Line of succession to the French throne (Bonapartist)

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Coat of arms of the French Empire.

The line of succession to the throne of the French Empire was vested in the descendants and relations of Napoleon Bonaparte until the abolition of the Empire in 1870.

Origins of the French Empire[edit]

The French Empire (or the Napoleonic Empire), formally existed during two periods of French history, when the form of government was an empire and the head of state was a monarch who held the title of emperor.

The First French Empire, was the regime established by Napoleon I Bonaparte in France. This empire lasted from 1804 to 1814, from the Consulate of the First French Republic to the Bourbon Restoration], and was briefly restored during the Hundred Days in 1815.

The Second French Empire was the regime established in France by Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second French Republic and the Third French Republic. Napoleon III was the third son of Louis Bonaparte, a younger brother of Napoleon I, and Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter of Napoleon I's wife, Josephine de Beauharnais, by her first marriage.

Bonapartism had its followers from 1815 forward among those who never accepted the defeat at Waterloo or the Congress of Vienna. Napoleon I's death in exile on Saint Helena in 1821 only transferred the allegiance of many of his loyalists to other members of the House of Bonaparte.

After the death of Napoleon I's son, known to Bonapartists as Napoleon II, there were several different members of the family in whom Bonapartist hopes rested.

The disturbances of 1848 gave this group hope. Bonapartists were essential in the election of Napoleon I's nephew Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as president of the Second French Republic. They also gave him crucial political support for the 1852 coup d'état, which overthrew the republican constitution and paved the way for the proclamation the following year of the Second French Empire, and himself, as Napoleon III, emperor.

In 1870, Napoleon III led France to a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Kingdom of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War, and he subsequently abdicated.

Following the definite overthrow of the second Napoleonic empire, the third French republic was established. Bonapartism faded from a civic faith and monarchist bloc to an obscure predilection, more akin to a hobby than a practical political philosophy or movement. The death knell for Bonapartism was probably sounded when Eugène Bonaparte, the only son of Napoleon III, was killed in action while serving as a British army officer in Zululand in 1879. Thereafter Bonapartism ceased to be a political force.

First Napoleonic law of succession[edit]

The law of succession Napoleon I established on becoming emperor in 1804 provided that the imperial throne should pass firstly to Napoleon I's own legitimate male descendants through the male line, to the perpetual exclusion of women.

It further provided that if Napoleon I's own direct line died out, the claim passed first to his older brother Joseph Bonaparte and to his legitimate male descendants through the male line, then to his younger brother Louis Bonaparte and his legitimate male descendants through the male line. His other brothers, Lucien Bonaparte and Jérôme Bonaparte, and their descendants, were omitted from the succession, even though Lucien was older than Louis, because they had politically defied the emperor, made marriages of which he disapproved, or both.

Upon extinction of legitimate natural and adopted male, agnatic descendants of Napoleon I, and those of two of his brothers, Joseph and Louis, the throne was to be awarded to a man selected by the non-dynastic princely and ducal dignitaries of the empire, as ratified by plebiscite.

At the time the law of succession was decreed Napoleon I had no legitimate sons, and it seemed unlikely he would have any due to the age of his wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. His eventual response was to have his marriage to Josephine annulled and to undertake a second marriage with Roman Catholic rites to Archduchess Marie Louise, daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria. Their only child was Napoleon, King of Rome (aka, in exile, as "Napoleon II" and Duke of Reichstadt. He died married, thereby extinguishing the legitimate descent of Napoleon I.

Second Napoleonic law of succession[edit]

Meanwhile, Napoleon I's older brother Joseph Bonaparte, recognized upon establishment of the First Empire as first in line to succeed and, after the birth of the King of Rome, as second in line, died on 28 July 1844 without ever having had a legitimate son. Although two of Joseph's daughters married, in exile, Bonaparte nephews of Napoleon I, when their dynasty was restored to power in France in December 1851, the man who soon became emperor as Napoleon III was the only living, legally legitimate son of Louis Bonaparte, former King of Holland.

With the imperial crown on his head, in December 1852 Napoleon III, still a bachelor, exercised the authority granted him by a decree in the form of a Sénatus-consulte and confirmed by plebecite, to enact a new organic law on the succession (in the event he himself were to leave no legitimate descendants), recognizing Napoleon's last surviving brother, Jérôme Bonaparte, as his heir presumptive. During Napoleon I's reign, Jérôme had been one of the Bonaparte brothers who was bypassed in the order of succession, his first marriage having been an elopement with the American commoner Elizabeth Patterson over the emperor's objections. The Second Empire, however, empowered the new emperor to choose an heir among any of Napoleon I's Bonaparte nephews, so after Jérôme came his male descendants by his second, dynastic marriage to Princess Catharine of Württemberg.[1]

The emperor, hitherto a bachelor, began to look for a wife to produce a legitimate heir. Most of the royal families of Europe were unwilling to intermarry with the parvenu House of Bonaparte. After several rebuffs, including from Princess Carola of Sweden and Princess Adelaide von Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Napoleon III decided to lower his sights somewhat and marry for love instead, choosing the young, beautiful countess of Teba, Eugénie de Montijo, a Spanish noblewoman who had been brought up in Paris.

In 1856, Eugénie gave birth to a legitimate son and heir, Napoleon Eugene Louis, the Prince Imperial who, upon his father's defeat in battle and deposition in September 1870, went into exile and became claimant to the throne of the Second Empire when his father died in 1873. Like the King of Rome, the Prince Imperial, too, died unwed and childless. All Bonapartist claimants since 1879 have been descendants of Jérôme Bonaparte in the male line.

Jérôme Bonaparte, founder of the legitimate line

Line of succession from 1879[edit]

This branch of claimants was established by Napoleon Joseph Charles Bonaparte,[1] nicknamed Plon-Plon. He was the only legitimate male descendant of Jérôme Bonaparte from his second marriage to Princess Catherine of Württemberg. He married Princess Clothilde of Savoy and died in 1891. His son, Victor, Prince Napoléon, the next claimant, wed Princess Clémentine of Belgium, and died in 1926.[1]

He was succeeded by his son, Louis Jérôme Bonaparte, husband of Alix de Foresta, daughter of Count Albéric de Foresta, who died in 1997.[1] He was succeeded by his son, Charles Mary Jerome Victor Napoleon Bonaparte. He married, civilly, Princess Beatrice of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, from whom he was divorced, being subsequently declared excluded as Napoleonic heir in his father's will for divorcing her and re-marrying a commoner without paternal permission.[1] His heir apparent (recognized by some as head of the House of Bonaparte since 1997) is his son, Jean-Christophe Napoléon.[1]

There are no surviving descendants in legitimate male line of any of Napoleon's brothers except Jérôme.[1] This branch of the House of Bonaparte is recognized by Bonapartists as Napoleon I's dynasti heirs, being excluded from residence in France or service in its military by law, along with the heads of the House of Orléans between 1883 and 1950.

The head and dynastic members of the family bear the title of Prince with the name Napoléon (Bonaparte) and the style of Imperial Highness.[1]

List of emperors and heirs[edit]

Princes of Canino (1846–1924)[edit]

The Princes of Canino constituted the senior line of the Bonaparte family following the death of Joseph Bonaparte in 1844, being founded by one of Napoleon I's younger brothers, Lucien Bonaparte. It became extinct in the male line in 1924.

On 24 September 1806, Napoleon I's youngest brother, Jérôme, was made an Imperial French prince, along with the future issue of his second marriage to Catherine of Württemberg.

On 22 March 1815, during the hundred days restoration, Napoleon I also recognized his brother Lucien Bonaparte and his sons as French princes. At no time, however, were Lucien and his issue recognized during the First Empire as eligible by law to inherit the French throne. Lucien, alone among Napoleon I's brothers, was given no realm of his own to rule..

Lucien was given the noble title of Principe di Canino e Musignano (prince of Canino and Musignano) It was a papal title of Roman nobility, heritable among Lucien's descendants by male primogeniture. It was never legally recognized by France nor were its holders incorporated into the French nobility.

Upon the death without issue in 1832 of Napoleon II, titular emperor, the claim to the Bonaparte crown of France devolved upon Joseph Napoleon. Following his death without sons in 1844, the imperial claim bypassed Lucien's sons and devolved upon[Louis Napoleon, even though Louis had been younger than Lucien.

Thus, despite being the senior Bonapartist line since 1844, at no time have the descendants of Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino, or his issue been the heirs to the imperial throne of France under any law of either Empire.

The Princes of Canino were, in male line succession, were:

At this point, the male line ended as there were no more male descendants.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser XVIII. "Haus Bonaparte". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2007, pp. 17-18. (German). ISBN 978-3-7980-0841-0.