Aerial view of Lindau Island
|• Mayor||Dr. Gerhard Ecker (SPD)|
|• Total||33.18 km2 (12.81 sq mi)|
|• Density||740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Lindau is a Bavarian major town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance, the freshwater lake called Bodensee in German. It is the capital of the Landkreis or rural district of Lindau, very closely situated near Austria (Vorarlberg) and Switzerland (Ostschweiz). Lindau is part of Bavarian Swabia. The Coat of Arms of Lindau town is a Lime tree. The historic town of Lindau is located on an 0.68-square-kilometre (0.26 sq mi) island, which is connected with the mainland by a road-traffic bridge and a railway dam leading to Lindau station.
- 1 History
- 2 Tourist attractions
- 3 Economy
- 4 Districts
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Utility
- 7 Telecommunication
- 8 Local news sources
- 9 Schools and Kindergartens
- 10 Hospitals, registration offices, etc.
- 11 Shopping
- 12 Festivals and events
- 13 Famous citizens and children of Lindau, special groups
- 14 Genealogy
- 15 Climate
- 16 Twin towns
- 17 References
- 18 External links
The name Lindau was first mentioned by a monk from St. Gallen in a document of 882, stating that Adalbert, count of Raetia, had founded a nunnery on the island. However remains of an early Roman settlement dating back to the 1st century have been found in the district of Aeschach.
In 1180 the St. Stephan's church was founded. In 1224 the Franciscans founded a monastery on the island. In 1274/75 Lindau became an Imperial Free City under King Rudolph I. The terminology 'city' here means German Große Kreisstadt, which is an exception due to Lindau's rather small population of c. 24454 only. In 1430, about 15 of Lindau's Jews were burned at the stake after being accused of murdering a Christian child. In 1528, Lindau accepted the Protestant Reformation. Lindau first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, and then the Augsburg Confession. After the Thirty Years' War, in 1655 the first Lindauer Kinderfest (children's festival) was held in memory of the war time.
After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Lindau lost its status as an Imperial Free City in 1802. The city went to Karl August von Bretzenheim who gave Lindau and monastery to the Kingdom of Austria in 1804. In 1805 Austria returned Lindau to Bavaria.
In 1853 a dam was built to connect the railway from Munich to the island. In 1856 a new harbour was built, with its characteristic landmark, the lion sculpture, together with Bavaria's only lighthouse.
In 1922 the independent districts of Aeschach, Hoyren and Reutin merged with the district. After World War II Lindau fell under French administration and went firstly to Württemberg-Hohenzollern and then to the State of Baden-Württemberg. In 1955, Lindau returned to Bavaria.
Lindau is located near the meeting point of the Austrian, German and Swiss borders. It nestles on the lake in front of Austria's Pfänder mountain. Lindau is popular with sightseers and holidaymakers for its medieval town centre and pleasant location on Lake Constance. Since 1951, the Nobel Laureate Meetings at Lindau attracts many Nobel prize winners to Lindau every year. A congress of medical physics is also held yearly.
Lindau is a main-sightseeing spot in the very South of Germany. Visitors from all over the world visit mostly in Summer. Lindau is famous for its rich, old town houses and variety of different buildings. The gardens of Lindau are wonderful in spring or summer blossom. Attractions range from old buildings to modern outdoor activities like Biking (particular e-Bikes are popular), Sailing, Hiking, Bathing, Camping, etc.
A very up to date and official site is Lindau Tourismus, which takes care of visitors and acts as a starting platform.
- Habour entrance with lighthouse and Bavarian Lion sculpture (Island of Lindau)
- Church of St. Stephan (Evangelical Church), c. 1180 with remodelling in 1782
- Church of St. Peter (founded about 1000), became war memorial church in 1928
- Minster 'Unserer Lieben Frau' former church of the monastery 'Maria Himmelfahrt' (which is German for Assumption of Mary), with St. Marien (Stiftskirche)
- Maximilianstraße (main street through the Island of Lindau with some shops and restaurants)
- Historic Town Hall
- Casino Spielbank Lindau
- Gardens and Parks of Lindau, e.g. Lindenhofpark
- Museum 'Haus zum Cavazzen'
- Theatre Lindau
- Boat trips by Bodenseeschifffahrt
In former times an important trading route from Nuremberg to Italy passed through Lindau; the lake fishery has also played a big role in the economy of the city. In the 19th century Lindau was an important location for textile industries. Nowadays Lindau has a well established industrial and touristic economy, including Restaurants, Hotels and B&B's. For families it is also popular to stay at a Ferienwohnung (Holiday apartment), which you find everywhere in the area. Lindau has a very low unemployment rate, likely due to the economy mix and good trade near the Rhine-Valley. Today, there are a lot of small amongst some industrial companies.
- Lindauer DORNIER GmbH (Textile machines)
- Liebherr Electronics
- Cooper-Standard Automotive (former Metzeler Automotive Profile Systems)
- Cofely Refrigeration (former Axima Refrigeration, which was former Sulzer Escher-Wyss, a refrigeration and air conditioning plant)
- Lindauer Fruchtgarten (former Lindavia, manufacturer of fruit drinks)
- Continental AG, BU ADAS (former ADC Automotive Distance Control GmbH)
- Faurecia Automotive (former Angell-Demmel GmbH)
- Crane Co. ChemPharm Energyy (former Xomox GmbH now part of Crane)
- Tanner AG (Technical documentations); Tanner is also a major office complex which hosts several other companies
- Duwe 3D
- Tecnotron Electronics in Weißensberg, very close to Lindau
- Hotels, ranging from smaller B&B's and Vacation rentals (Ferienwohnungen, FeWo) to established, state-of-the-art Hotels, e.g. at the harbour front of Lindau (also known as 'Seepromenade')
- Restaurants & Cafés, including many different kinds of cuisines, Italian, Greek, German, modern Gastro cuisine, Thai, Chinese, etc. and some take aways (Kebab, Pizza, McDonalds, Chinese, etc.)
- Swimming pools and baths. Some places are public and free of charge, some places have entrance fee and contain a pool and all amenities
- Bike stations, shops for bike rental
Other local economy
- Numerous farmers around town, producing apples, pears, strawberries, etc. and higher grade products e.g. Schnapps or Vine or fruit juices.
- Local hairdressers, Gyms, bakeries, butchers, ice cream and coffee shops
- Variety of car dealers (major VW, BMW and Renault with subsidies to other car makes), petrol stations, etc.
- Care homes, care takers, Hospital, etc.
Lindau is split into several districts. A search for 'Lindau Stadt' will reveal the town's bordering to the neighbour parts of Lindau.
- Central: Island, Aeschach
- East: Reutin, Zech
- West: Bad Schachen, Unterreitnau
- North: Oberreitnau, Hochbuch, Hoyern, Schönau
Lindau has a main station (for the next years still on the Island, reactivating of the old one on Reutin's mainland is planned) the Lindauer Hbf (short for Hauptbahnhof), with trains usually from/to Friedrichshafen, Munich, Ulm and Augsburg direction or Bregenz with OBB, Austria and further like Zurich by SBB.
Bus - - Stadtbus Lindau
Lindau's bus system is called Stadtbus Lindau, which departs conveniently from all station every 30 Minutes and runs until 22.30 daily, with special exceptions at events. The bus system is a very helpful way of getting around town for people of all ages, provided by the Lindauer Stadtwerke, which is the main local utility provider.
Beside that the RBA and the Zweiländer-line of Austrias "Landbus Unterland" offer their services. Recently long-distance coaches have started running lines to further away German cities an being an alternative to the Railway by Deutsche Bahn.
Lindau is connected to the Autobahn A96 (E43). Main roads (German Bundesstraße) include B31 and B12. The A96 will merge into the Austrian Autobahn A14 starting right after the boarding with the c. 7 km long Pfändertunnel. The tunnel has been under reconstruction and expansion into a 2-pipe system (opened in 2013) for a total of 4 lanes in the last years to compensate for traffic going North and South.
Lindau does not have its own airport, however is in very close location to Airport Friedrichshafen and Airport Memmingen, which usually serve holiday flyers and European destinations. For international flights, it is suitable to refer to either Airport Munich, Airport Stuttgart or Airport Zurich (CH), all in reasonable distance.
Lindau's local utility provider is called Stadtwerke Lindau. The business includes electricity, water, telecommunications, public baths, and other products. The provider tries to improve in all branches, particular also to integrate and deploy green-energy amongst homes, but also by buying renewables only.
Lindau's telecommunication network is ever growing in the global race for faster internet access. The local utility provider Stadtwerke TK-Lindau started deploying high-grade glass-fibre internet to major businesses, including corporations or Hotels, but also to new housing development areas. Other networks include cable television e.g. by Kabel Deutschland, which is available to some streets and xDSL, e.g. by Telekom or any other provider due to the liberalised market. Some systems have seen upgrades of the ADSL standard in the last years to cope with the high demand of novel communication media. Special projects are also set up to further improve the situation, e.g. plans to deploy a major WiFi hotspot network (or WLAN, which is more common in German) across the Island of Lindau.
Local news sources
Lindau has a well established newspaper called Lindauer Zeitung, which is part of the Schwäbische Zeitung. It is released daily. Another newspaper is the Bürgerzeitung Lindau (BZ). It is released biweekly and contains e.g. announcements of the town by the Mayor, but also very interesting small stories around local businesses, developments, events, reviews (e.g. anniversary summaries) and many more. The paper is free, but ad-sponsored and can usually be found in shops or companies premises. Both newspapers are print and online available.
Schools and Kindergartens
Lindau has two main high schools: Bodensee-Gymnasium and Valentin-Heider-Gymnasium. With one middle school for girls (Maria-Ward-Realschule Lindau) and one middle school for boys (Staatliche Realschule für Knaben Lindau) Among several primary schools across the town. Lindau recently completed construction of a new Kindergarten home, which also included a Kita (Kindertagestätte, which is a baby nursery for little ones ages 2–3 before Kindergarten start). There is high demand for childcare and places and the town has obligations by the State of Bavaria to prepare for every child.
Hospitals, registration offices, etc.
- Asklepios Krankenhaus Lindau
- Bürgerbüro Lindau, the local office for all legal things, e.g. passports, registration, etc.
- KFZ-Zulassungsstelle, registration office for cars
- Finanzamt (tax office), location in Lindau
Lindau's main shopping is mostly remote, off the Island, when it comes to supermarkets like Aldi, Lidl, REWE, etc. However, the Island holds many different shops with nice products, including clothes, cosmetics, gifts, toys, antique items, local products like cheese, vine, etc. Lindau's major shopping mall is called Lindaupark and hosts larger shops like Müller Drogerie, which is a German Boots-like store or Footlocker and a supermarket.
Festivals and events
With its special location near to the lake, Lindau is also a famous spot for festivals and events. The main season for this definitely in summer, between Mai and August. Some events run annually and for many years.
- U&D, Umsonst & Draussen by Club Vaudeville Lindau. The festival hosts live music at a public area.
- Nobel Laureate Meetings at Lindau, Lindau's prestigious, world-class science event. Students from all over the world are able to meet up with Nobel Laureates to chat about latest topics in science. Lindau is currently reviewing and soon building a new state-of-the-art conference home for the world-renowned event.
- Psychotherapiewochen, a famous event for psychologists
- Rund Um den Bodensee, which is a major sailing competition
- Gartentage 2014
- Lindauer Oktoberfest
- Lindauer Kinderfest
Famous citizens and children of Lindau, special groups
Lindau has a number of famous people and residents due to its international location near Austria and Switzerland.
- Prof. Dr. Dr. W. Mang (Bodenseeklinik). Dr. Mang is a plastic surgeon with world-status and he is regarded as expert in his field. Mr. Mang is from Lindau and a famous citizen.
- The German site has compiled a comprehensive list of citizens with honoured status
- Due to its close location to Austria and Switzerland, Lindau also maintains a strong multinational attitude. Lindau has a well established English Expats Group or Spanish Groups, etc.
Lindau is believed to be the origin of the Lindauer surname of Germany, Switzerland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria and the Czech Republic. A Jewish family bearing this name is said to have descended from Suskind of Lindau, who was among those killed during the pogrom of 1430. Lindauer is also a famous wine brand from New Zealand, however there are no or very few relations to Lindau from the product. Lindau has a very strong local beverages economy, including all the local wine spots (Rädlewirtschaften) with fine wines from local wine yards and quality Schnapps made by local farmers from their yearly harvest.
Despite numerous modern metrological news, it can be said that Lindau is located in a temperated-climatic zone (Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn) with additional mountain surroundings and the freshwater lake. Winters can be cold, wet and dry with Temperatures as low as -20 °C in some extraordinary years. In some exceptional cases, Winters were so severely cold that major parts of the lake froze, so people could cross the lake e.g. by cars. It is said that this event will occur every 50–100 years once only. Summers will be warm, hot and moist due to the surrounding lake area. Heavy storms and rain showers, scenic thunderstorms are common in Summer with heavy wind seen, e.g. Beaufort scale 8 are possible. Usually the lake is calm, however there is also a warning light system for sailing boats indicating if heavy storms will arrive. Due to the surrounding mountains, snow is always in sight and a good indicator of weather. Lake Constance is located at roughly 400m above sea level.
Lindau is twinned with:
- Serpukhov (Russia)
- Chelles (France) Lindau is twinned and cooperating since 1964 with the City of Chelles in France, which was initiated by the returned French soldiers after World War II.
- Reitnau (Switzerland)
- "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). 31 December 2013.
- S Rieger, G Jochem [transl. HP Sinclair], "Chronology of the History of the Jews of Bavaria", 2006. http://www.rijo.homepage.t-online.de/pdf/EN_BY_JU_bye.pdf&usg=AFQjCNEAO45HwiMMJ-xTp2kRLebyl68n5Q, accessed 16 October 2008.
- L Zunz, A Löwy, GA Kohut, The Sufferings of the Jews During the Middle Ages, pp. 75-76, New York: Bloch, 1907. http://books.google.com/books?id=f18LAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover#PPA75,M1 , accessed 16 October 2008.
- Meeting of Nobel Laureates in Lindau )
- MJ Lindauer [transl. D Raindorf], "The Story of the Lindauer and Weil Families", Part Two, 1900. http://jebenhausen.worldzonepro.com/narrative2.html , accessed 16 October 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lindau.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Lindau.|
- Official website
- Free Pictures Lindau
- A Week with Nobel Laureates at Lindau, free video from the Vega Science Trust]
- Interviews with Nobel Laureates at Lindau, free videos from the Vega Science Trust]
- Lindau photo gallery
- Lindau Tourism Information