS could accelerate from zero to 60 mph in 7.5 seconds and complete a quarter-mile in 15.7 seconds at 90 mph (140 km/h). Though smooth in acceleration, testers noted that the main thing that prevented a faster performance was the MKS' heavy weight of over 4300 lbs. To address the need for a higher performance engine, Ford introduced its EcoBoost V6, an all-aluminum, twin-turbocharged, direct injection 3.5 L DOHC V6, in the 2010 MKS arriving in showrooms in the summer of 2009.
“Although the engine carries the more marketing-friendly EcoBoost name, its 355 hp (265 kW) and 350 lb·ft (470 N·m) of torque are for real and give the Lincoln the gusto to run with most V-8s.” Mileage is better than most other compared models.
The facelifted 2013 MKS debuted at the 2012 Los Angeles International Auto Show, with a mildly refreshed exterior and interior updates. It also grew slightly in length to 205.6 in (5,222 mm).
The MKS has dimensions comparable to the 2010 Audi A8 4.2 FSI quattro, another full-size flagship luxury sedan with all-wheel drive which is equipped with a naturally aspirated 4.2L V8 engine with direct gasoline injection. The MKS is almost an inch longer than the A8L (long-wheelbase version), an inch wider and five inches (127 mm) taller, has four more cubic feet of trunk space, and extra 25 lb·ft (34 N·m) of torque, while being 100 lb (45 kg) lighter. The MKS starts at $30,000 less than the base A8.
While praised for its large interior and long list of luxury features, the MKS has been criticized for not being as refined as other luxury sedans in a similar price range, such as the Hyundai Genesis, Cadillac CTS, Jaguar XF or Mercedes-Benz E-Class. It is also noted that the MKS's platform-mate, the Ford Taurus, offers the same powertrain and many available technological features, starting at an MSRP of $10,000 less than the MKS.
Yearly American sales
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lincoln MKS.|
|Calendar year||Total sales|
|Total sales to date:||81,513|
- "2008 Lincoln MKS (production)". Left Lane News. 2006-08-09. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- "Lincoln MKS orders start strong, car is "do-or-die" debut". Motor Trend. 2008-06-02. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- "Ford to Equip Half a Million Vehicles with EcoBoost Engine Technology for Up To 20% Better Fuel Economy". Media.Ford.com. January 6, 2008.
- Bedard, Patrick. "2009 Lincoln MKS AWD - Road Test." Car and Driver. October 2008.
- "2006 MKS Concept Overview". Media.Ford.com. January 9, 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "2006 MKS Concept Technical Specifications". Media.Ford.com. 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "MKS Showcases Signature Lincoln Design Cues". Media.Ford.com. 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "2009 MKS Special Features". Media.Ford.com. 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "2009 MKS Technical Specifications". Media.Ford.com. 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Ford makes parallel parking a breeze with new 'Active Park Assist'". Media.Ford.com. April 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Ford builds on electric power steering technology to enhance drive quality, enable more features". Media.Ford.com. March 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Ecoboost debut: Fuel-efficient new V6 engine gives flagship Lincoln MKS the power of a V8". Media.Ford.com. May 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- Sutton, Mike (May 2009). "2010 Lincoln MKS With EcoBoost - Short Take Road Test – Although not quite a hot rod, twin turbos make this Lincoln what it should have been from the start.". Car and Driver. Retrieved December 18, 2010.
- Booth, David (May 22, 2009). "Preview: 2010 Lincoln MKS". National Post. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "2010 Lincoln MKS Reviews, Expert Car Reviews on AOL Autos". Autos.aol.com. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- "2010 Lincoln MKS Reviews". Edmunds.com. 2010-03-09. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- "F-Series drives Ford to higher market share for third consecutive month". Media.Ford.com. January 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "FORD CAPS 2009 WITH 33 PERCENT SALES INCREASE, FIRST FULL-YEAR MARKET SHARE GAIN SINCE 1995". Media.Ford.com. January 5, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- "December 2010 Sales: Ford Motor Company - Cheers & Gears Forums". Cheersandgears.com. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- "2011 Ford Brand Sales up 17% for the year in U.S.". Media.Ford.com. January 4, 2012. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
- "Ford Cars, Utilities and Trucks All Post U.S. Sales Gains in 2012". Media.Ford.com. January 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Ford Motor Company Delivers Best Sales Year Since 2006". Media.ford.com. 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- Cain, Timothy. "Lincoln MKS Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
- Official Website
- Media.Ford.com - 2009 Lincoln MKS: All-new full-size flagship sedan... - 14 Nov 2007
- Detroit News - Lincoln pins hopes on MKS - 14 Nov 2007
- Official Lincoln Reach Higher 2009 MKS preview page
- Media.Ford.com MKS Concept Car PR materials - 09 January 2006
- Lincoln MKS and MKX Press Release - 09 January 2006
- Confirmation of production plans at Media.Ford.com - 09 Aug 2006
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