Lincoln School of Art

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The Lincoln School of Art is the general name given to an educational institution devoted to the arts, based in the English city of Lincoln with its origins in the mid-nineteenth century. It has also been known as the Lincoln College of Art and the Lincolnshire College of Art & Design. Midway through that century, the then British Government's Department of Science and Art, based in South Kensington, began establishing a network of art schools as a means of promoting and aiding manufacturing.[1] One of the oldest schools of its kind in Britain,[2] the Lincoln School of Art became one of Britain's leading art schools, and was one of the first to introduce the teaching of the techniques derived from the French School of Impressionism. Many of its students went on to exhibit at the Paris Salon and the Royal Academy. Amongst its alumni are members of the Newlyn School and two Royal Academicians. It also popularised the art and crafts exhibitions in Lincolnshire that became important annual events in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[3]

Founding and early years[edit]

Front page of The Illustrated London News, 26 November 1864, featuring an illustration of an exhibition of students' work.

The Lincoln School of Art has its origins in the art school movement that followed the 1851 Great Exhibition. The School was founded as a private venture, with the support of the Department of Science and Art, on Monday 2 February 1863, in a single room on the Corn Exchange, Lincoln.[4][5] Its guiding light was John Somerville Gibney, a minor canon of Lincoln Cathedral, and its first headmaster was Edward R. Taylor, founder of Birmingham School of Art and inventor of Ruskin Pottery.[6]

The courses on offer were arranged into three levels: Elementary, Advanced, and Special or Technical. These levels were divided into classes:

  1. Elementary: Practical Geometry, Model Drawing, Figure from the Flat, Linear Perspective Free-hand Drawing and Shading, and Elementary Colour;
  2. Advanced: Drawing the figure from Casts, Painting: Ornament, Flowers, Landscape, Still Life;
  3. Special or Technical: Design, Architectural and Mechanical Drawing, Artistic Anatomy, Modelling.[7]

As a result of the School's success in its first year, new premises were sought for and acquired above the National School for Boys' on the south side of Silver Street.[8][9] This new school room was opened 10 October 1864, and was of a size to allow its use as an exhibition space.[10] A public exhibit was held in November of that year and proved so popular that the floor had to be re-enforced.[11] With the growth of engineering in Lincoln, there was a need for draughtsmen to produce accurate drawings of machine and engineering parts, and to illustrate catalogues, and so the School offered courses on draughtsmanship.[12] The Rev. Gibney himself became a student by studying the skill of engraving on to copper. He produced his own publication, 'Etchings of Lincoln Cathedral' (1870), using this method.[13]

By 1868 and 1869, the School was ranked in 6th place by the Department of Science and Art, after schools such as Edinburgh and Nottingham.[14][15] By 1873 there were some 130 schools of art in Britain, and Lincoln was rated in 9th place.[16]

Death of Rev. Gibney[edit]

In 1875, the Rev. J. S. Gibney, the School's Honorary Secretary since its inception, died when he fell through a skylight. He had been inspecting the roof of the School with a joiner, George Allis, and in particular had been discussing with Allis alterations he wanted made to a skylight,[17] when he began tapping the glass with his right foot, lost his balance, and fell through, down into the model room below.[18] He was supposedly heard to cry out, 'My God', as he fell.[19] The inquest into his death was held at the White Hart Hotel and the jury returned a verdict of accidental death.[20]

Ironically, in a sermon he had delivered to his congregation a few days earlier on Sunday, 3 January, he had spoken of the need to be prepared for sudden death by having all of one's affairs in order. He died intestate.[21]

Gibney Art Scholarship[edit]

In honour of the Rev. Gibney and his work, the School established a scholarship in his name. Awarded to students at the School, its purpose was to allow the successful student to devote his or her time wholly to the cultivation of art.[22] Holders of the Gibney Scholarship have included William Logsdail, Frederick Hall, Frederick William Elwell, May Yeomans (who would go on to be Principal at the School), and ceramics artist Robert Blatherwick.[23]

Rules of the School[edit]

Notice board of the LSA rules of school

During its early years, the committee running the School drew up a list of rules, signed by the Rev. J. Mansell, the Honorary Secretary who succeeded the Rev. Gibney in 1875:

  1. All applications for Admission to the School must be made to the Head Master. No Student will be admitted to the Evening Classes under 12 years of age, without special permission of the Committee.
  2. All Fees are to be paid in advance at the commencement of each Half-year, when Students will receive a Ticket of admission, which they are to produce whenever required. If the Fees are not paid within 14 days, a Fine of 2/6 will be imposed on Students of the Morning Classes, and 1/- on Students of the Evening Classes.
  3. The School will be open for Morning Classes at 9.30, on Tuesday, and Saturday, in each week. Also at 2 o'Clock each Monday and Thursday, and the door will be closed at 4 o'Clock. Evening Classes on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday in each week, will commence at 7 and close at 9. No Student is to remain in the School after the Master has left (unless by special leave).
  4. Students are required to come punctually to the Classes, and to remain till the close of the Classes they attend.
  5. All Conversation and all necessary Moving about are strictly prohibited.
  6. Any Students guilty of Insubordination, Levity, or any impropriety; or who shall injure Desks, Seats, Works of art; Scribble on the Walls, use the Lavatory Basins for getting rid of the Scrapings of Pallets, or in any way Damage or Deface the property of the School shall be liable to immediate Suspension by the Master, who must report forthwith such Suspension to the Committee.
  7. Students are strictly prohibited from touching the Gas, moving Casts or Objects of study, except with the special leave of the Master.
  8. At the close of the Classes Students are required to leave their paintings, drawings, and easels in such places as shall be assigned to these, respectively, by the Master.
  9. All Drawings executed by the Students must be delivered to the head Master immediately on their completion. Every Drawing or Work executed in the School belongs to the School till it has been sent to South Kensington, and must not be taken away from the School. It will be given to the Student after it has been submitted to the Authorities at South Kensington and returned by them.
  10. All Students received at the Lower Scale of Fees are required to make at least 20 Attendances, and to sit at the Government Examination in the Subjects for which they are registered. These examinations are held in April or May.
  11. Students are expressly forbidden to take home examples or property belonging to the School.

Controversy[edit]

By the late 1880s, the School was teaching Greek art and using classically-based subject matter, as well as importing the then new idiom of Impressionism.

The painter and Royal Academician John Callcott Horsley, attending the annual prize-giving in April, 1890, criticised the School for teaching its students such techniques found in the French school of painting, to the detriment of the English school. He called these techniques a 'fad' and one of those 'ridiculous crazes' that had been imported from Paris.[24] He then went on to expand his criticism to schools of art in general, which he called 'the greatest possible misfortune' to British art (although he did make an exception with Lincoln).[25]

Alfred G. Webster, the then Principal of the School, replied in an open letter published in the Lincoln Gazette, expressing the belief that discoveries and ideas from abroad ought not to be disregarded simply as a result of their foreign origins. He pointed out that Britons, Normans, and Saxons all 'had the misfortune to be foreigners', and that the English School had been founded on the practises of Hans Holbein, Anthony van Dyck, and Peter Paul Rubens, all foreigners.[26]

School of Science and Art[edit]

Fine Art Exhibition held at the Lincoln School of Art on Monks Road in 1887, most likely in the Painting Room on the first floor.

The School moved to premises on Monks Road in 1886,[27] where it became one-half of a 'School of Science and Art', with its own principal and organising committee.[28] The ground floor was home to the Science School (except for the Modelling Room), with shared use of the Lecture Theatre and the Porters' Room, while the Art School was based on the first floor, with shared use of the Committee and Secretary's Rooms. Both floors had rooms for the respective schools' masters. The Basement had two bedrooms and a living room, and was shared use, except that the Science School used the Laboratory and Balance Room. The Science School increased in size and added a technical wing to the Monks Road premises in 1891, a reflection of the rise of industry in Lincoln in general,[29] which was further demonstrated in an article from the Lincoln Gazette, dated 1897, which described a conversazione at the combined school in 1897, during which x-rays, glass-blowing, and a cinematograph were exhibited. Of twelve paragraphs, only one is devoted to the art school.[30] In 1901 the combined school was renamed the City of Lincoln Municipal Technical School,[31] and then the Lincoln Technical College in 1928.[32]

Basic floor plans of the ground and first floors of the Lincoln Schools of Science and Art, based on Monks Road, around 1888. Sketch by Duncan Scott Mackenzie.

The School of Art had originally been supported by the Department of Science and Art, South Kensington. With the Department's closure in 1899, the School lost that support and so was eventually absorbed into the Technical College, under the authority of the Lincoln Education Authority,[33] where it effectively ceased to be a private venture and an independent educational institution.

The School remained part of the Technical College for the next six decades. The range of subjects taught widened during this time to include (along with the more traditional subjects) costume, typography, lettering, metalwork and silver-smithing, dress design, and bookcraft,[34] in keeping with headmaster Austin Garland's statement that the students be 'taught to make things, and to bring artistic methods to bear upon the problems of everyday life'.[35] In 1948, the Royal Institute of British Architects (R.I.B.A.) recognised the School as an approved centre for training up to the intermediary standard.[36]

Pottery was also taught at the School. Lincolnshire ceramics artist Robert Blatherwick, who had studied at the school, returned to teach there from the early forties to the late sixties.[37]

In 1950, a report by His Majesty's Inspectors criticised the 'inadequate' accommodation and stated that this 'handicapped' the students.[38] They also stated that the School was understaffed, with full-time staff sometimes having to supervise more than one group at a time.[39] During the 1937-38 academic year, the School's students numbered 251 (including part-time and evening classes), while by 1949-50, that number had grown to 415 students.[40]

Christ's Hospital Terrace[edit]

The School was transferred to the Bluecoat School building on Christ's Hospital Terrace in 1957, where it regained some of its independence from the technical college,[41] which became the Lincoln College of Technology in the 1970s and developed into the present Lincoln College, Lincolnshire.

1958 fire[edit]

In May, 1958, a fire broke out in the west wing of the School of Art.[42] Although the damage to the building was light, many art works were destroyed.

Lincoln College of Art[edit]

By the mid-1970s, the official name of the School had been changed to the Lincoln College of Art. In 1975, the college's administration was moved to the old Girl's High School building on Lindum Road, now called the Greestone Building.

At this time, a number of influential figures emerged amongst the teaching staff, both locally and nationally. The Principal Peter Williams (1936-2005), described by The Guardian newspaper as both an artist and art educationist,[43] also held the post of Art Advisor to the City of Lincoln Authority.[44] He would go on to become a prime mover and founding director of the Kent Institute of Art & Design.[45]

Artist Gill Nadin (1928-1996) taught at the college. The Lincolnshire Artists' Society instituted an art prize in her name.[46]

Between 1970 and 1980, the ceramics artist Peter Moss was Head of Department and a college governor.[47] He went on to be Acting Principal and then Vice-Principal when the college became Lincolnshire College of Art. He was also a consultant and part-time and visiting lecturer for most of its time as part of De Montfort University.

Greestone Building on Lindum Road

Lincolnshire College of Art & Design[edit]

In the early 1980s, another name change turned the college into the Lincolnshire College of Art & Design.

By this time, the College was based in three buildings: the Greestone Building, Christ's Hospital Terrace, and the Gibney Centre on Monks Road. The latter used the façade of what had once been the City of Lincoln Municipal Technical School,[48] where the School of Art had been joined with the School of Science.

In an interview on BBC Radio 4's Front Row in May 2014, the celebrated ceramic artist and author of The Hare with Amber Eyes, Edmond de Waal, stated that when he was five years old, he was taken to a ceramics evening class at the college where he discovered ceramics.[49]

In 1993, Lincolnshire College of Art & Design was ranked 7th in the Guardian's league table for further education colleges.[50]

1991 Lindum Road fire[edit]

A fire broke out on the upper floor of the general office building in 1991. The staff inside, unaware of the flames, were alerted by staff in the British Telecom building nearby who had noticed the smoke.[51] There were no fatalities, but the damage was estimated to be between £50,000 and £100,000.[52] The Lens Media Unit, which had just purchased a multi-format DeVere 504 Colour Enlarger, was rendered inoperable[53] and was not re-opened until January, 1992.[54]

Later years[edit]

The Lincolnshire College of Art was subsumed by the expanding De Montfort University, Leicester, in 1994, where it became known as the School of Applied Arts & Design, until 1998 when the name was changed to the School of Art & Design.[55]

De Montfort University[edit]

During this period, the work of the School - both of its tutors and students - achieved a wider recognition. Tutor and fine art artist Medina Hammad exhibited in Sudan, by invitation by the University of Khartoum. The exhibition attracted both radio and television coverage in that country.[56] Alison Read, a member of staff in printmaking but with an interest in sculpture, was commissioned by Lord Jacob Rothschild to produce a sculpture of five running dogs,[57][58] while BA Graphic Design and Illustration student Neil Aldridge won in the Communications category: 'Postage Stamps' of the RSA Student Design Awards. The brief was 'British Obsession: The Weather'.[59] His entry also appeared on the front page of The Times Higher Education Supplement for 15 May.[60] In January 1999, selected student work was accorded the rare honour of being exhibited at the Mercury Gallery, Cork Street, London, as part of its Young Printmakers' exhibition.[61][62]

Division of the School of Art[edit]

By the 2000s, De Montfort University's expansion beyond Leicester had ended and the university was selling all of its outlying campuses, including Lincoln. In 2001, the School of Art was divided in two, between Lincoln College, Lincolnshire, which took many of the FE (Further Education) art courses, and the new University of Lincoln, which took the HE (Higher Education) art courses, such as degrees.

As part of the University of Lincoln, the School is known as the Lincoln School of Art and Design, or LSAD, and is part of the College of Art. Meanwhile, the Gibney Building and the Christ's Hospital Terrace Building - both of which are former LSA centres - are in the possession of Lincoln College. Lincoln College School of Art and Design is based at the Christ's Hospital Terrace Building and at Newark College.[63]

150th Anniversary Year[edit]

LSA 150th Anniversary Exhibition opening night party, Feb. 2013.

The year 2013 marked the 150th anniversary of the founding of the LSA. As part of the celebrations, the University of Lincoln held an exhibition entitled Lincoln School of Art: A Celebration of 150 Years in the gallery of the Greestone Building. The exhibition featured prospectuses dating from as far back as 1947, nineteenth-century works by students, a video of a cricket match and picnic dating from July, 1979, and a selection of student art from the university's own art collection. The opening was held on Saturday, 2 February, exactly 150 years to the day the School opened and was attended by many ex-staff and students.

Part of the 'Lincoln School of Art: A Celebration of 150 Years' Exhibition, held in February, 2013. Featuring works by 19th Century student Tom Bayles and information panels by Duncan Scott Mackenzie.

One month later, an exhibition of art from the LSA was opened at The Collection (Lincolnshire), in the Usher Gallery, entitled Past and Present: A Celebration of the 150th Anniversary of the Lincoln School of Art. Works by artists such as William Logsdail, George Francis Carline, Frank Bramley, as well as paintings by the School's headmasters such as Alfred G. Webster, were displayed.[64]

These were followed by a series of events, including talks and free lectures. A series of conferences, held by the University of Lincoln, were run, entitled LSA&D In Session: Speculations on the 21st Century Art School, addressing the role and function of the modern art school. It was in collaboration with the Royal Society of Arts and the Lincoln Academy.

Notable alumni[edit]

  • Gordon Baldwin, OBE, ceramics artist (b. 1932)[65]
  • Joseph Herbert Bentley, painter (1866-1917)[66]
  • Emily Beatrice Bland, painter of still-life and landscapes (1864-1951)[67]
  • George Alfred Boden, painter and illustrator (1888-1956))[68]
  • Robert Blatherwick, ceramics artist (1920-1993)
  • Frank Bramley, Royal Academician, Newlyn School painter (1857-1915)[69]
  • George Francis Carline, portrait and landscape painter (1855-1920)[70]
  • Harold Coop, etcher and illustrator of architecture (1891-1930)[71]
  • Mary Henrietta Dering Curtois, painter (1854-1929)[72]
  • Frederick William Elwell, Royal Academician, painter (1870-1958)[73]
  • Walter Bonner Gash, painter (1869-1928)[74]
  • Frederick Hall, Newlyn School painter and caricaturist (1860-1948)[75]
  • James Valentine Jelley, landscape and still life painter (1857-1950)[76]
  • William Logsdail, architectural and portrait painter (1859-1944)[77]
  • Rose Mead, portrait painter (1867-1946)[78]
  • Hely Augustus Morton Smith, painter (1862-1941)[79]
  • Thomas George Storey, painter (1865-1935)[80]
  • William T. Warrener, painter (1861-1934)[81]

Principals/Heads of School[edit]

  • Edward R. Taylor, 1863-1877
  • Alfred G. Webster, 1877-1916
  • May Yeomans (Acting Head of School), 1916-1920
  • Austin Garland, AMC, ANSAM, 1920-1947
  • J. Marchbank Salmon, DA (Edin.), 1947-1960
  • Kenneth Gribble, DFA (Lond.), FRSA, 1960-1967
  • Arthur W. H. Pears, ATD, 1967-1970
  • Peter I. Williams, DFA (Lond.), 1970-1983
  • Derrick Hawker, ATD, NDD, FRSA, 1983-1994

As part of De Montfort University:

  • Derrick Hawker, ATD, NDD, FRSA, 1994-1995
  • Lynne Staley-Brookes (Acting Head of School), 1995
  • Vincent Shacklock, 1995-2001

As part of the University of Lincoln:

  • Alec Shepley, PhD, FRSA, 2008–2014
  • Anne Chick, FRSA (Acting Head of School), 2014
  • Matthew Cragoe, DPhil, FRHistS, 2014-present

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frank Bramley, RA 1857-1915, (Usher Gallery/Lincolnshire County Council, Lincoln, 1999), p. 12
  2. ^ Hooten, C. W.. 'Education in Lincoln', pp. 86-96, in Lincoln, Nineteen Hundred & Thirty Six, (The Greg Publishing Company Limited, London, 1936), p. 95
  3. ^ Hill, Sir Francis.. Victorian Lincoln, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1974), p. 303
  4. ^ 'Lincoln School of Art and Design', Lincolnshire Chronicles, 23 January 1863
  5. ^ 'The Lincoln School of Art', The Illustrated London News, 26 November 1864
  6. ^ Garland, A. 'Art and the Drama', pp. 110-119, in Lincoln, Nineteen Hundred & Thirty Six, (The Greg Publishing Company Limited, London, 1936), p. 115
  7. ^ 'Lincoln School of Art and Design', Lincolnshire Chronicles, 23 January 1863
  8. ^ Hill, Sir Francis. Victorian Lincoln, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1974), p. 278
  9. ^ Hooten, C. W.. 'Education in Lincoln', pp. 86-96, in Lincoln, Nineteen Hundred & Thirty Six, (The Greg Publishing Company Limited, London, 1936), p. 96
  10. ^ 'The Lincoln School of Art', The Illustrated London News, 26 November 1864
  11. ^ Hill, Sir Francis. Victorian Lincoln, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1974), p. n.278
  12. ^ Wright, M.. 'The Life and Times of John Somerville Gibney: A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requisites for the degree of Master of Philosophy at De Montfort University', (De Montfort University, Leicester, 2004), p. 231
  13. ^ Wright, M.. 'The Life and Times of John Somerville Gibney: A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requisites for the degree of Master of Philosophy at De Montfort University', (De Montfort University, Leicester, 2004), p. 231
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  15. ^ 'Lincoln School of Art', Lincoln, Rutland & Stamford Mercury, 20 October 1869
  16. ^ 'Lincoln School of Art', Lincoln, Rutland & Stamford Mercury, 19 December 1873
  17. ^ 'Shocking Death of a Lincoln Clergyman', Lincoln, Rutland & Stamford Mercury, 15 January 1875
  18. ^ 'Shocking Death of the Rev. J. S. Gibney', Lincoln, Rutland & Stamford Mercury, 8 January 1875
  19. ^ Hill, Sir Francis. Victorian Lincoln, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1974, p. 278
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  23. ^ Lincoln School of Art, Prospectus: Session 1946-1947, (City of Lincoln Education Committee, Lincoln, 1946), p. 9
  24. ^ 'Lincoln School of Art, Distribution of Prizes and Medals, Address by Mr. Horsley, R. A.', Lincoln Gazette, 12 April 1890
  25. ^ 'Lincoln School of Art, Distribution of Prizes and Medals, Address by Mr. Horsley, R. A.', Lincoln Gazette, 12 April 1890
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  29. ^ Gray-Fow, M. J. G.. Lincoln School of Art: from its beginnings to the close of the nineteenth century, (University of Nottingham, 1978), p. 19
  30. ^ 'Conversazione at the School of Science and Art, A Brilliant Success', Lincoln Gazette, 1897
  31. ^ 'Centenary Echo, 1893-1993', Lincolnshire Echo, 13 March 1993, Issue No. 4, p. 1
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  33. ^ Lambert, M. R., &, Sprague, M. S.. Lincoln, (Blackwell, Oxford, 1933), p. 235
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  37. ^ [1], accessed 31 May 2012
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  39. ^ Report by H. M. Inspectors on Lincoln School of Art, Inspected in March, 1950, (Ministry of Education, London, 1950), p. 5
  40. ^ Report by H. M. Inspectors on Lincoln School of Art, Inspected in March, 1950, (Ministry of Education, London, 1950), p. 5
  41. ^ Gray-Fow, M. J. G.. Lincoln School of Art: from its beginnings to the close of the nineteenth century, (unpublished manuscript, part of M. Ed. course, University of Nottingham, 1978), p. 21
  42. ^ 'Students' Work Damaged in Fire', The Times, 24 May 1958, p. 8
  43. ^ 'Obituaries: Peter Williams', The Guardian, 11 January 2006, p. 31
  44. ^ Lincoln College of Art, Prospectus, 1973/74, Lincoln College of Art, 1973, p. 5
  45. ^ 'Obituaries: Peter Williams', The Guardian, 11 January 2006, p. 31
  46. ^ http://www.thisislincolnshire.co.uk/Acclaimed-artist-s-work-display-Sam-Scorer/story-18274621-detail/story.html#axzz2ROIfgDlr
  47. ^ [2]
  48. ^ 'Centenary Echo, 1893-1993', Lincolnshire Echo, 13 March 1993, Issue No. 4, p. 1
  49. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b043wvy7 Interview on BBC Radio 4 Front Row, 19 May 2014
  50. ^ 'Further Education Results, In a league of their own', The Guardian, 24 November 1993, p. 20
  51. ^ 'BT raises fire alarm at college', Lincoln Target, 1 August 1991, p. 1
  52. ^ 'BT raises fire alarm at college', Lincoln Target, 1 August 1991, p. 1
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  54. ^ 'Lincolnshire College of Art and Design Annual Report, 1991-92', Lincolnshire College of Art and Design, 1992, p. 19
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  56. ^ '65. General Report on De Montfort University Lincoln', De Montfort University Lincoln Advisory Board, Minutes of the Seventh Meeting of the Lincoln Advisory Board held on Wednesday, 2 October 1996, LAB/96-97/19
  57. ^ '130. Report on the School of Applied Arts & Design', De Montfort University Lincoln Advisory Board, Minutes of the Twelfth Meeting of the Lincoln Advisory Board held on Tuesday, 25 November 1997, LAB/97-98/32
  58. ^ [3], Alison Read page at the Great Atlantic Galleries
  59. ^ RSA Journal, volume 2/4, 1998
  60. ^ '158. Report on the School of Applied Arts & Design', De Montfort University Lincoln Advisory Board, Minutes of the Thirteenth Meeting of the Lincoln Advisory Board held on Tuesday, 24 February 1998, LAB/97-98/39
  61. ^ '180. Report on the School of Art and Design', Minutes of the Sixteenth Meeting of the Lincoln Advisory Board held on Tuesday, 24 November 1998, 24 November 1998, LAB/98-99/45
  62. ^ [4] The Times Higher Education Supplement online
  63. ^ [5] Lincoln College School of Art and Design website
  64. ^ [6] The Collection exhibition page
  65. ^ [7] Gordon Baldwin page on The Scottish Gallery website
  66. ^ Dolman, Bernard. A Dictionary of Contemporary British Artists, 1929, (Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge, reprinted 1981), p. 36
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  69. ^ Fox, C., &, Greenacre, F.. 'Artists of the Newlyn School, 1880-1900: An exhibition organised by the Newlyn Orion Galleries, Newlyn', (Newlyn Orion Galleries, Newlyn, 1979), p. 163
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  72. ^ Dolman, Bernard. A Dictionary of Contemporary British Artists, 1929, (Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge, reprinted 1981), p. 109
  73. ^ Waters, Grant M.. Dictionary of British Artists, Working 1900-1950, (Eastbourne Fine Art, Eastbourne, 1975), p. 105
  74. ^ Waters, Grant M.. Dictionary of British Artists, Working 1900-1950, (Eastbourne Fine Art, Eastbourne, 1975), p. 126
  75. ^ Spalding, Frances. Dictionary of British Art, Volume VI: 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, (Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge, 1990), p. 222
  76. ^ ‘Lincoln School of Art’, Lincoln Gazette, December 1974, p. 4
  77. ^ Cooper, Francis J.. William Logsdail of Lincoln (1859-1944): Memorial Exhibition, 1952, (Usher Art Gallery, 1952), p. 5
  78. ^ 'Lincoln School of Art: Annual Exhibition', Lincoln Gazette, March 1890
  79. ^ Dolman, Bernard. A Dictionary of Contemporary British Artists, 1929, (Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge, reprinted 1981), p. 421
  80. ^ Wood, Christopher. Dictionary of British Art, Volume IV: Victorian Painters: I. The Text, (Woodbridge, 1995), p. 188
  81. ^ Wood, Christopher. Dictionary of British Art, Volume IV: Victorian Painters: I. The Text, (Woodbridge, 1995), p. 554

External links[edit]