Linda Birnbaum

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Linda Silber Birnbaum
Born (1946-12-21)December 21, 1946
Passaic, New Jersey
Fields Toxicology, microbiology
Institutions National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Alma mater University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Thesis Localization, enrichment and in vitro transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Escherichia coli (1972)
Notable awards Was elected to the Institute of Medicine in October 2010, as well as to the Collegium Ramazzini; Distinguished Alumna Award from the University of Illinois; 2013 Homer N. Calver Award from the American Public Health Association
Spouse David Birnbaum
Children Two daughters[1]

Linda Silber Birnbaum is an American toxicologist, microbiologist and the current director of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, as well as the National Toxicology Program, positions to which she was appointed on January 18, 2009. She also serves as an adjunct professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health.[2]

Education[edit]

Birnbaum, a native of New Jersey, attended Benjamin Franklin Junior High School in Teaneck, New Jersey, where she became interested in science because she was a cheerleader, and her cheerleading coach was also her science teacher: "I was a cheerleader, and that positive reinforcement made it okay to like science," she recalled in an interview with Scientific American.[3] Birnbaum received her B.S. in biology from the University of Rochester and her M.S. and PhD degrees in microbiology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Career[edit]

Birnbaum, prior to becoming the director of the NIEHS and NTP, worked at the National Toxicology Program as a senior staff fellow, then as a research microbiologist, and then as a group leader for the Chemical Disposition Group. Birnbaum then began a stint at the Environmental Protection Agency, where she directed the largest agency focused on environmental health research for 19 years.[4] She has also served as the past president of the Society of Toxicology.[5] After she became director of the NIEHS, she declared that she "plan[s] to create a holistic approach that can deal with the biggies, from complex mixtures of toxic chemicals to climate change."[6] She reiterated her commitment to addressing the effects of global warming on human health before the Copenhagen Summit that November. She singled out ozone and black carbon as pollutants with serious adverse health effects.[7]

Research[edit]

Birnbaum has authored over 600 peer-reviewed publications. Her research focuses on the pharmacokinetic behavior of environmental chemicals and their health effects.[2] She is well known for her research on endocrine disruptors, particularly dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).[8]

Views on endocrine disrupting chemicals[edit]

Birnbaum's position on the safety of dioxins and PCBs has been described as "in the middle",[9] although she has expressed concern about the safety of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and contends that they may be linked to "impaired reproductive function, altered neurological development, obesity, and diabetes."[10] She has also said that the traditional concept of a dose-response relationship may not always hold true and that some chemicals can have serious adverse effects at very low doses.[11] However, she has also dismissed concerns about the dangers of Styrofoam, saying that levels of styrene that leach from styrofoam containers into food "are hundreds if not thousands of times lower than have occurred in the occupational setting."[12] In 2013, Birnbaum published an article in Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism which contended that diseases that are becoming more common, such as prostate cancer, must be caused by environmental factors rather than genetic ones.[13] This paper prompted two Republican congressmen, Paul Broun and Larry Bucshon, to write a letter to the National Institutes of Health in which they contended that some of her "statements sound less like a presentation of scientific data and more like an opinion."[14]

Awards and honors[edit]

Birnbaum was elected to the Institute of Medicine in October 2010, and is also a member of the Collegium Ramazzini. She received a Distinguished Alumna Award from the University of Illinois and an honorary Doctor of Science from the University of Rochester, and received the Homer N. Calver Award from the American Public Health Association in 2013.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wallechinsky, David (14 November 2010). "Director of the National Toxicology Program: Who Is Linda Birnbaum?". Allgov.com. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Director, NIEHS website
  3. ^ Borrell, Brendan (23 November 2012). "Chemical "Soup" Clouds Connection between Toxins and Poor Health". Scientific American. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  4. ^ Linda S. Birnbaum Bio
  5. ^ Hogue, Cheryl (2 February 2009). "New Leader Takes Over At NIEHS". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Gewin, Virginia (22 January 2009). "Linda Birnbaum, director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina". Nature 457 (7228): 502–502. doi:10.1038/nj7228-502a. 
  7. ^ Woodruff, Judy (25 November 2009). "Obama to Offer 17% U.S. Emissions Cut at Copenhagen Summit". PBS. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Reinberg, Steven (15 August 2007). "Chemical Flame Retardants Linked to Thyroid Disease in Cats". ABC News. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  9. ^ Hamilton, Doug. "Interview--Linda Birnbaum". PBS. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  10. ^ Zhou, Emily (March 2012). "Webinar series addresses early-life exposures". Environmental Factor. NIEHS. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  11. ^ Lane, Earl (13 June 2012). "Linda S. Birnbaum: Researchers Find New Risks in Low-Dose Chemical Exposure". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  12. ^ Marchione, Marilynn (15 June 2011). "Weighing cancer risks, from cellphones to coffee". USA Today. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  13. ^ Birnbaum, L. S. (2013). "When environmental chemicals act like uncontrolled medicine". Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 24 (7): 321–323. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2012.12.005. PMID 23660158.  edit
  14. ^ Morris, Jim (30 July 2013). "Industry vs. government science". Salon. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  15. ^ Linda S. Birnbaum CV